APPROACH It is a conjunction of ideas related It is the level in which a whole to the nature and teaching of a theory and its beliefs are reflected given language. regarding a language and its learning. It is a much wider It refers to theories about the concept than a method and nature of language and language technique. learning. It is the source of the principles It describes how people acquire and practices of language their knowledge of the language teaching. and makes statements about the conditions which will promote It describes how a language is succesful language learning. used and how its constituent parts interlock. It offers a model of language competence.
METHOD It is considered the practical When a method has fixed realization of an approach. procedures, informed by a It is understood as a group of clearly articulated approach, it is procedures, a system that clearly easy to describe. However, if a explains how to teach a language (syllabus organization -contents & method takes procedures and skills to be taught-, roles of teachers techniques from a wide variety and learners, kinds of materials to use). of sources, that is that they are used in other methods or are It is understood as a group of mentioned by other beliefs, it procedures, a system that clearly explains how to teach a language will be very hard to continue (contents and skills to be taught) describing it as a method. How should it be categorized then? The method is based on a specific approach. The approach is axiomatic whereas the method is procedural.
TECHNIQUE It’s each specific strategy that These techniques must be we use in the classroom. coherent with the method, and therefore, they must be in harmony with the approach. It is a tool that is used to obtain an immediate result. Some techniques can be found in different methods whereas It’s what really happens in the other ones are specific to a given classroom, in the actual method. teaching.
PROCEDURE It is an ordered sequence of It can be understood as a techniques. set of actions, operations and strategies which have to be executed accordingly A procedure can be to a perception on how to described in terms such as obtain a expected result, in First you do this, then you our case on how to do that… It’s a lot smaller increase competition in a than a method, but it’s a foreign language. sequence of techniques.
Let’s think about this… If we mention the following concepts, can we clearly determine if we’re talking about an approach, a method, a technique or a procedure? PPP // Suggestopedia // Role-plays // CLT // TPR // Grammar translation // Silent viewing // Task-based learning // The Silent Way // Audiolingualism // Dictation // Community language learning // Lexical approach //