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Language Teaching Approaches and Methods Language Teaching Approaches and Methods Presentation Transcript

  • Language Teaching Approaches and Methods LTM 1G Week 3 Emma Arthur
  • Activity
    • Imagine a situation where you are marooned on a uninhabited pacific island for two weeks, what 10 things would you want to have with you? There is enough water but you will have to catch / hunt your own food.
    • You have 2 minutes for this activity.
  • Activity
    • Now get together with two other people and out of your three lists, make a list of 5 items that the three of you would take and prioritise these.
    • You have 3 minutes for this activity.
    • While you are carrying out the activity think about the language skills you need (and any other skills).
  • CLT
    • CLT – Communicative Language Teaching
    • CLT takes pedagogical ideas from a wide range of
    • methodological approaches and it is therefore
    • adaptable to a range of different learner needs
    • and styles.
  • Terminology
    • Approach
    • ’ ....describes how people acquire their knowledge
    • of the language and makes statements about the
    • conditions which will promote successful language
    • learning.’ Harmer, (2001:78)
    • Behaviourism naturalism
  • Terminology
    • Method
    • ’ ....a method is the practical realisation of an
    • approach’ Harmer (2001:78)
    • Procedure
    • An ordered sequence of techniques.
  • Marooned
    • Brainstorm vocabulary as a class.
    • Make a list of items individually.
    • Present new language – expressing opinions. (practised language)
    • Group list and discussion.
    • Present to class.
  • Grammar-Translation Method
    • The goal is to learn a language in order to read its literature or benefit from the intellectual development that results from foreign language study.
    • Grammar is taught deductively, by presentation and study of grammar rules, which are then practiced through translation exercises.
    • The student’s native language is the medium of instruction.
    • Focus on reading and writing.
  • Grammar-Translation Method (cont.)
    • Vocabulary selection is based solely on the reading texts used.
    • Accuracy was emphasized.
  • Direct Method
    • Classroom instruction was conducted exclusively in the target language.
    • Only everyday vocabulary and sentences were taught.
    • Greater focus on oral communication: skills were built up around question-and-answer exchanges between teachers and students.
    • Grammar taught inductively.
    • Concrete vocabulary was taught through demonstration, objects, and pictures .
  • Audio-lingualism
    • Grammar teaching is inductive rather than deductive.
    • The meanings of words can be learned only in a linguistic and cultural context.
    • Input is highly refined.
    • It is teacher centred.
    • Relies heavily on drills.
    • Based on behaviorism.
  • Presentation, Practice, and Production (PPP)
    • Begins with teacher presenting , or demonstrating language
    • to be taught.
    • Students then practice the language, often by repeating
    • after the teacher in chorus.
    • Finally, students produce the language, by answering questions orally and doing written exercises.
  • Pres. Pract Prod Byrne’s alternative approach
  • A Substitution Activity
    • Audio-lingualism/PPP
    • Change the following verbs to their “-ing” forms so
    • you can say what you like doing.
    • Example: I like ____skiing___ (ski).
    • 1. I like _________ (swim).
    • 2. I like _________ (eat).
    • 3. I like _________ (draw).
    • 4. I like _________ (watch TV).
  • Total Physical Response (TPR)
    • Understanding the spoken language before developing the skills of speaking.
    • Imperatives are the main structures to transfer or communicate information.
    • The student is not forced to speak, but is allowed an individual readiness period and allowed to spontaneously begin to speak
    • Combines information and skills through the use of the kinesthetic sensory system.
  • Communicative Language Teaching
    • CLT starts from a theory of language as communication .
    • CLT draws on Michael Halliday’s (1970) account of language as ‘functional’ (e.g. instrumental function (using language to get things); representational function (using language to communicate information
  • Principles of Communicative Language Teaching
    • Learners learn a language through using it to communicate.
    • Authentic and meaningful communication should be the goal of classroom activities.
    • Fluency is an important dimension of communication.
    • Communication involves the integration of different language skills.
    • Learning is a process of creative construction and involves trial and error.
    • Contextualization is a basic premise.
    • Language learning is learning to communicate - not learning about a language.
    • Comprehensible pronunciation is sought - not a false ideal e.g. RP.
    • Drilling is used, but not to ensure memorization without context.
    • Translations may be used, if appropriate.
    • Linguistic variation is a central concept in materials and methodology.
    • Sequencing is not solely based on principle of linguistic complexity but also though consideration of function, meaning and content.
    • Intrinsic motivation is maintained by what is being communicated.
    • Richards R. & Rogers, T. (1991) Approaches and
    • Methods in Language
    • Language is used to accomplish a concrete task.
    • Necessary vocabulary, expressions, and grammatical structures are often pre-taught.
    • Can be seen as “deep end” version of PPP.
    Task-based learning
  • A Task-Based Learning Activity
    • Step 1: Pre-task – Introduce topic and task
    • Pre-teach vocabulary and expressions
    • Step 2: Task Cycle – Performance of task with little
    • guidance
    • Step 3: Language Focus – Analyze performance
    • Practice language
  • Lexical approach
    • Based on the assertion that language consists of pre-fabricated chunks.
    • Focus on teaching phrases which show words in combination.
    • Valuable for developing a lexis/lexicon.