The Clownfish is a type of fish that lives in salt waterhabitats. It have a few ocean predators, but their greatestthreat is humans (Rhyne, et al. 2012). People who catchclownfish and keep them as pets in aquariums are makinga mistake (Timm, et al. 2008, Fish base, 2012). Incaptivity, the clownfish can live 5 years only but in wildthey live about 10 years (Hill & Scott, 2012, Bonin, 2012).Typically very bright, orange fish that have three whitestripes, one at the head, middle and tail (Brainard, 2012).The males tend to be significantly smaller than thefemales. If you look really closely, you may notice thatthere are thin black lines around the white stripes (Ferrari, et al. 2012). Also, the tips of their fins have a thin blackrounded stripe (Shaye, et al. 2012).Introduction:
External Anatomy:Source: Rhyne, et al. (2012).Figure (1):Review of Clown fish External Anatomy
Common Clown fish types:Ocellaris ClownfishTrue Percula ClownfishCinnamon ClownfishPink Skunk ClownfishBlack and White Ocellaris ClownfishClarkii ClownfishBlack Saddle Back ClownfishFiji Barberi ClownfishMaroon ClownfishTomato Clownfish
1. Life Span : 6-10 years.2. Max size: (15 cm).3. pH : 8 - 8.4.4. Temperature : (24- 28 C).5. Salinity: (1.020 - 1.026 ppt).6. Habitat: Warm waters.7. Food: algae, zooplankton, worms,and small crustaceans.8. Reproduction:. Female can layup to 1000 eggs at a time and theyhatch in about 7 days.Clown fish characteristics :AlgaeZooplanktonCrustacean & worms
Video (1): Clown fish behavior in cold waters.Source: Prosek, (2010).
1. Clown fish are poor swimmers and neverventure far from their host anemone.2. Fascinating ability of the Clown fish to switchsex. This Fact makes this fish even more of a rarity.3. Male take care of the young till they reach sexualmaturity.4. They are generally very peaceful, but may becometerritorial and fight. When they are born.Clown fish facts:
Distribution of Clownfish:Figure (2): You can find Clown fish in the these zones. They live inthe Warmer waters of the Pacific Ocean and Indian Ocean. Theyare also found in northwest Australia, southeast Asia, Japan andMalaysia.Source: A. I. M. S., (2012).
Commensalism: one benefits, oneis unaffected.Clown fishgetsprotectionAnemone isunaffectedClown fish & anemone:Source: Prosek , (2010).
Video (2): Clown Fish & anemone relationship.Source: (Ferrari , et al. 2012).
1. The spawning season of the clownfish in allyear season, especially warm season.2. The command of the group is usually the largestaggressive male will pair off with the female tobreed. The rest of the males in the area will notbreed with the female.3. During the fertilization if the female diesbecause of hungry. Then the male changes sex.4. They lay their eggs in a save place near theAnemone they live in.Life Cycle of the Clownfish:
Source: Pitkin, (2001).Figure (3): Life Cycle of the Clownfish:
Source: Saenz, et al. (2011).Video (3): Clown Fish changing sex.
Source: Saenz, et al. (2011).Video (4): Clown Fish mating.
Figure (5): Top 20 marine aquarium fish imported into the United States.Source: Rhyne et al. (2012).
ReferencesAustralian Institute of Marine Science. (2012). Hoskyn Island’s Reef: intensivesurveys--trends in fish abundance. Retrieved August 15, 2012, fromhttp://data.aims.gov.au/reefpage2/rpdetail.jsp?fullReefID=23080S&sampleType=FISH.Bonin, M. C. (2012). Specializing on vulnerable habitat: Acropora selectivityamong damselfish recruits and the risk of bleaching-induced habitat loss. CoralReefs 31:287-297.Brainard, R. E., C. Birkeland, C. M. Eakin, P. Mcelhany, M. W. Miller, M.Patterson, and G. A. Piniak. (2012). Status Review Report of 82 CandidateCoral Species Petitioned Under the U.S. Endangered Species Act. U.S. Dep.Commerce, NOAA Tech. Memo., NOAA-TMNMFS- PIFSC-27, 530 p. + 1Appendix. Page Russell The Journal Of The Bertrand RussellArchives.Ferrari, M. C. O., R. P. Manassa, D. L. Dixson, P. L. Munday, M. I. McCormick, M.G. Meekan, A. Sih, and D. P. Chivers. (2012). Effects of ocean acidification onlearning in coral reef fishes. PloS One 7:e31478.Fish base. (2012). Orange clown fish. A page with clownfish facts.Hill, R., & Scott, A.. (2012). The influence of irradiance on the severity of thermalbleaching in sea anemones that host anemone fish. Coral Reefs 31:273-284.Pitkin, L. (2001). Coral Fish. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington, D.C.
ReferencesProsek, J. (2010). Beautiful friendship. National Geographic Magazine,http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/print/2010/01/clownfish/prosek-text.Rhyne, A. L., M. F. Tlusty, P. J. Schofield, L. Kaufman, J. A. Morris, and A. W.Bruckner. (2012). Revealing the appetite of the marine aquarium fish trade:the volume and biodiversity of fish imported into the United States. PloS One7:e35808.Saenz-Agudelo, P., G. P. Jones, S. R. Thorrold, and S. Planes.( 2011). Detrimentaleffects of host anemone bleaching on anemone fish populations. Coral Reefs30:497-506.Shaye, W., Miyoko, S., and Patrick, D.(2012). PETITION TO LIST EIGHTSPECIES OF POMACENTRID REEF FISH, INCLUDING THE ORANGECLOWNFISH AND SEVEN DAMSELFISH, AS THREATENED ORENDANGERED UNDER THE U.S. ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT. Center forBiological Diversity.351 California Street, Suite 600 San Francisco, CA 94104.p:90.Timm, J., M. Figiel, and M. Kochzius. (2008). Contrasting patterns in speciesboundaries and evolution of anemone fishes (Amphiprioninae, Pomacentridae)in the centre of marine biodiversity. Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution49:268-76.