THE ORGANIZATION OF DATA PROCESSING – Computing is organized and managed in centralized , decentralized and distributed data processing environment. In centralized data processing environment, a large mainframe computer system supports multiple users and multiple application programs , whereas in a decentralized data processing environment , minicomputers or microcomputers support local application, local personnel are responsible for developing programs. They are locally controlled.
In decentralized data processing local users have control over the programs which may lead to inefficient operations. So data processing activities are distributed among efficient personnel and a centralized control is kept over them all. This is called distributed data processing. It can also mean distributing responsibility for other computer activities to the user.
Effective organization of Information Processing Activities MIS management must control and manage activities involved in different technologies. The responsibilities include 1. Developing hardware standards, providing support and ,training and offering technical assistance. They should develop a standard for everything like hardware, telecommunication, programming languages, and documentation.
2. Training programs should be conducted to explain the possibilities and pitfalls of new technologies . 3. The user and information technology professional should work together to evaluate and select the best possible way for the fast and effective progress of the project.
Roles and responsibilities of Information system professionals The data processing organization includes three major functions: System Development Operations Technical Support
Director of Information System Technical Support System Development Operations System Analysis System Programming Production Support Programming Database Administration Data Entry Documentation Computer Operations Database communication User training
System Development- This group is responsible for analyzing the business system and designing a computer-based information system . System Analyst- is responsible for the analysis of the current business system, its organization, procedures, work flow, information requirements, and problems. Programmer- is responsible for designing , coding , testing and debugging program. The maintenance part is also included in this.
c.Documentation Specialist- They record systems design specifications, including program specifications, report layout etc. d. User Trainer- This person is responsible to training the user on how to use a new system. Operations- This group is responsible for operations related to day to day operations of the computer system. Production Support- Responsible maintaining production schedules and distributing output to users according to schedule.
b.Data Entry Personnel- Responsible for keying in data to be input into the computer system c. Computer Operator- Work in computer room , for tasks like mounting tapes, disk packs etc. Technical Support- Responsible for system programming , system evaluation, user services, database administration and communication systems design and maintenance. a. System Programmer- Responsible for maintaining operation system, including the selection, evaluation, and maintenance of operating systems and utilities.
b. Database Administrator- Responsible for analyzing the operations data requirements, developing a logical database design to support application needs and maintaining the organization wide data dictionary. c. Data Communication specialist- responsible for designing data communications networks, selecting appropriate channels for voice and data communications, and evaluating various communications hardware and software.
The Organization and Management of End- User Computing – The main role of the end user support center Is to provide users with training and consulting services. 2. Responsible for defining the market for services, providing appropriate hardware and software facilities, offering for application development, and conducting training programs. 3.Other duties include hardware and software evaluation, technical support, data management, and help desk support.
Users and User Development Applications- This implies to the user managers who have begun to develop their own applications . Types of users: Non programming users- Use software provided by others. Command-Level Users- Perform simple inquiries and simple calculations.
3.User programmers- Use both command and programming languages(like C, C++) for their own personal information needs.(A command language is a special-purpose language that accepts a limited number of commands, such as a query language. Contrast with programming language(C/JAVA) which is a general purpose language.)
4. Functional support personnel- Write sophisticated programs and support users within their functional areas. 5. User computing support personnel- Located in a central support organization such as an information center.
User Developed Applications- Complex Analysis- Include financial analysis , operational research, engineering calculations, and simulations. Inquiry/ simple analysis- They deal with the inquiry and analysis of different programs. Report generation- They deal with the report making for different projects. Operational Systems- They deal with the day to day activities in an organization
5. Miscellaneous- All other types of user developed applications like which are departmental or personal in scope come under this group.