MOTIVATIONAL FACTORS INFLUENCING
CITIZENS TO USE M-GOVERNMENT
SERVICES: A CASE OF KENYAN MINISTRIES
Case Study: Government Ministries in Kenya
Authors: Clement Marini, Everlyne Makhanu
and Joseph Sevilla (Strathmore University)
At present these is an impressive increase in the use
of and access to mobile technology, in both
developed and developing countries. Mobile
cellular is the most rapidly adopted technology in
history and the most popular and widespread
personal technology worldwide. The high Mobile
penetration suggests that mobiles have come to be
considered as alternative modes of e-service
delivery by Governments.
M-Government is a sub-segment of e- Government
- which is defined as a strategy and its
implementation involving the utilization of all kinds
of wireless and mobile technology, services,
applications and devices for improving benefits to
the parties involved in e-government including
citizens, businesses and all government units
(Kushchu & Kuscu, 2003).
M-government helps governments to provide
anytime and anywhere services for citizens.
According to Hellström (2009) there is a very wide
range of potential governance related services
which can be delivered and communicated via
mobile phones, including services relating to health
care, agriculture, education, employment,
transportation law and order, tax, judicial and
legal systems, among other services.
Mobile phones help to create an informative,
connected, innovative, participative and converging
society all over the world.
Literature Review Contd.
Literature also reveals that in developing regions
with poor infrastructure, going mobile may be the
only viable option to improve service delivery in the
public sector, but do we have policies already in
place to guide on the implementation?
The Kenyan Government has rolled out M-
Government projects before but what was the
motivation towards their implementation, what is the
perception towards this by the citizen’s?
Area sector Project/ application
Government news/ Information updates Road safety (Transport Licensing Board)
Project (Ministry of Migration, Directorate of e-Gov)
Voter registration (Electoral
Commission of )
Employment Services Kazi560 (M4G, One World )
(selected projects where the Ministry of Health is involve)
Episuveyor (Datadyne. Ministry of Health)
Financial Services Bill payment
E-bill and SMS Alert
(Kenya Power & Lighting Company Ltd)
SMS and Direct Email innovation
Crises management Violence- Prevention Tool (Oxfam GB, Peace Net)
Education services Examination results (Kenya National Examinations Council, Ministry of
SEMA Project (Ministry of Education, DFID)
List of m-government applications in Kenya
Mobile phones have been cited by many as the best
technology for interacting with citizens due to its
widespread user uptake (Kumar & Sinha, 2009), it
still does not fully deliver its promises, in particular
in delivering services to the citizens of Kenya.
The Government of Kenya has so far not fully
utilized the idea of using mobile phones as a tool
for service delivery and a way to communicate with
To find out the motivational factors that explains the
emergence of m-Government services in the
The study used a descriptive survey design to
analyze whether m-government services are
associated with improved service delivery to
citizens. Descriptive employed questionnaire and
interview techniques to collect data about m-
government services in the Government Ministries.
These data could was used to recommend specific
strategies for improving service delivery to citizens.
Participants of the study
The study involved citizens who were also the
customers of Government Ministries.
There were also senior ICT respondents from each
of the Government Ministries.
41.2% of the respondents contacted the ministry via
mobile phone, 28% visited in person, 22.8% used the
internet and 3.3% made contact through writing.
Majority of the respondents (58.8%) were not aware of
any Government services that are delivered and
communicated via mobile phones with the remaining
41.2% respondents saying they were aware.
In relation to satisfaction with M-Government services,
17.1% respondents were very dissatisfied and 47.9%
respondents were somewhat dissatisfied with only
14.7% saying they were satisfied.
Cost of mobile phone technology as form
of service delivery
37% expensive cost
relatively lower cost
Security and privacy of contacting the
Ministry via Mobile
Reason of preferring m-Government services
efficient solutions to
relatively low cost of mobile
Normal way of doing things
Reach areas where there is
no ICT infrastructure
Access through shared usage
Services must be easy to use with valuable and timely
content in order to ensure the service is relevant for end
Government needs to pay close attention to re-engineering
processes, reforming institutions, and creating an
environment for greater accountability and transparency.
The service must be accessible at a lower cost to the end
user than non-mobile or non-electronic alternatives.
Transition from manual delivery to m-government can
require an overhaul of existing processes and breaking
down departmental silos.
The Government should ensure the longevity of the projects
to ensure they serve the citizens as expected.
The study recognized that m-Government services
have a cumulative effect on service delivery to
citizens. For example, formulating adequate policies
to utilize m-Government services is understood to be
a process rather than a response to a discrete
event. Further study is need to identify the role of
m-Government project on service delivery over
time, is recognized. This will help determine where
the projects still serve the value they were