Ch 3 matter properties and changes

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Ch 3 matter properties and changes

  1. 1. Chapter 3: Matter—Properties and Changes Section 3.1 Properties of Matter
  2. 2. What is matter? <ul><li>Anything that has mass and takes up space </li></ul><ul><li>Mass is a measurement of the amount of matter in an object. It is different than weight which measures the amount of matter AND the gravitational pull on an object. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Now that you’re an expert, which of the following is matter? <ul><li>A book </li></ul><ul><li>A house </li></ul><ul><li>A thought </li></ul><ul><li>Your brain </li></ul><ul><li>Light </li></ul><ul><li>Your cell phone </li></ul><ul><li>Radio waves </li></ul>Matter Not Matter                 
  4. 4. There is so many different kinds of matter, that we need to organize it. <ul><li>Substances have a uniform and unchanging composition </li></ul><ul><li>examples: salt, </li></ul><ul><li>water, </li></ul><ul><li>sugar </li></ul>
  5. 5. Physical Properties of Matter <ul><li>A characteristic that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of the sample </li></ul><ul><li>Properties such as density, color, odor, taste, hardness, melting point, boiling point </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Extensive: dependent on the amount of substance present </li></ul><ul><li>--length, volume </li></ul><ul><li>Intensive: independent of the amount of substance present </li></ul><ul><li>--density, melting point, boiling point </li></ul><ul><li>--used to identify substances </li></ul>Physical Properties of Matter: Two Types
  7. 7. Chemical Properties <ul><li>Ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more other substances </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Conducts electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Malleable </li></ul><ul><li>Ductile </li></ul><ul><li>Reddish brown </li></ul><ul><li>Shiny </li></ul><ul><li>Density = 8.92 g/cm 3 </li></ul><ul><li>Melting pt = 1085  C </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling pt = 2570  C </li></ul><ul><li>Forms dark blue solution with ammonia </li></ul><ul><li>Forms green compound when exposed to air </li></ul>Physical Chemical Properties Properties
  9. 9. Classify each as a physical or chemical property: <ul><li>Iron and oxygen form rust. </li></ul><ul><li>Iron is more dense than aluminum </li></ul><ul><li>Magnesium burns brightly when ignited. </li></ul><ul><li>Oil and water do not mix. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury melts at -39 °C. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Classification based upon the following: </li></ul><ul><li>Particle arrangement </li></ul><ul><li>Energy of particles </li></ul><ul><li>Distance between particles </li></ul><ul><li>State of matter is dependent on temperature and pressure of the surroundings </li></ul>States of Matter
  11. 11. 3 states of matter
  12. 12. States of Matter <ul><li>Solid —has a definite shape and volume </li></ul><ul><li>exs: wood, desk, shoes, sugar </li></ul><ul><li>-particles are tightly packed, incompressible </li></ul>
  13. 13. States of Matter <ul><li>Liquids —have a constant volume, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>-no definite shape </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-takes the shape of its container </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>-particles are not held rigidly in place, allows material to flow </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Gases —have no definite shape or volume </li></ul><ul><li>-particles are very far apart </li></ul><ul><li>-particles are easily compressed </li></ul>States of Matter
  15. 15. Section 3.2 Changes in Matter
  16. 16. Physical Change <ul><li>Changes in a substance’s appearance, not in composition </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Types of physical changes: </li></ul><ul><li>Bend, grind, crumple </li></ul><ul><li>Split, crush, twist </li></ul><ul><li>Boil, freeze, melt, vaporize </li></ul><ul><li>(changes of state or phase) </li></ul>
  18. 18. Chemical Changes <ul><li>A change in the composition of a substance </li></ul><ul><li>Also called a chemical change or chemical reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: rust, corrode, tarnish, rot, burn, ferment, explode, oxidize </li></ul>
  19. 19. becomes becomes The substance has changed.
  20. 20. Evidence of Chemical Change 1. Color change 2. Energy change: absorbed or released
  21. 21. 3. Odor changes or production 4. Gas production 5. Precipitate formation
  22. 22. Classify each as a physical or chemical change: <ul><li>A dead fish rotting </li></ul><ul><li>Dissolving salt in water </li></ul><ul><li>Boiling salt water until only salt remains </li></ul><ul><li>Melting steel </li></ul><ul><li>Bending steel </li></ul><ul><li>Cracking ice </li></ul>
  23. 23. Law of Conservation of Mass <ul><li>Mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction—it is conserved. (Antoine Lavoisier) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Mass of reactants = Mass of products </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>Antoine Lavoisier—a French scientist </li></ul><ul><li>1743-1794 </li></ul><ul><li>Father of Modern Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>One of the first to use an analytical balance </li></ul>
  25. 25. When you burn a big pile of wood, why do you only end up with a tiny pile of ashes?
  26. 26. In an experiment, 10.00 g of red mercury (II) oxide powder is placed in an open flask and heated until it is converted to liquid mercury and oxygen gas. The liquid mercury has a mass of 9.26 g. What is the mass of oxygen formed in the reaction?
  27. 27. Practice problems—pg. 65 #6, 7, 9 To collect ---- pg 83 #63,64,65
  28. 28. Section 3.3 Mixtures of Matter
  29. 29. Mixtures <ul><li>A combination of 2 or more pure substances in which each pure substance retains its individual chemical properties. </li></ul>
  30. 30. Types of Mixtures <ul><li>1. Heterogeneous—individual substances remain distinct </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>Homogeneous—has a constant composition throughout </li></ul><ul><li>-called a solution </li></ul>Types of Mixtures
  32. 32. Types of Solutions <ul><li>Gas-gas: air </li></ul><ul><li>Gas-liquid: soft drinks </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid-gas: moist air </li></ul><ul><li>Liquid-liquid: vinegar </li></ul><ul><li>Solid-liquid: Crystal Light </li></ul><ul><li>Solid-solid: steel (called “alloys”—mixture of metals producing greater strength) </li></ul>
  33. 33. Separating Mixtures <ul><li>1. Physical separation: hand selection or pouring through sieves </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>2. Filtration—uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid </li></ul>Separating Mixtures
  35. 35. <ul><li>3. Distillation—based on differences in the boiling points of the substances involved </li></ul>Separating Mixtures
  36. 36. <ul><li>4. Crystallization—results in the formation of pure solid particles of a substance from a solution containing the dissolved substance </li></ul>Separating Mixtures
  37. 37. <ul><li>5. Chromatography—separating the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each to travel across the surface of another material. </li></ul>Separating Mixtures
  38. 38. Section 3.4 Elements and compounds
  39. 39. Elements <ul><li>A pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means </li></ul><ul><li>91 naturally occurring elements </li></ul><ul><li>In mid 1800’s, no chart for organizing the elements that were known at the time </li></ul>
  40. 40. Dmitri Mendeleev--1869 -Organized the known elements into a table of rows and columns based on their similarities and masses.
  41. 41. Periodic table <ul><li>Organized into horizontal rows called periods and vertical columns called families </li></ul><ul><li>Called “periodic” because properties of elements repeat as you move from period to period </li></ul><ul><li>Mendeleev’s table left blank spaces for elements yet to be discovered and predicted their properties </li></ul>
  42. 42. Compounds <ul><li>A combination of 2 or more different elements that are combined chemically </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the matter in the universe are compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: water, sugar, salt, aspirin </li></ul>
  43. 43. Dirt, blood, milk Lemonade, gasoline, steel Oxygen, gold, iron Salt, baking soda, sugar Matter Mixtures Pure substances Heterogeneous Mixtures Homogeneous Mixtures Elements Compounds
  44. 44. Chemical symbols <ul><li>Make it easy to write the formulas for chemical compounds </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: salt water </li></ul><ul><li>NaCl </li></ul><ul><li> H 2 O </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means </li></ul><ul><li>Usually requires energy </li></ul>Compounds
  46. 46. <ul><li>Properties of a compound are different from its component elements </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: water—liquid at </li></ul><ul><li>room temp. </li></ul>Compounds Hydrogen—a colorless, tasteless gas Oxygen—a colorless, tasteless gas
  47. 47. Sodium chloride <ul><li>As a compound, it is a white, unreactive solid that adds flavor to food </li></ul><ul><li>Its component elements: </li></ul>Chlorine—poisonous, pale, green gas Sodium—a highly reactive element that fizzes in water
  48. 48. Law of Definite Proportions <ul><li>John Dalton </li></ul><ul><li>A pure substance will always have the same percent by weight </li></ul><ul><li>Ex: water (H 2 O) = 11.2 % hydrogen </li></ul><ul><li>88.8% oxygen </li></ul>
  49. 49. To find percent by mass: <ul><li>Percent by mass = mass of element x 100 </li></ul><ul><li> mass of compound </li></ul>
  50. 50. Analysis of sugar: 20.0 g sugar 500.0 g sugar Carbon 8.44 g 42.2% Hydrogen 1.30 g 6.5% Oxygen 10.26 g 51.30% Carbon 211.0 g 42.2% Hydrogen 32.5 g 6.5% Oxygen 256.5 g 51.30%
  51. 51. Therefore… <ul><li>Sugar always has the same proportions of ingredients </li></ul><ul><li>If a substance has different proportions, it is a different substance </li></ul>
  52. 52. A 78.8 g sample of an unknown compound contains 12.4 g of hydrogen. What is the percent by mass of hydrogen in the compound? <ul><li>Percent by mass = mass of element x 100 </li></ul><ul><li> mass of compound </li></ul>
  53. 53. Practice problems—pg. 76 #21-24 To Collect Pg 77 #s25-30
  54. 54. Law of Multiple Proportions <ul><li>When different compounds are formed using the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same relative mass of the other element in small, whole number ratios. </li></ul>
  55. 55. Carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide O= C= O= C= 1 1 2 1 CO CO 2
  56. 56. Copper (I) chloride Copper (II) chloride

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