Misra, D.C.(2009) Emerging E Gov Challenges 2009


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This is PowerPoint Presentation in my public lecture on "Emerging Challenges of E-governance Today" on Friday, February 20, 2009, at 5-30 p.m. at Indian Institute of Public Administration, Indraprastha Estate, New Delhi-110 092. This is an annual stock-taking of e-governence which I have been undertaking for last few years. For any clarification email to me at dc_misra [at]hotmail.com.

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Misra, D.C.(2009) Emerging E Gov Challenges 2009

  2. 2. Delhi Regional Branch Indian Institute of Public Administration, New Delhi Friday, February 20, 2009 (5-30 p.m.)
  3. 3. Emerging E-governance Challenges Today <ul><li>A Presentation </li></ul><ul><li>by </li></ul><ul><li>Dr D.C.Misra </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance Consultant </li></ul><ul><li>New Delhi </li></ul><ul><li>Email: dc_misra@hotmail.com </li></ul><ul><li>Web: http://in.geocities.com/drdcmisra </li></ul><ul><li>Blog: http://egov-india.blogspot.com </li></ul><ul><li>Tel: 2245 2431 </li></ul><ul><li>Tel/Fax: 4244 5183 </li></ul>
  4. 4. Emerging E-governance Challenges Today What is proposed to be covered? <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Emerging E-governance Challenges </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Mega Trends </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Global Governance </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Efficient Public Service Delivery </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is proposed to be covered? Emerging Challenges in E-governance <ul><li>E-governance and Global and National League Tables </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Emerging New Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Management Information System (MIS) </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance, Knowledge Glut and its Poor Utilisation </li></ul>
  6. 6. Emerging E-governance Challenges <ul><li>E-governance and Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Overloading Government Websites </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Wiki Technology </li></ul><ul><li>E-governance and Monitoring Investments </li></ul>
  7. 7. Emerging E-governance Challenges <ul><li>13. E-governance and its Capture by Private IT Companies </li></ul><ul><li>14. E-governance and its Legal Enablement </li></ul><ul><li>15. E-governance and Customer Relationship Management (CRM) and Electronic CRM (E-CRM) </li></ul><ul><li>16. E-governance and Audit </li></ul><ul><li>17. E-governance and Open Source Software and Hardware </li></ul>
  8. 8. Emerging E-governance Challenges <ul><li>18. E-governance and Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>19. E-governance and Green Computing </li></ul><ul><li>20. E-governance and Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>21. E-governance and E-civil Service </li></ul><ul><li>22. E-governance and Public Policy Space </li></ul><ul><li>23. E-governance and Managerial Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>24. E-governance and Tech- savvy Politicos </li></ul><ul><li>III Conclusion: </li></ul><ul><li>A Summing Up </li></ul>
  9. 9. I. Introduction <ul><li>What is </li></ul><ul><li>Computer ? </li></ul>
  10. 10. What is Computer? <ul><li>An electronic, digital device that receives, sends, stores and processes information . </li></ul><ul><li>But it is something more ……. </li></ul>
  11. 11. It is a tool for ……. <ul><li>Increasing efficiency and productivity </li></ul><ul><li>( Solow’s Paradox ). </li></ul>
  12. 12. It is a tool for ……. <ul><li>Communication and Exchange of Information </li></ul><ul><li>( Global Village-Marshal McLuhan ). </li></ul><ul><li>(Medium is the Message). </li></ul>
  13. 13. It is a tool for ……. <ul><li>Augmenting intellect </li></ul><ul><li>( Vannevar Bush ) </li></ul>
  14. 14. It is a tool for ……. <ul><li>Colllective Intelligence </li></ul><ul><li>( Pierre L é vy ) </li></ul>
  15. 15. It is a tool for ……. <ul><li>Social networking and Social Graph </li></ul><ul><li>( Facebook, MySpace, Orkut, LinkedIn, Ryze, etc .) </li></ul>
  16. 16. Current Status <ul><li>There are 1.2 billion computers to-day. Overall global PC penetration: 165 PCs per 1,000 population worldwide (Gartner 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Internet users worldwide has crossed one billion mark in December 2008 (ComScore 2009). </li></ul>
  17. 17. E-governance and Governance <ul><li>What is e-governance ? </li></ul><ul><li>-- Application of information and communication technology (ICT) to governance </li></ul><ul><li>What then is governance ? </li></ul><ul><li>-- Functioning of institutions in a democratic framework for </li></ul><ul><li>Policy-making </li></ul><ul><li>Regulation </li></ul><ul><li>Public service delivery, and </li></ul><ul><li>Development </li></ul>
  18. 18. E-governance <ul><li>Functions of e-governance </li></ul>1. Policy Making 2. Regulation 3. Public Service Delivery 4. Development
  19. 19. II. Emerging E-governance Challenges-1 <ul><li>I. E-governance and Mega Trends </li></ul><ul><li>A report - Government 2020 and the Perpetual Collaboration Mandate - has Identified Six Mega Trends which are Reshaping Governments and Societies Worldwide : </li></ul><ul><li>Changing demographics </li></ul><ul><li>Accelerating globalization </li></ul><ul><li>Rising environmental concerns </li></ul><ul><li>Evolving societal relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Growing threats to social stability and order </li></ul><ul><li>Expanding impact of technology </li></ul>
  20. 20. E-governance and Mega Trends <ul><li>None of these mega trends is under the control of governments </li></ul><ul><li>On the other hand, these mega trends influence governance and e-governance </li></ul><ul><li>As such, e-governance is required to align with these mega trends rather than the other way </li></ul><ul><li>This requires understanding the current status of governance and e-governance worldwide </li></ul>
  21. 21. Emerging E-governance Challenges -1 <ul><li>Challenge No.1 </li></ul><ul><li>Six mega trends have been identified which are reshaping governments and societies around the world. How then to align e-governance to these mega trends? </li></ul>
  22. 22. Emerging E-governance Challenges -2 <ul><li>II. E-governance and Global Governance </li></ul><ul><li>There is crisis in global governance to-day. </li></ul><ul><li>The WorldPublicOpinion.org poll of 20 nations around the world finds that none of the national leaders on the world stage inspire wide confidence (WPO 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>While former US President George W. Bush was one of the least trusted leaders, no other leader--including China's Hu Jintao and Russia's Vladimir Putin--has gained a broad international base of support. </li></ul><ul><li>Barrack Obama has appeared on the scene but it is too early for him to show impact (First 100 days theory?) </li></ul>
  23. 23. Global Governance and 20th Century Model <ul><li>The 20th Century Model needs make over (Boughton and Bradford 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>After World War I, League of Nations (1919) set up and it failed. </li></ul><ul><li>After World War II, United Nations and its spcialised agencies set up and they have mixed record. </li></ul><ul><li>Global governance is dominated by a few developed countries </li></ul><ul><li>Grouping of Nations : G-10 (1962), G-5 (1970s), G-7(1980s), G-8(1990s), G-77 (1964), G-24 (1971) </li></ul><ul><li>The existing model needs to be changed to give due importance to developing countries . </li></ul>
  24. 24. State of E-governance 2009 <ul><li>Current Scenario (February 2009) </li></ul><ul><li>Mixed Scenario </li></ul><ul><li>Almost universal acceptance of e-governance </li></ul><ul><li>Many notable successes </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps equally notable failures </li></ul><ul><li>An unprecedented information explosion </li></ul><ul><li>Heavy public investments in e-overnance </li></ul><ul><li>Waste in e-governance, and </li></ul><ul><li>Very promising e-governance research, notably in semantic web and artificial intelligence (AI) </li></ul>
  25. 25. Loss of Confidence in Government Worldwide <ul><li>At the end of the 20 th century </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of confidence in government worldwide . </li></ul><ul><li>-- Visions of Governance for the Twenty-First Century project at Harvard University found that American confidence in U.S. government has sharply declined. </li></ul><ul><li>-- Americans who said that they trusted the federal government to do the right thing most of the time: </li></ul><ul><li>1964- 75%, 1997- 25% </li></ul>
  26. 26. Loss of Confidence in Government Worldwide <ul><li>--Government is not alone. Over past three decades in America, public confidence had dropped by half or more for many institutions: </li></ul><ul><li>--Universities: 61% to 30%; </li></ul><ul><li>--Major companies: 55% to 21% </li></ul><ul><li>--Medicine: 73% to 29% ; </li></ul><ul><li>--Journalism: 29% to 14% (Nye 1999) </li></ul><ul><li>--U.S. was not alone (Norris 1999). </li></ul>
  27. 27. E-governance as a Promising Solution <ul><li>In this environment, </li></ul><ul><li>e-governance appeared on the scene in mid-1990s, </li></ul><ul><li>and was endorsed worldwide (as a promising solution), </li></ul><ul><li>resulting in public investment in e-governance </li></ul>
  28. 28. E-governance as a Promising Solution <ul><li>2 . Investment in E-governance </li></ul><ul><li>-- Worldwide IT Spend- $3.4 trillion (2008) </li></ul><ul><li>-- USA- US$ 65 billion </li></ul><ul><li>-- UK- GBP 14 billion </li></ul><ul><li>-- South Africa- $ 9 billion (2007) </li></ul><ul><li>-- India- Rs 4,000 crore </li></ul><ul><li>Expected by 2009: Rs 10,000 crore </li></ul><ul><li>(1 crore = 10 million) </li></ul>
  29. 29. Outstanding Achievement of E-governance <ul><li>The first phase of e-government: the i(information)-government , namely, provision of information, has been an incontestable success (Lucas 2008). </li></ul><ul><li>However, in the second interaction phase and subsequent </li></ul><ul><li>transaction phase, and </li></ul><ul><li>transformation phase (OECD) , </li></ul><ul><li>E-government is encountering serious roadblocks. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 2 <ul><li>Challenge No. 2 </li></ul><ul><li>There is crisis in global governance to-day. How then to steer our way as sovereign states in a leaderless world ? </li></ul>
  31. 31. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 3 <ul><li>III. E-governance and Efficient Public Service Delivery </li></ul><ul><li> Drivers of E-governance (Politicians, Civil Servants, Technology Vendors, Civil Society Organisations, Citizens) </li></ul><ul><li> Real Driver : Need for efficient public service delivery </li></ul><ul><li> Public services : Unproductive, dilatory and insensitive to the needs of citizens </li></ul><ul><li> New public management (NPM) (application of private sector model to public sector) in 1980s and 1990s also failed </li></ul><ul><li> Governance a key concept in international development debate (Hyden et al. 2004) </li></ul>
  32. 32. Efficient Public Service Delivery <ul><li>Challenge No. 3 </li></ul><ul><li>How to achieve the objective of efficient public service delivery which is not yet being successfully met by e-governance ? </li></ul>
  33. 33. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 4 <ul><li>IV E-governance and Emerging New Technologies </li></ul><ul><li> Governments usually trail new technologies </li></ul><ul><li> C omputing may become a utility , like electricity, in near future </li></ul><ul><li> Mobile telephony in developing economies is spurring demand for m-government </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer than 7% of legislators have even the most basic understanding of technology in North America (Thronton 1997). </li></ul><ul><li>eMLA programme abondoned by the author in India. </li></ul>
  34. 34. E-governance and Emerging New Technologies <ul><li>Types of Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Capturing Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Storage Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Processing Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Communications Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Display Technologies </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Hamelink (1997:3) </li></ul>
  35. 35. Emerging New Technologies <ul><li>Table 1 E-governance and Selected Technological Forecasts </li></ul>(Source: 2005 BT Technology Timeline) 2016-2020 Artificial Intelligence (AI) member of parliament 5 2008-2012 Public storage provided by local government to support social use of IT 4 2013-2017 Retirement age raised to 75 3 2008-2012 All government services electronically delivered 2 2016-2020 Human knowledge exceeded by machine knowledge 1
  36. 36. Emerging New Technologies <ul><li>Challenge No.4 </li></ul><ul><li>How to make E-governance anticipate emergence of new technologies and respond to them quickly? </li></ul>
  37. 37. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 5 <ul><li>V E-governance and Global and National League Tables </li></ul><ul><li>The last decade has seen emergence of many global and national league tables. </li></ul><ul><li>(a) International organizations (for example, ITU 2006, </li></ul><ul><li>UNCTAD 2005, UNDESA 2005a, 2005b, UNESCO </li></ul><ul><li>ORBICOM 2005 and World Bank 2006) </li></ul><ul><li>(b) National organizations (for example, DIT 2003, 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>(c) Universities (for example, Holzer and Kim 2005, West </li></ul><ul><li>2005 and WU 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>(d) Private companies (for example, Accenture 2005, BAH </li></ul><ul><li>2005 and Brainbench 2005) and </li></ul><ul><li>(e) Private organizations (for example, WEF 2006). </li></ul>
  38. 38. Global and National League Tables <ul><li>Challenge No.5 </li></ul><ul><li>How can global and national league tables contribute to E-governance policy formulation and implementation ? </li></ul>
  39. 39. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 6 <ul><li>VI E-governance and Management Information System </li></ul><ul><li>Table 2 Doubling of Stock of Knowledge over Centuries </li></ul>(Source: http://www.lessons4living.com/speed.htm ) 1-2 years ? Units Now 5 150 years 8 Units 1900 A.D. 4 250 years 4 Units 1750 A.D. 3 1500 years 2 Units 1500 A.D. 2 Base Year 1 Unit 1 A.D 1 Doubling of Stock Stock of Knowledge Year S.N.
  40. 40. Management Information System <ul><li>Reasons for Exponential Multiplication of Information </li></ul>-Inconsumable -Intransferable -Indivisible -Accumulative Properties of Information -Concentration -Dispersion -Circulation -Feedback Properties of ICTs I ICT I Information Explosion
  41. 41. Management Information System <ul><li>An unprecedented information explosion has taken place. </li></ul><ul><li>Almost 800 MB of recorded information is produced per person each year equivalent to about 30 feet of books for storage (SIMS 2003). </li></ul><ul><li>Print, film, magnetic and optical storage media produced about 5 exabytes of new information in 2002 </li></ul><ul><li>92% of the new information was stored on magnetic media, mostly in hard disks (ibid.). </li></ul><ul><li>One expects policy-making in government to have vastly improved. But this has not happened. </li></ul><ul><li> Reason: Appropriate management information systems (MISs) have not been put in place. </li></ul>
  42. 42. Management Information System (MIS) <ul><li>Challenge No.6 </li></ul><ul><li>How to set up dependable management information systems (MISs) in government in the light of information explosion and other developments? </li></ul>
  43. 43. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 7 <ul><li>VII. E-governance and Knowledge Glut and its Poor Utilisation </li></ul><ul><li>Amid a great information explosion, the share of knowledge that the world puts to good use is falling. </li></ul><ul><li>Quah (2006) notes: “…there is one commodity in excess supply. It’s knowledge- and in the long run, the overlooked knowledge glut could be more dangerous than the many more obvious shortages.” </li></ul><ul><li>Invention is costly and getting costlier. </li></ul><ul><li>Over the 20th century, the average age at which inventors did their best work rose by six years; </li></ul><ul><li>The average size of innovation teams grew fivefold. </li></ul><ul><li>R&D workers and dollars now produce an ever-smaller of patents on average. That’s why new drugs cost more than $1 billion to develop (ibid.). </li></ul>
  44. 44. Knowledge Glut and its Poor Utilisation <ul><li>Challenge No. 7 </li></ul><ul><li>How to resolve the emerging paradox of knowledge glut and plummeting knowledge utilization ? </li></ul>
  45. 45. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 8 <ul><li>VIII E-governance and Overloading Government Websites </li></ul><ul><li>There has been an explosion of government web pages. </li></ul><ul><li>The US .gov top-level domain, for example, accounts for 368 million pages, according to Wagner et al. (2006). </li></ul><ul><li>But even smaller e-government sites, such as .gov.uk (9.28 million pages) or .gov.au (7.2 million pages) exceed the size of major company sites such as </li></ul><ul><li>IBM (3.93 million for ibm.com), eBay (3.14 million for ebay.com) and dwarf sites of companies such as Ford (55,700 for ford.com) or Barclays Bank (24,200 for barclays.co.uk). </li></ul><ul><li>Even Slovenia, a country with only 2 million citizens, maintains a vastly larger e-government website of over 380,000 pages. (ibid, p-20) </li></ul><ul><li>The increasing volume of e-government web pages is no indication that they are meeting the felt needs of the citizens. </li></ul>
  46. 46. Overloading Government Websites <ul><li>Challenge No. 8 </li></ul><ul><li>How not to keep on overloading government websites with all sorts of information but to anticipate and meet information and/or transaction needs of the citizens quickly and in user-friendly manner? </li></ul>
  47. 47. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 9 <ul><li>IX E-governance and Search Engines </li></ul><ul><li> FirstGov.gov, US Federal Government website, went online on September 22, 2000. </li></ul><ul><li> Its database has shot up from 8 million to 40 million pages. </li></ul><ul><li> To ferret out information from such huge databases, a specialty search engine based on government databases was launched in January 2006. </li></ul><ul><li> It is based on “ dynamic clustering ” (clustering of information on the fly) and “ meta search ” (based on searches of other search engines). </li></ul>
  48. 48. E-governance Search Engines <ul><li>On October 17, 2006, FirstGov.gov added new image and news search capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Its search now covers government web, images, news and FirstGov. </li></ul><ul><li>In near future other features like RSS feeds and blogs/vblogs may also be added. </li></ul><ul><li>This may become a trend-setter in E-governance for countries in South. </li></ul><ul><li>Appropriate search capabilities are required to be set up on E-governance websites </li></ul>
  49. 49. E-governance and Search Engines <ul><li>Challenge No. 9 </li></ul><ul><li>How to set up appropriate search capabilities on E-governance websites to ferret out the required information? </li></ul>
  50. 50. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 10 <ul><li>X E-governance and Semantic Web </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic web is being promoted by W3 Consortium and Tim Berners-Lee, the inventor of World Wide Web. It has now links to 10 billion pages (Shadbolt, Hall and Berners-Lee 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>It is “not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation” (Berners-Lee, Hendler and Lassila 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Governments face the difficulties of “management of too much information, created by too many heterogeneous, distributed sources. </li></ul><ul><li>Resulting in issues such as inconsistent terminologies, information overload and too little maintenance of outdated knowledge are only too frequent.” (Wagner et al. 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>One way out is to develop “semantic web” for E-governance. </li></ul>
  51. 51. Semantic Web for E-governance <ul><li>Challenge No. 10 </li></ul><ul><li>How to make use of semantic web in E-governance websites to improve the quality of the required government information? </li></ul>
  52. 52. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 11 <ul><li>X I E-governance and Wiki Technology </li></ul><ul><li> Wiki (from Hawaiian word wiki wiki , meaning fast) is “ a type of website that allows users to easily add, remove, or otherwise edit all content, very quickly and easily, sometimes without the need for registration.” (Source: Wikipedia) </li></ul><ul><li>This ease of interaction and operation makes a wiki an effective tool for collaborative writing . The term wiki can also refer to the collaborative software itself (wiki engine) that facilitates the operation of such a website.” (ibid.). </li></ul><ul><li> First wiki was established by Ward Cunningham more than a decade back on March 25, 1995. About 1,000 public wiki communities existed as of December 6, 2004 (Turnbull, Yim and Niemann 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>US Federal CIO Council’s Semantic Interoperability Community of Practice (SICoP) has a wiki. NASA’s WorldWind, an open source software for viewing satellite imagery, has a wiki. Any one can suggest code modification. </li></ul>
  53. 53. Wiki Technology for E-governance <ul><li>Challenge No. 11 </li></ul><ul><li>How to make use of wiki technology in E-governance if public sector is constrained by resources as it is? </li></ul>
  54. 54. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 12 <ul><li>XII E-governance and Monitoring Investments </li></ul><ul><li> 35% of E-governance projects in developing/transitional countries were total failures, 50% were partial failures and 15% were successes (Heeks 2003) </li></ul><ul><li> $23.5 million online university project in UK attracted only 900 students </li></ul><ul><li> Half of 200 pilot projects for online services in India works for a handful people </li></ul><ul><li> Abandoned $22 million e-voting project in Uganda did not work in Uganda when elections held in 2001 (Schware 2004) </li></ul><ul><li> $17 million shared medical systems (SMS) abandoned in mid-2000s in New Zealand and INCIS development in the New Zealand Police force at a direct cost of $100 million abandoned in 1999 (Gauld and Goldfinch 2006) </li></ul>
  55. 55. Monitoring E-governance Investments <ul><li>Challenge No. 12 </li></ul><ul><li>How to monitor investments in E-governance as serious problems of unproductive investments in E-governance have started surfacing? </li></ul>
  56. 56. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 13 <ul><li>E-governance and its Capture by Private IT Companies </li></ul><ul><li>Private sector technology vendors have started playing increasing role in e-governance </li></ul><ul><li>This raises important issues of cost and vendor lock-in , and </li></ul><ul><li>More important issues of security and privacy in private hands. </li></ul><ul><li>Popularly called public-private partnership (PPP), it has been resorted to due to three reasons: </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Absence of in-house expertise in government, </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Large size of projects, and </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Effective lobbying by private sector vendors for </li></ul><ul><li>public-private partnership (PPP). </li></ul>
  57. 57. Capture of Governments by Private IT Companies <ul><li>Challenge No. 13 </li></ul><ul><li>How to prevent capture of governments by private information technology (IT) companies and encourage competition so that it benefits all- the IT industry, governments and citizens? </li></ul>
  58. 58. Emerging E-governance Challenges-14 <ul><li>XIV E-governance and its Legal Enablement </li></ul><ul><li>Cyberspace is not unfettered space, it is a highly regulated space constraining the conduct of surfers </li></ul><ul><li>(i) Law : The terrestrial laws regulating the cyberspace, </li></ul><ul><li>(ii) Code : The software and hardware code which asks us to follow a pre-determined path; </li></ul><ul><li>Lessig (1999) calls the first code as East Coast Code , being dictated by the U.S. Congress in Washington, D.C., and the second as West Coast Code , being dictated by the Silicon Valley, </li></ul><ul><li>(iii) Norms : Self-imposed regulation of the conduct by the community, </li></ul><ul><li>(iv) Markets : Which are places of exchange of information. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite this mapping of cyberspace, there are many areas in e-governance which require legal enablement . </li></ul>
  59. 59. Legal Enablement of E-governance <ul><li>Challenge No. 14 </li></ul><ul><li>How to legally enable government-to-government (G2G) and government-to-citizen (G2C) e-governments despite problematic terrain of cyber law ? </li></ul>
  60. 60. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 15 <ul><li>XV E-governance and CRM and E-CRM </li></ul><ul><li> A dissatisfied customer is the norm and not an exception in public services. </li></ul><ul><li>Public grievance commissions (PGCs) set up in India provide delayed redressal of the grievances. </li></ul><ul><li>By October 2006, 113 citizens' charters , originally introduced in United Kingdom in 1991, stood formulated by central ministries /departments/ organisations in India (DARPG 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>Citizen’s charters appear to have been overtaken by recently legislated Right to Information (RTI) Act 2005 in India </li></ul>
  61. 61. CRM and E-CRM in E-governance <ul><li>Information and communication technologies (ICTs) have complicated and have not made any significant contribution to the solution of the largely intractable problem of efficient public service delivery. </li></ul><ul><li>The problems of privacy/security are yet to be resolved to the satisfaction of citizens and non-citizens. </li></ul><ul><li>Harris (2001)’s remark that there are snakes in the virtual garden is still true. </li></ul><ul><li>The interactive voice response system (IVRS) is not only time-consuming but often exhausts citizen’s patience </li></ul><ul><li>Telephone, and not the internet , is still the best friend of a citizen as far as public services are concerned even in developed countries (Newcombe 2005). </li></ul><ul><li>Proper customer relationship management (CRM) and/or electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) programmes are urgently required to secure the loyalty of citizens and non-citizens to E-governance. </li></ul>
  62. 62. CRM and E-CRM in E-governance <ul><li>Challenge No. 15 </li></ul><ul><li>How to put proper customer relationship management (CRM) and/or electronic customer relationship management (eCRM) programmes in place in E-governance in developing/ transitional economies? </li></ul>
  63. 63. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 16 <ul><li>XVI E-governance and Audit </li></ul><ul><li>Democratic governments world over have a provision of audit of public expenditure . </li></ul><ul><li>Such audit, which is ex post facto, is of two types- (i) performance audit , and (ii) financial audit . </li></ul><ul><li>Audit requirements have to be incorporated in e-governance projects. </li></ul><ul><li>Lessons must be learnt from audit reports </li></ul><ul><li>Risk factors should be taken into account while formulating e-governance projects </li></ul>
  64. 64. Meeting Audit Requirements in E-governance <ul><li>Challenge No. 16 </li></ul><ul><li>How to incorporate audit requirements , which are currently over-looked , in the e-governance management and learn lessons from audit reports ? </li></ul>
  65. 65. Revisiting Emerging E-governance Challenges - 17 <ul><li>XVII E-governance and Free and Open Source Software </li></ul><ul><li>(FOSS) and Hardware </li></ul><ul><li>The Cathedral and the Bazaar (Eric S. Raymond 2001) </li></ul><ul><li>Free (as in Freedom, not in Free Beer) (Richard Stallman 2002) </li></ul><ul><li>GNU/Linux / GNU General Public License (GPL)/ Copyleft (Free, modified work also free) </li></ul><ul><li>Creative Commons (CC) (different types) (All rights reserved to Some rights reserved) </li></ul><ul><li>Open Source Hardware </li></ul>
  66. 66. E-governance and Open Source <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Reuse (infrastructure from existing open source projects) </li></ul><ul><li>Auditability (Ensures functionality of what software promises to do) </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation (Ideas from different contributors) </li></ul><ul><li>Fewer bugs (More people discover bugs and fix them) </li></ul><ul><li>Security (Due to open code no backdoors or vulnerabilities) </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: www.opensourceconnections.com ) </li></ul>
  67. 67. E-governance and Open Source <ul><li>Challenge No. 17 </li></ul><ul><li>How to promote use of free and open source software (FOSS) and hardware in e-governance so that better software / hardware could be had and at lesser cost ? </li></ul>
  68. 68. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 18 <ul><li>XVIII. E-governance and Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Types of Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Grid Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Utility Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Autonomic Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Volunteer Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Cloud Computing </li></ul><ul><li>(Source: Wikipedia) </li></ul>
  69. 69. E-governance and Cloud Computing <ul><li>Very attractive proposition for governments with small and fixed budgets (Open Cloud?) </li></ul><ul><li>Data stored on third party servers </li></ul><ul><li>Risk to personal and official data </li></ul><ul><li>Issues of liability if some thing goes wrong (Economist 2008) </li></ul><ul><li>Ideally suited to the field of development </li></ul>
  70. 70. E-governance and Cloud Computing <ul><li>Challenge No. 18 </li></ul><ul><li>How to make use of cloud computing without compromising security of personal and official data ? </li></ul>
  71. 71. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 19 <ul><li>IXX Promoting Green Computing </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases : About 30, main ones being: CO 2, CH 4, CFCs and N 2 O, produced due to human activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Greenhouse gases are transparent to sunlight but absorb radiation thus causing global warming and climate change </li></ul><ul><li>Carbon footprint : Greenhouse gases expressed as equivalent to CO 2 (kgs or tones) </li></ul><ul><li>Earth’s temperature rose by 0.75 0 C during last 100 years. It is estimated to rise by 6 0 C during next 100 years. </li></ul>
  72. 72. Promoting Green Computing <ul><li>ICTs were believed to be “clean” but this belief has proved wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>Gartner estimates that global ICT usage accounts for approximately 2% of all global carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions. </li></ul><ul><li>This is equivalent to all CO 2 emissions caused by aviation. </li></ul><ul><li>CO 2 emissions result from the use of PCs, servers, cooling, fixed and mobile telephony, networks, office telecommunications and printers . </li></ul>
  73. 73. Promoting Green Computing <ul><li>The environment is also impacted by chemicals and waste from the disposal of equipment, polluting the soil with cadmium and mercury. </li></ul><ul><li>A server often only utilizes between 5 and 15 % of its capacity to service one application. </li></ul><ul><li>Switching computers off at night and on weekends, energy consumption can be reduced up to 75%. </li></ul><ul><li>If monitors are also switched off when not being used (including lunch times, etc), and the standby options are activated, energy consumption can even be reduced up to 90 % per year. (Source: http://greenercomputing.com ) </li></ul>
  74. 74. Promoting Green Computing <ul><li>Computers generate an estimated 35 million tons of the gas each year. </li></ul><ul><li>Each year 125 million computers are taken out of circulation worldwide and most of these end up in landfill sites. </li></ul><ul><li>70% of an average company's power consumption goes to IT. </li></ul><ul><li>The average PC consumes 600 kWh annually. Two thirds of that electricity is wasted because most PCs are running at full power when no user is present. (Source: http://www.green-ict.com /) </li></ul>
  75. 75. Green IT <ul><li>The holistic approach to environmentally friendly, sustainable governance and management of the organization (business and IT), its processes and projects. </li></ul>E IT Governance GREEN IT E-governance
  76. 76. Promoting Green IT <ul><li>Challenge No. 19 </li></ul><ul><li>How to promote Green Information Technology (IT) in E-governance to prevent global warming and climatic change ? </li></ul>
  77. 77. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 20 <ul><li>XX E-governance and Outsourcing </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between state and people is unique. </li></ul><ul><li>People have vested their power in the state. </li></ul><ul><li>The state cannot delegate this power to a third party under the labels of privatisation and outsourcing . </li></ul>
  78. 78. E-governance and Outsourcing <ul><li>When those powers are delegated to outsiders, the capacity to govern is undermined (Verkuil 2007) </li></ul><ul><li>A balance has to be exercised between private sector (what can be done by it) and the public sector (what has to be done by it) </li></ul><ul><li>It is not an either-or (private sector or public sector) situation. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot outsource sovereignty. Can you? </li></ul>
  79. 79. E-governance and Outsourcing <ul><li>Challenge No.20 </li></ul><ul><li>With increasing privatisation and outsourcing , how to strike a balance between private sector and public sector ? </li></ul>
  80. 80. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 21 <ul><li>XXI. E-governance and E-civil Service </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of E-civil Service , and </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence (AI) Civil Service are yet to be formally recognised </li></ul><ul><li>This is arresting speedier development of e-governance </li></ul><ul><li>There is urgent need to develop guiding principles for development of e-civil service (Misra 2008) </li></ul>
  81. 81. E-governance and E-civil Service <ul><li>Challenge No.21 </li></ul><ul><li>How to formally recognise and promote e-civil service to enable it to play a more active role in e-goverance? </li></ul>
  82. 82. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 22 <ul><li>XXII E-governance and Policy Space </li></ul><ul><li>E-government so far had a very successful (lucky?) policy run having been widely subscribed worldwide. </li></ul><ul><li>The party may, however, not last for ever . </li></ul><ul><li>Lowi (1972) developed a fourfold typology of public policies : (i) redistributive , (ii) distributive , (iii) regulatory , and (iv) constituent . </li></ul><ul><li>If results are not shown, and that too uickly, e-governance may loose support of policy makers </li></ul>
  83. 83. E-governance and Policy Space <ul><li>Challenge No. 22 </li></ul><ul><li>How to prevent degeneration of e-governance from non-partisan expert public policy space to partisan and controversial public policy space? </li></ul>
  84. 84. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 23 <ul><li>XXIII E-governance and Managerial Challenge </li></ul><ul><li>Gauld and Goldfinch (2006) propose four ‘pathological’ managerial enthusiasms : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Idolisation (public servants ‘idolise’ IT and see it as leading to great benefits), </li></ul><ul><li>2. Technophilia (More and better technology prevents or fixes problems), </li></ul><ul><li>3. Lomanism (Feigned or genuine belief of IT suppliers and sale staff in their company’s products), and </li></ul><ul><li>4. Managerial faddism (new management or structures bring benefits and prevent or fix problems). </li></ul>
  85. 85. Managerial Challenge in E-governance <ul><li>Challenge No. 23 </li></ul><ul><li>How to make e-government a managerial challenge and make managers face it competently by institutionalizing top management support ? </li></ul>
  86. 86. Emerging E-governance Challenges - 24 <ul><li>XXIV E-governance and Tech-Savvy Politicos </li></ul><ul><li>Some politicos have started making use of information technology (IT) in their political activities </li></ul><ul><li>Barrack Obama, for example, very successfully used information technology (IT) in his presidential campaign. </li></ul><ul><li>According to reports, on www.barackobama.com , more than 280,000 people created accounts, users created over 6,500 grassroots volunteer groups and organized more than 13,000 off-line events using the website and over 15,000 policy ideas were submitted through the website. </li></ul><ul><li>Obama has built a treasure trove of database of more than 10 million supporters. (Misra 2008) </li></ul>
  87. 87. E-governance and Tech-Savvy Politicos <ul><li>Challenge No. 24 </li></ul><ul><li>How to make use of experience of information technology (IT)-based political activities in e-governance ? </li></ul>
  88. 88. III A Summing Up How to Provide needed information on government websites 8 Anticipate emergence of new technology 4 Resolve the emerging paradox of knowledge glut and plummeting knowledge utilization? 7 Deliver public service efficiently 3 Set up management information system (MIS) in government 6 Steer our way as sovereign states in a leaderless world? 2 Use global and national league tables for policy formulation 5 Align e-governance to emerging mega trends 1
  89. 89. Emerging E-governance Challenges <ul><li>How to </li></ul>Incorporate audit requirements in e-governance projects 16 Monitor e-governance investments 12 Set up CRM and E-CRM for e-governance 15 Use wiki technology in e-governance 11 Legally enable G2G and G2C Transactions 14 Note use of semantic web for e-governance 10 Prevent capture of governments by private IT companies 13 Set up search on government websites 9
  90. 90. Emerging E-governance Challenges How to Make use of experience of online political activities in e-governance? 24 Formally recognise and promote e-civil service 20 Institutionalise support of policy makers to e-governance 23 Promote green information technology (IT) in e-governance 19 Prevent degeneration of e-governance to controversial public policy space? 22 Use cloud computing without compromising security 18 Strike a balance between private and public sectors in outsourcing? 21 Promote use of free and open source software (FOSS) in e-governance 17
  91. 91. Your questions now ? <ul><li>Thank you for your patience </li></ul><ul><li>Have A Nice Weekend! </li></ul><ul><li>Dr D.C.Misra, February 20, 2009 </li></ul>