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Design for ultimaker rev2


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Design for ultimaker rev2

  2. 2. AGENDA1. Introduction on FDM and AM2. Geometrical constraints3. Support structures • Avoiding support structures • Working with support structures4. Hollowed parts and infill5. Printing text6. Designing mechanisms 2
  3. 3. FUSED DEPOSITIONMODELLING• Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies build parts by overlapping layers of material• Extrusion of melted material through a nozzle on a build plate• Cartesian coordinates• Tolerance (in vertical direction) is determined by the diameter of the nozzle• Examples: Stratasys, RepRap, Ultimake r 3
  4. 4. WORKFLOW 1 2 3Design a part Export to STL Check STL• CAD program • All packages can • Netfabb do it 6 5 4Start printing! Upload Gcode Slice and• Ultimaker’s to printer generate Gcode controller • SD card • Cura 4
  5. 5. MATERIAL PROPERTIES• Ultimaker uses 3mm PLA PLA filament Polymer• Biodegradable Physical property thermoplastic Specific Gravity [g/cm3] 1,25 Melt Index [g/10min]• Highly anisotropic (190º/2,16kg) 4-8 mechanical properties• Several colors available 5
  6. 6. GEOMETRICALCONSTRAINTSMinimum Wall thickness:• Vertical and tilted walls: • 2mm and above. Recommended• Horizontal walls: • 1mm and above is correctDefinition  0,5mm minimum details noticedAccuracy  0,3% (min +/-0,3mm)Avoid warping  Large horizontal and thick surfaces arelikely to warp, skip using them if you can.Overall maximum dimensions  150*150*150 mm (x*y*z) 6
  7. 7. FACING GEOMETRICALCONSTRAINTS• Scale parts • After scaling check that your part meets the geometrical constraints • Notice that wall thicknesses will be scaled down as well, and may not meet the requirements 7
  8. 8. SUPPORT STRUCTURES• Support structures are features added below part areas where there’s nothing• They prevent layers to collapse during it’s build up and allow part manufacturability 8
  9. 9. AVOIDING SUPPORTSTRUCTURES: PART ORIENTATION• Part orientation is a key factor to achieve a good print• In many cases we can avoid or at least reduce the amount of supports required• Resolution is better in the z-axis faces (vertical) than XY (horizontal)  stepping• Mechanical properties are better in the XY plane 9
  10. 10. PART ORIENTATION Smooth surfaces Staircase effect 10
  11. 11. AVOIDING SUPPORT STRUCTURES:SPLITTING PARTS• Splitting parts is a good way to avoid using supports• Can be done after exporting the CAD to STL by using Netfabb• To use in extreme causes because: • We’ll have to glue all the parts after the print • Tolerances will not be the same • We’ll see partition lines in our part 11
  12. 12. AVOIDING SUPPORTSTRUCTURES: MODIFYOVERHANGING SURFACE• The printer is able to print overhanging surfaces without support structures from a minimum angle α (>30º)• We must do the modifications before exporting the STL file• Small projections from the walls (<1mm) can be printed without problems 12
  13. 13. AVOIDING SUPPORTSTRUCTURES: MODIFYOVERHANGING SURFACE• Cura Software shows which surfaces needs support structures (<30º) Support structures required here 13
  14. 14. AVOIDING SUPPORTSTRUCTURES: BRIDGES• The printer is able to Bridge print flat surfaces without supports between two walls• Max distance between walls: 20mm 14
  15. 15. AVOIDING SUPPORTSTRUCTURES: BRIDGES Small holes doesn’t require changesBridge Modified hole 15
  16. 16. WORKING WITHSUPPORT STRUCTURES• Accessibility: We must be able to remove SS easily• Scaring: Avoid using them in part characteristic surfaces  SS can damage the finishing of these surfaces and also the tolerances• Avoid using SS below thin walls or slender and fragile parts, they can break easily while removing them 16
  17. 17. HOLLOWED PARTS ANDINFILL• Hollow can be achieved when gcode is generated, by changing parameters of Cura• We can also choose how much infill (%) we want inside the part, by default we use between 30% and 40%• Design Tip: design always solid parts Infill Perimeters Gcode Cura View 17
  18. 18. HOLLOWED PARTS ANDINFILLBy reducing the infill:• Build time decreases• Used material decreases• It helps to avoid warping• Strength doesn’t decreases that much 18
  19. 19. PRINTING TEXT• Text in vertical faces will be more visible and accurate• If it’s not possible, the text at the bottom of the part (the face that sticks to the building platform), must be engraved.• In the top face of the part, text can be either engraved/embossed• It should be at least 0,8mm high and 0,8mm wide to be visible. 19
  20. 20. PRINTING TEXT Vertical embossed text Horizontal engraved text Vertical engraved text 20
  21. 21. DESIGNINGMECHANISMSJoints clearance:• Design adjustments with a gap of more than 0,3mm between mobile parts 21
  22. 22. DESIGNINGMECHANISMSPart orientation• Try to print the areas of parts that has to fit each other in the same orientation (different orientations could have different deviations/tolerances)Integrated nut holders  embossed is betterthan engraved! 22
  23. 23. QUESTIONS? 23