In this very simplistic example of a coastal ocean food pyramid, it has a very important role in the understanding production in the coastal seas: the highly productive diatoms (dinoflagellates); the consumption of the primary producers by copepods, anchovies and sardines; and as we move into the upper levels of the food chain, the faster swimming and highly mobile species, the tunas and the mackerels. Finally, in the top level of the food web of our coastal oceans is the shark, and when you affect any one level of the food pyramid, it alters the entire regime in the coastal ecological oceans though that alteration. We are going to talk about how those alterations come about and some of the aspects of studying that.
White shark 2012
Great White SharkThe Lord of the Sea Firas Abdul Malik M.Sc. Fish Biology White Shark 1
Introduction The White Shark, Carcharodon carcharias, have beenaround since long before the dinosaurs existed about 450million years ago (Bruce et al., 2001). Grow to 9m long &3.200 kg. have triangular teeth. and a crescent shapedtail. (NSW Fisheries 1997; Last & Stevens 1994; Mollet etal. 1996). Has a heat-exchanging circulatory systemallowing it to maintain body temperatures up to 14oCabove that of the surrounding seawater (Goldman et al.1996). Extremely fast swimmers It can reach close to 80km per hour in short bursts, but in long distance, such asduring ocean crossings, they move at a minimumsustained speed of up to 5 km per hour. (Brad, 2008). Theywill eat almost anything, including fish, seals and othersharks. Have an enormous liver that can weigh up to 24%of its entire weight. (Compagno, 1984). White Shark 2
Classification: Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Subphylum: Vertebrata Class: Chondrichthyes Sub class: Elasmobranchi Order: Lamniformes Family: Lamnidae Species: Carchardon carchariasCommon Name: Source: Lowe, (2009).Great White Shark White Shark 3white pointer, white shark, or white death
Shark Facts:1. Very curious - raise their head out of thewater to look for prey on the surface. (SpyHop).2. Relatively intelligent and there are reports ofthem cooperating to attack a seal.3. Frequently people bitten by a Great White arereleased. Humans (and sea otters) lack ofblubber results in them often being releasedafter an initial bite.4. Estimated the bite force between 10.8-18.2tons.5. Lifespan: 30-50 but some people estimate it tobe about 100 years, but this has not been proven. 4 White Shark
External Anatomy:Figure 1:Review of Shark External Anatomy White Shark 5
Food Pyramid for the Oceans:Figure 2: Review of Food Pyramid AP EX or To p Pr Sharks ed n at ea or Tunas and Mackerel oc he ft lf o Wo an Anchovy-Sardines ce eo f th so Copepods w Co DIATOMS - Plants of the ocean White Shark 6
Shark Senses: 1. Eyes: see up to 42 metres away. 2. Ears: great acoustic sensitivity; Sharkscan hear up to 836 metres away. . 3. Lateral lines: >6,000 pits, grooves, canalslined w/ cilia – sensitive to low freq. pressurewaves. 4. Nasal sacs: some sharks 80% of braindevoted to smell. It can smell 1 drop of bloodin up to 100 liters of water- for more than 1Kilometer distance. 5. Electro-sensitive pores: on his head totrack down his prey. White Shark 7 7
Shark Reproduction:• Size at birth: 120-160 cm.• Weight at birth: 25-54 Kg.• Size & age at maturity: males 3.5-4.1m - 7-9 years; females 4.2-5.2m – 15 years. Breed late in life. They do not start breeding until they’re at least 20 years old.• Pups: 3-14, usually less than 10.• Gestation period: estimated to be 18 months. With females breeding only every 2- 3 years. Uchida et al. (1996). White Shark 8
Great white shark claspers Figure 3: Shark mating method White Shark 9Sourse: Chan, (2001).
Table 1: Comparative between some shark types on length and longevity: Shark Size Heart beat Life span Basking shark 33 feet (10 m) Unknown 40-50 Blue shark 12.5 feet (3.8 m) Unknown Unknown Bull shark 11.5 feet (3.5 m) Unknown Unknown Galapagos shark 12 feet (3.7 m) Unknown Unknown Goblin shark 11 feet (3.6 m) Unknown Unknown Great Hammerhead shark 20 feet (6 m) Unknown Unknown Great White Shark 23-30 feet (7-9 m) 9 30-50 Lemon shark 10 feet (3.1 m) 19-48 Unknown Mako shark 5-8 feet (1.5-2.5 m) 28-78 Unknown Mega mouth shark 15 feet (4.5 m) Unknown Unknown Nurse shark 13 feet (4 m) Unknown 15-25 Short-finned Mako shark 12 feet (3.7 m) Unknown Unknown Spiny Dogfish shark 4 feet (1.2 m) 19-48 25-100 7-8 inches (18-20 Spined Pygmy shark Unknown Unknown cm) Thresher shark 18 feet (5.5 m) Unknown Unknown Tiger shark 20 feet (6 m) 19-48 30-40 Whitetip reef shark 7 feet (2.2 m) White Shark Unknown Unknown 10 Whale shark 46 feet (14 m) Source: Froese, Unknown 100-150 (2010)
Figure 4: Great white shark Vs Killer whale 800 Killer whale 700 600 Length (cm) Great white shark 500 400 300 200 100 0 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Source: Froese, (2010) Age (years) •Great white shark females take about 12 years to reach maturity at 4.5-5m and about 0.8 tons; they need 36 years to reach a maximum size of 7.2 mand 3.4 tons. •Killer whales (Orcinus orca) reach maturity in 6-10 years at 5-6 m lengthand about 1.8 tons, with the typical size of about 7 m and 3.8 tons reached a White Shark 11few years later.
Where It Lives: Source: http: //www.sharks.org/ Figure (5): Shark distribution. (1) Northwest coast of North America; (2)Southwest coast of North America; (3) East coast of North America; (4)Gulf of Mexico; (5) Carribean; (6) West coast of South Amerika; (7)East coast of South America; (8) European Atlantic; (9)Mediterranean Sea; (10) West coast of Africa; (11) East coast of Africa; (12) Red Sea; (13) Arabic Sea; (14) Indian costal regions; (15)Region: Indo pacific islands; (16) White SharkAustralia; (17) New Region: 13zealand; (18) Region: China and Japan; . Lowe (2009).
Mistaken Identify: A lot of attacks on humans by Great Whites arelikely cases of mistaken identity as a surfer on asurfboard looks a lot like a sea lion. Great WhiteSharks rarely attack people and when they do, it isbecause they mistaken the person for their usualseal prey. Dudley (2009). White Shark 14
Sad Fact: It is estimated that over 100 million sharks are killed annually byhumans just for their fins; on average, 10 people are killed each year,world-wide by sharks. You are 15 times more likely to be killed by a fallingcoconut than by a shark – about 150 people die each year from coconuts.Rose (1996) ; FAO (1999) and Rose & McLoughlin (2001). So, who is the more dangerous predator? White Shark 15
Figure 6: Shark fin can attract a high price on Asian markets.There is an increasing demand for shark fins. Brad, (2008) : Source: Rose and McLoughlin, (2001). White Shark 16
References:Brad Norman.2008.THE GREAT WHITE SHARK ECOCEAN Consulting, Australian Government Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry 68a Railway Street, Cottesloe, Western Australia, 6011 Australia.Bruce. B, D. Malcolm H. & Stevens J.D. 2001. A Review of the Biology and Status of White Sharks in Australian Waters CSIRO Marine Research, Hobart.Chan R. 2001. Biological studies on sharks caught off coast of NSW. PhD thesis. University of NSW. Sydney.Compagno, L.J.V. 1984. FAO species catalogue. Volume 4. Sharks of the world. An annotated and illustrated catalogue of shark species known to date. Part 1. Hexanchiformes to Lamniformes, FAO Fisheries Synopsis, No.125. 4(1):1 - 249.Dudley, S.F.J. 2009. A review of research on the white shark in southern Africa. International White Shark Symposium. Honolulu, Hawaii.FAO. 1999. International Plan of Action - Sharks. Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations, Committee on Fisheries, Rome.Froese, Rainer.2010. Why Do Fish Grow Forever- Understanding Longevity in Fishes. Fish Base ppt:23p.Goldman, K.J., Anderson, S.D., McCosker, J.E. and Klimley, A.P. 1996. Temperature, swimming depth, and movements of a White Shark at the South Farallon Islands, California. In Great White Sharks. The biology of Carcharodon carcharias. Klimley, A.P. & D.G Ainley (eds)1996. Academic Press, San Diego. White Shark 17
References:Last, P.R. and Stevens, J.D. 1994. Sharks and Rays of Australia. CSIRO Division of Fisheries, Australia.Lowe, C.G. 2009. Historic fi shery interactions with white sharks in the Southern California Bight. International White Shark Symposium. Honolulu, Hawaii.Mollet, H. F., Cailliet, G. M., Klimley, A. P., Ebert, D. A., Testi, A. D. and Compagno, L. J. V. 1996. A review of length validation methods and protocols to measure large White Sharks. In: Great White Sharks: the biology of Carcharodon carcharias. A. P. Klimley and D. Ainley (eds), pp 91-108. Academic Press, San Diego.New South Wales Fisheries. 1997. Great White Shark protection in NSW. Fishnote, Roger Bell (ed), DF/68:1 - 2.Rose, D.A. 1996. An overview of world trade in sharks and other cartilaginous fishes. TRAFFIC International.Rose, C. and McLoughlin, K. 2001. Review of Shark Finning in Australian Fisheries. Bureau of Rural Sciences, Canberra.Uchida, S., Toda, M., Teshima, K. and Yano, K. 1996. Pregnant White Shark and full-term embryos form Japan. In: Great White Sharks: The Biology of Carcharodon carcharias, Klimley, A.P. & D.G. Ainley (eds). Academic Press, San Diego, California, pp 139-155.Walker, T. 1999. Protection for Great Whites. Sport Fishing Issue 5.Websites:http://www.sharks3D.com, http://www.unep.org, White Shark 18 http://www.oceanfutures.org, http://www.reefcheck.org,