Fifty of South Africa's large companies contributed a total of R140.76 billion in taxes (borne and collected) to the economy in the fiscal year ended 31 March 2010, shows PwC's fourth annual Total Tax Contribution (TTC) survey
eTransform Africa: ICTs in Public Services
Transformation-Ready: <br />The Strategic Application of ICTs in Africa<br />ICTs in Public Services<br />June 2011<br />1<br />
FRAMEWORK<br />TENETS OF SERVICE DELIVERY<br />5<br />
COUNTRY CASE STUDY- NAMIBIA<br />READINESS FOR E-GOVERNMENT IN NAMIBIA, 2011<br />
COUNTRY CASE STUDY- NAMIBIA<br />Policy Pronouncements<br />Ease of Acquiring/Sustaining Access<br />Basic Capability- Literacy<br />Incentives for Promotion of eGovernment<br />Status of ICT-Enabled Service Extension<br />ICT Literacy<br />POLICY CONTENT ACCESS CAPABILITY WILLINGNESS<br /><ul><li>Enhancing trust and confidence
Better orientation for BPR and customer-centricity
Sensitisation towards accountability and transparency
No clearly laid objectively verifiable M&E indicators
No dedicated CIOs </li></ul>THE PUBLIC PROCUREMENT BILL<br /><ul><li>Central Procurement Board to cater for all forms of procurement. Procurement Policy Office for directives for the operation of the public procurement system.
Bidder can challenge the procurement proceedings of a public body at any stage
Independent Review Panel to which appeals against decisions of a Chief Executive Officer may be brought. </li></ul>THE NATIONAL ICT STRATEGIC PLAN FOR MAURITIUS, 2007-2011<br /><ul><li>Consult and collaborate widely to design and implement eGovernment systems that aim at enhancing citizen convenience and improving internal efficiencies and effectiveness in the government
Deploy electronic systems and undertake key investments that make for a higher visibility of eGovernment in the daily lives of citizens
CAPAM Silver Award 2004</li></ul>To be addressed by Departments<br />ICT-enabled through e-Seva<br />10<br />
CASE STUDY-GHANA M-HEALTH<br />Mobile phones to increase the quantity and quality of prenatal and neonatal care in rural Ghana<br />Mobile Technology for Community Health (MOTECH) <br />“Mobile Midwife” application<br /><ul><li>Pregnant women/families receive SMS or voice messages that provide time-specific information about their pregnancy each week in their own language
Educational information</li></ul>Nurses’ Application<br /><ul><li>Community workers record and track the care delivered
Columbia University’s Mailman School of Public Health</li></ul>Funded<br />Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation<br />11<br />
CASE STUDY-GHANA M-HEALTH<br />Challenges and Lessons<br /><ul><li>Java-enabled handsets are more suited to poor network areas than SMS because forms can easily be saved on the phone and uploaded when connectivity is restored.
Security features such as user authentication schemes can be built into java forms, but are not possible with SMS. (sensitive patient information)
Leveraging java-enabled phones better facilitates the development of more sophisticated application
Allow for accidents and create broad accountability – Phones can get stolen or lost!
MOTECH was seen as a “project” by nurses; that is, instead of seeing MOTECH as an element of their normal responsibilities as an employee of Ghana Health Service, nurses regarded it as something extra brought to them by an external organization that would one day go away. </li></li></ul><li>FACEBOOK AND GOVERNANCE REFORMS<br />India<br /><ul><li>Anna Hazare’sfight against corruption has resorted to ICT to rally support among followers;
Facebook members increased from 500,000 to 1,200,000 in 2 days and 700,000 gave missed calls on a number</li></ul>Yemen<br /><ul><li>Contest between anti-government demonstrators and supporters of the Yemeni regime are not only taking place in the country's streets but also on the Internet; pro-government groups are aggressively attacking Facebook pages</li></ul>Singapore<br /><ul><li>Arrested blogger who posted anti-government notes on Facebook</li></ul>Morocco<br /><ul><li>Several Moroccan youth movements announced on Facebook that they were planning to organize an Egypt-style anti-government protest Feb 20
King Mohammed VI announced a series of constitutional reforms, to be put to a national referendum. The proposal would empower the prime minister with authority to appoint government officials and to dissolve parliament.</li></ul>Philippines<br /><ul><li>Recently passed a policy that regulates use of Twitter and Facebook in government officesfor productivity
Government has been doing online campaigns like launching its own Twitter account and establishing its own website to reach out to its citizens via social media.</li></ul>Greece<br /><ul><li>Death of a student, at the hands of the police degenerated into nation-wide violent protests owing to citizens spreading unsubstantiated accusations of police brutality on social networking sites. </li></ul>13<br />
E-Participation Case Studies<br />ANALYSIS OF E-PARTICIPATION INITIATIVES<br />a<br />a<br />X<br />X<br />X<br />INFORMATION<br />VOLUNTEERING<br />MONITORING<br />REPRESENTATION<br />CONSULTATION<br />PROBLEMS<br /><ul><li>Structure of the web portals does not encourage open involvement of citizens in the process of drafting policies, especially in decision-making.
Impact of the contributions and opinions on political decisions is limited. The low rate of information feedback reduces the use of these interfaces; the emails sent via the correspondence interfaces are too often left unanswered.
Civil society stakeholders face difficulties in their efforts to promote citizen participation in governance through ICTs. Many interesting initiatives experience occasional or frequent interruptions, due to the lack of financial resources.
Literacy rates are still very low, and it is even more difficult to have access to these tools, since content is usually only available in Western languages.
Digital culture is not yet developed. As in Burkina Faso, for example, there is resistance to e-administration, which is still seen as rather unreliable.</li></ul>16<br />
Philippines Case Study- SMS Usage<br />Citizen Feedback<br />Information Dissemination<br />Service Delivery<br /><ul><li>TXTGMA - receives everything related to govt. and is meant for Filipinos to bring their concerns directly to the President.
TXTCSC- developed for the Civil Service Commission to provide people transacting with any govt. agency a tool to instantaneously, at anytime, anywhere
NAMFREL– Election related Service , an SMS-based system for a quick-count
Members of the government pension fund (GSIS) can send and receive text messages from the GSIS on their loan queries
SMS for some health services</li></ul>GiveMeUnlimited – allows the user to send bulk SMS/text messages to mobile users via computers and the internet and <br />important for services that require quick dissemination of information to a large number of people like in case of emergencies etc.<br />Other Case Studies include<br /><ul><li>South African Police Service
Common Measurements Tool from the Government of Canada
Patient Opinion by National Health Service, UK
Complaints and Grievance Redressal by BSNL, India</li></li></ul><li>BEST PRACTICES/RECOMMENDATIONS<br />FRONT OFFICE RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Attractive front office capable of providing responses to a full range of enquiries
Adopt locational specificity in the design of front offices
Exploit mobile phones as a media for offering services
Respect citizens’ need for anonymity when they share data
Simple and easy means to unsubscribe from services</li></ul>EXTERNAL COMMUNICATIONS RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Identify and align citizen expectations to service targets
Segregated, easy to locate information through a portal
Extend informational guidance on real-life events
Address grievance redressal by resolving repetitive grievance in open sessions in bulk</li></ul>SERVICE DELIVERY RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Internalise and publish core service standards linked to departmental plans
Define service delivery parameters objectively/measurably and take citizen feedback Develop multi-channel interfaces for citizen to offer feedback on service delivery
Operationalise a “May I Help You” counter to offer unclassified services
Build trust and confidence of citizen and assure them of privacy of what they share
Have a dedicated group to look at grievance redressal or complaint resolution
Adopt checks and balances to minimise spurious cases; complete transparency Ensure confidentiality and penalise breaches of privacy</li></ul>18<br />
BEST PRACTICES/RECOMMENDATIONS<br />PROCESS REFORM RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Free officials from non-core activities.
Follow and publish standardised processes across all locations
Customer segmentation to craft specific responses to citizen problems
Record and segregate progress of all complaints- associate response timeframes
Uniquely identify every complaint</li></ul>ORGANISATIONAL CAPABILITY RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Link officials’ performance appraisal to service delivery
Link successful completion of service delivery training to professional milestones
Familiarisation exercise must accompany technology development activities
Capacity building for technology, customer service and domain knowledge </li></ul>TECHNOLOGY ENABLEMENT RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>THINK BIG, START SMALL AND SCALE FAST
Have seamless continuity of data across all locations
Deploy redundancy of channels through which to communicate
Have status tracking facility for different services over the web and the mobile
Adopt multi-channel delivery for resolution of complaints
Log all complaints into a database</li></ul>19<br />
BEST PRACTICES/RECOMMENDATIONS<br />MONITORING & EVALUATION RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Continually monitor progress towards realising service delivery targets
Have dedicated institutional structures for monitoring/ evaluation </li></ul>LEGAL CHANGE RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Effect changes in law that are commensurate with process reform changes</li></ul>POLICY AND INSTITUTIONAL FOCUS RECOMMENDATIONS<br /><ul><li>Impart a policy level focus for citizen service delivery
Institutionalise a service delivery improvement team for focussed attention
Invoke top level participation for service delivery reform recommendations
Ensure top level political and executive commitment
Downlink policies to strategies and actionable programmes and projects</li></ul>20<br />
ANGOLA<br />GHANA<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>ICT for Accelerated Development (ICT4AD) – A policy represents the vision of Ghana in the information age and addresses 14 priority focus areas including many sectors of public service delivery .
The Ghana Single Window (GCNet)-A Public Private Joint Venture Company was formed in 2000 to manage the deployment of the first live customs declaration. The GCNet consists of two complementary systems, the TRADENET and THE GHANA CUSTOMS MANAGEMENT SYSTEM(GCMS)
“Mobile Midwife” application - Pregnant women and their families receives regular SMS or voice messages regarding the time-specific information about their pregnancy in their own language.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>ANGONET - A computer communication service provided by Development Workshop (DW). This initiative is for the organisations and individuals working for social and economic development and humanitarian assistance programs in Angola.
Government Portal Project - The main objective is to bring all governmental public information and services under the same platform and to make them available to citizens via the internet. The system includes 157 public services online and provides information on 31 governmental programs.</li></ul>21<br />
BOTSWANA<br />EGYPT<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>KitsongCenters - The Rural Telecommunications Programme targets provision of essential infrastructure services in rural areas like Internet , telephones, and Community Access Centers (CAC).
Community User Information System (CUIS) - To develop a computer network system to provide e-mail and on-line information in rural areas .
Nteletsa- The Universal Access Project - setting up of telecommunications services to 150 villages.
National ID System -Automatic Fingerprint Identification System (AFIS), security features including Watermarks and Serial Numbers,in future it will probably be tied to payment and passport production systems.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>Free Internet and Broadband- A joint effort of MCIT and Telecom Egypt. The initiative offers subscription-free Internet services to users via dial-up to special-prefix numbers
PCs for Community– Evolved from the PC for Every Home project to increase PC usage and to attain the level of penetration to reach one PC per every three families.
The iEARN Project - The International Education and Resource Network (iEARN) is a non-profit organization with over 15,000 member schools in over 100 countries. Children and young adults are collaborating on school assignments using the Internet and other communication technologies.. </li></ul>22<br />
ETHIOPIA<br />KENYA<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>M-Pesa- Kenya is the first country in the world to use mobile phones for cash-transfers through a service called M-Pesa developed by Safaricom Limited.
Ushahidi and Swift River: Crowdsourcing innovations
Ushahidi - To help citizen and journalists to gather reports of violence in the contested election.
Enter Swift River - To use machine algorithms and crowdsourcing to verify incoming stream of information.
Rural telecentres- Updated content on weather forecasts and relevant commodity prices on markets.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>WoredaNetInitiative- WoredaNet is a terrestrial and satellite-based network designed with the objective to provide ICT services such as video conferencing, directory, messaging and VoIP and Internet connectivity to the Federal, Regional and Woreda level government entities.
Court Services - Court services like hearing has been provided through Video Conferencing.
Ethiopic Standards Development and Dissemination Program Development – it’s a Government of Ethiopia and UNESCO-supported initiative and developed a standard keyboard layout and has provided standard terminology of computer words in Amharic. </li></ul>23<br />
SUDAN<br />SENEGAL<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>Senegal’s Trade Facilitation Solution (ORBUS)- The ORBUS System has been powered to facilitate foreign trade formalities through electronic exchanges among different stakeholders. Built on a technological infrastructure and a set of services, ORBUS has led to a significant reduction of the pre-clearance time and formalities-related costs, an improved quality of the service offered to clients, and the almost elimination of paperwork.
National de Bonne Gouvernance- The Programme National de Bonne Gouvernance (National Program for Good Governance) identified ICT as a valuable instrument for improving productivity in public service, enhanced performance, and modern communication.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>Multi-Purpose Community Learning Centers (MCLCs)- MCLCs are local centers that provide lifelong learning opportunities to empower local communities in villages, slums, and poor urban areas.
E-HEALTH- The work in e-Health in Sudanese hospitals is restricted to database programs for current patients; however there are a number of plans to computerize work in hospitals and to apply remote medication or e- Health via video conferencing.
E-EMPLOYMENT- IT and the Internet have been used at a very large scale in advertisement and receiving employment applications. There are also sites specialized in e-Employment like sudanjob.net.</li></ul>24<br />
SOMALIA<br />RWANDA<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>Rwanda TRACnet - HIV/AIDS Solution- TRACnet is Rwanda's dynamic Information Technology solution designed to collect, store, retrieve, and disseminate critical program, drug, and patient information related to HIV/AIDS care and treatment.
e-Sokoportal – A part of the e-Rwanda initiative . It is a World Bank funded ICT project being implemented by RITA (Rwanda Information Technology Authority) and is intended to mitigate against current information gap for farmers with the use of ICTs.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>Kubere Information Centre (KIC) - A multi-dimensional information centre offering Agricultural information. The main objective of this centre is to enhance and improve access to agricultural information to and from rural women farmers using a variety of information and communication technologies (ICTs).
ePassport & National ID Card Project-ePassports have a micro-processor chip embedded into the passport book where the bearer’s bio data and biometrics (photo & fingerprint) are stored – these can be verified at any border control with the necessary ePassport readers.</li></ul>25<br />
MOROCCO<br />TANZANIA<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>Internet in rural Morocco - Although the main focus is on women, the effects of ICTs will be considered for both sexes. This initiative provides Morocco woman information on agriculture farming and market prices.
Marwan Project- Morocco Wide Area Network was launched in 1997 and activated in 2002. Its main objective is to ensure low-cost access to the Internet for Moroccan universities, to establish a network hosted within universities and administrated by dedicated staff, and to provide a scalable architecture and large bandwidth.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>ICT4RD - Provides ICT access to the rural Tanzania through unutilized infrastructures. It is built around three key pillars of Technology, Entrepreneurship and Usage.
E-Money and M-Banking (as in 2010)- In 2010 there were two E-money schemes in Tanzania, namely, TemboCard and FedhaCard, as per which customers are able to receive information such as salary alerts and account balances through their mobile phones. Mobile payment services are offered by major mobile phone companies whereby their customers are able to send, spend and receive money without having a bank account.</li></ul>26<br />
UGANDA<br />ZAMBIA<br />Initiatives<br /><ul><li>The Women of Uganda Network (WOUGNET) - Aplace to share news, information and activities on female-related issues in Uganda. WOUGNET’s goal is to promote the use of ICTs by women’s organizations and individuals for the better being of Ugandan women.
I-Network Uganda- It is a national network of individuals and organizations that act as a platform for sharing knowledge and information on applying ICTs. One of its programmes, DistrictNet, focuses on providing public information using ICTs.</li></ul>Initiatives<br /><ul><li>The Chipata District Women’s - The association provides support to women in learning new skills, improving their capacity to earn more income and live healthier lives.
SMS Information Service- a cross‐border SMS market information service that provides farmers and traders in Zambia and the Katanga province of the Congo with daily information on stock availability, market prices and sales trends that is also supported by its website.
eBrain Forum- eBrainis a non-profit, membership-based organization that promotes ICTs for development in Zambia. Its main objective is to develop a common knowledge sharing Community on the use of ICT to foster social and economic development. </li></ul>27<br />
GUIDELINES FOR DONORS <br />CHECKLIST FOR DONORS<br /><ul><li>Involve communities as stakeholders not beneficiaries
A robust ICT infrastructure with redundancy is a must
Empower communities through development of core skills
Ensure the right partnerships are in place before taking initiatives forward
Use existing infrastructure wherever possible to cushion cost pressures
Identify skills conducive for remote ICT-enabled training delivery
Relentlessly explore revenue streams to ensure sustainability
Select the problem that impacts the greatest number of people
Collaboration with government initiative improves scalability/ sustainability
Large NGO's offer an opportunity to scale up geographically
Content at community and software production at educational institutes
Explore collaboration with training certifying bodies for better acceptability
Strong Financial Incentives for the Service Provider
Exit Strategies should be in place</li></ul>28<br />
DEEP DIVE: INITIAL FINDINGS<br />INTEGRATED FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEM (IFMIS) MALAWI<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Malawi was one of the 1st Africa governments to develop a draft ICT charter but 1 of the last governments to benefit from an ICT policy
Initial implementation was unsuccessful and abandoned
In 2005 the Epicor based IFMIS was implemented
The objective of implementation – improve & strengthen public expenditure management and fiscal discipline
Online access available to Ministries & Departments forming part of Government Wide Area Network (GWAN)
Accountant General’s office manage all accounting transactions for departments not forming part of GWAN
Solution piloted in the departments of Health and Education and subsequently rolled out to all other departments based in Capital Hill </li></ul>Approach<br /><ul><li>Phased approach followed with new modules continue to be implemented
Key modules in the pipeline: Sector Wide Approach (SWAP) – Donor Funds to make use of Government systems for financial management/reporting purposes.</li></ul>29<br />
DEEP DIVE: INITIAL FINDINGS<br />IMPACT OF IFMIS <br /><ul><li>Replaces a manual system with an automated system
Historic processing of payment vouchers now replaced with a budgeting system and processing
Each ministry and in some instances departments had their own bank account creating serious reconciliation issues
The consolidation of government bank accounts reduced effort and time required for reconciliations
“Active Planner” the budgeting system integrates with IFMIS assisting with the budgeting process improving the consistency of data used.
The Central Payment System - improved control, prevent overspending, reduced the number of accounts with the Reserve Bank</li></ul>LESSONS LEARNED<br /><ul><li>Championship is key for success – The Accountant General’s ownership was key to the success and progress achieved with IFMIS
Have a clear strategy and understanding of what you want to achieve with the system
Important to have users part of the implementation/development team
Training is key for the effective use of the system – not all users of the system have been trained adequately to date as a training of the trainer approach have been followed due to costliness of the training (only provided in Tanzania)
Connectivity an issue – it would be useful to use the system both on and offline</li></ul>30<br />
DEEP DIVE: INITIAL FINDINGS<br />E-FILING – SOUTH AFRICA REVENUE SERVICES: SOUTH AFRICA<br />Background<br /><ul><li>Strong drive to harmonize tax policies in Africa
Direct relation to development efforts in Africa’s poorest countries and ability to collect tax
Sub-Saharan Africa’s tax- to-gross domestic product ratio is less than half that of the European Union’s
SARS introduced eFiling in execution of their modernisation strategy
eFiling initial introduced for companies’ submissions of VAT & PAYE
In 2007 eFiling introduced for individual’s tax submissions
Latest addition to SARS’s suite of ICT solution – Tatus: Customs Modernisation system </li></ul>Key stakeholders/users of the system<br /><ul><li>Individual tax payers
DEEP DIVE: INITIAL FINDINGS<br />IMPACT OF E-FILING<br /><ul><li>Stakeholders affected differently
Initial findings indicate the system to be most beneficial to individual tax payers with small business the least positive about the system
Lack of skill by call centre operators are highlighted as one of the biggest challenges in the use of the system</li></ul>FEEDBACK FROM TAX PROFESIONALS<br /><ul><li>E-filing has revolutionisedthe tax return process
Tax returns are in most instances pre-populated making it easy for taxpayers to complete and submit their returns
The system is easy to use, provides access to statement of accounts - objections & amendments to returns can now be submitted electronically
An audit trail of submissions is available where previously manual submissions were often misplaced or lost
The average turn around time for the processing return has reduced drastically
Electronic submissions allow more time for submission that manual returns
The reduction in manual intervention by SARS’ employees that lack sufficient skill to process returns are welcomed
Software used by practitioners, such as CQS, allow for batch submissions of provisional returns
VAT certificates is now easily obtained and the system also allows for amendments to bank account details
SARS’s open dialogue with tax professionals to ensure the system functions well and systems enhancements are implemented where possible is positive
Audits are more frequent and conclusion of the audit process lengthier than with manual submission process.</li></ul>NEXT STEPS<br /><ul><li>Meetings with key people in SARS as well as ex –CIO, Ken Jarvis, who was closely involved with the development and implementation of e-filing
Additional interviews with Small Business owners, Business/Corporate users of e-filing
Analysis of surveys recently completed on eFiling</li></ul>32<br />