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42629 lecture 4 pt2
 

42629 lecture 4 pt2

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Introduction to Creative Fixation

Introduction to Creative Fixation

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    42629 lecture 4 pt2 42629 lecture 4 pt2 Presentation Transcript

    • The  Crea(ve  Brain -­‐  Morten  de  Fine  Friis-­‐Olivarius  -­‐
    • The  concept  of  crea(vity• Defini4ons – Something  ‘original’  and  ‘useful’ – “the  forming  of  associa4ve  elements  into  new  combina4ons   which  either  meets  specific  requirements  or  are  in  some  way   useful.  The  more  mutually  remote  the  elements  of  the  new   combina4on,  the  more  crea4ve  the  process  or  solu4on”  Mednick   (1962)
    • Einstein’s  Theory  of  Rela4vity E  =  mc2• Einstein  did  not  invent  the  concepts  of  energy,   mass,  or  speed  of  light.  Rather,  he  combined   these  old  ideas  in  an  original  and  useful  way
    • The  ‘process  vs.  product  criterion  issue’• Trait  Crea4vity – The  crea4ve  ability  or  poten4al  ability  of  the  individual – A  latent  trait  underlying  crea4ve  behavior  and  believed  to  be   normally  distributed  in  the  popula4on.  A  necessary  but  not  sufficient   condi4on  for  crea4ve  produc4vity• Achievement  Crea4vity – The  social  success  of  the  product  of  this  ability – Dependent  on  interac4ons  between  the  crea4ve  ability  and  internal   as  well  as  external  factors.  Distributed  in  the  popula4on  roughly   following  price’s  law  (√A)
    • Associa4ve  Gradient  Theory (Mednick,  1962;  Baer,  1993;  Mar4ndale,  1995;  Eysneck,  1997)• Less  crea4ve  individuals – A  s4mulus  ac4vates  many  closely  associated  or  ‘sterotypical’   representa4ons  and  only  few  remotely  associated  representa4ons• Highly  crea4ve  individuals – Comparable  access  to  both  closely  and  remotely  associated  concepts.   Conven4onal  responses  are  not  overly  dominant
    • Mednick  –  the  associa4ve  model• Mednick  (1962): – It  is  in  these  remote  associa4ons  that  crea4ve   solu4ons  occur – The  greater  the  number  of  associa4on  an   individual  has  to  the  requisite  elements  of  a  given   problem,  the  greater  the  probability  of  reaching  a   crea4ve  solu4on
    • Lateral  inhibi4on• ???
    • Cogni4ve  Inhibi4on  and  memory  retrieval   mechanisms• Searching  the  associa4ve  network  causes  inhibi4on  of   ‘irrelevant’  or  ‘inappropriate’  associa4ons• Although  brilliant  -­‐  not  a  perfect  system – Fixa4on  effects • Tip-­‐of-­‐The-­‐Tongue  phenomenon – a  kind  of  “flashlight  effect”  that  can  be  ar4ficially  induced • Blocking  in  memory  retrieval  -­‐  Response  compe44on – The  unwanted  response  blocks  the  tarket  respons   • Also  known  as: – retrieval-­‐induced  forgebng – mental  fixa4on  /  design  fixa4on
    • Implicit  Memory  Blocking                                                Dominant  Response                                                              (Blocker:  ANALOGY)A  _  L  _  _  G  Y                                                Non-­‐dominant  Response                                                              (Target:  ???????)  
    • Implicit  Memory  BlockingBlocker! Fragment TargetANALOGY! !A _ L _ _ G Y ALLERGY !BRIGADE !! B_G_A_E BAGGAGECOTTAGE !! C _TA_ _ G CATALOGCHARTER ! CHAR_T_ CHARITYCLUSTER !! C_U_TR_ COUNTRYCRUMPET ! CU_P__T CULPRIT !DENSITY ! ! D__NITY DIGNITY !FIXTURE ! ! F_I_URE FAILURE !HOLSTER !! H_ST_R_ HISTORY !TONIGHT ! ! T_NG__T TANGENT !TRILOGY ! ! TR_G__Y TRAGEDYVOYAGER ! VO__AGE VOLTAGE From Smith & Tindell (1997)
    • Implicit  Memory  Blocks• Blocks  can  be  caused  by  implicit  memory  of   inappropriate  responses• Problem  solving  studies  using  implicit  memory   blocks  show  an  involuntary  retrieval  of   incorrect  blockers,  and  an  inability  to  escape  or   avoid  the  blocking  effect                                                                                                                                                              e.g.  Smith  &  Blankenship  (1991);  Smith  &  Tindell  (1997)
    • Eight-­‐Coin  Problem  • Eight-­‐Coin  Problem  (Chronicle,  MacGregor,  &  Ormerod,  2004)• Moving  only  two  coins  make  an  arrangement  which  ensures  that  every  coin   touches  exactly  three  other  coins
    • Nine-­‐Dot  Problem• Using  just  four  straight  lines  connect  all  of  the  dots  without  taking  your  pen   off  the  page   Robert Weisberg Temple University