William wallace
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William wallace

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William wallace William wallace Presentation Transcript

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  • Early Life
    • Not much is known about William Wallace’s early life. It is estimated that that he was born around 1272 AD.
    • Much of what we do know about him was recorded by a 15 th century knight, Henry the Mistral and through other poems and oral tradition.
    • We know that Wallace would grow to be a very brave, intelligent, very tall and striking young man.
  • The Loss of a Kingdom
    • At the time of Wallace’s birth, King Alexander III ruled Scotland.
    • Under Alexander, Scotland was at relative peace and he maintained a positive relationship with England.
    • In 1286, King Alexander fell from his horse and died from his injuries.
    • He had no heirs.
  • The English Rule
    • At the time of Alexander’s death, Edward I was king of England.
    • Edward was nicknamed “Longshanks” due to his long legs and being abnormally tall.
    • Upon the death of Alexander, Scottish nobles turned to Longshanks to help decide who the rightful heir should be.
    • Longshanks chose John Balloil over Robert Bruce as the new heir to the Scottish thrown.
    Edward I “Longshanks”
  • The English Rule
    • Despite choosing the new heir, Longshanks had a greater agenda in mind and wanted the Scottish kingdom for himself.
    • He used John I of Scotland as a mere puppet.
    • Longshanks made sure all Scottish castles were under English control and most positions of power in Scotland were held by English officials.
    • Longshanks also convinced many Scottish nobles to swear allegiance to him, including Robert Bruce.
    Robert Bruce
  • The English Rule
    • Those who would oppose Longshanks were murdered, including William Wallace’s father.
    • It was also said that Longshanks enacted jus prima noctis (Latin for first night ). This law stated that all women had to “spend the night” with the lord of the land on their wedding night. This practice was done in hopes to “breed” the Scots out.
    • King John of Scotland was angered by the treatment of his people and rebelled; however, he was captured after the Battle of Dunbar in 1296 and Scotland was once again without a king.
  • Wallace’s Revenge
    • Already angered by his father’s death at the hand of the English, Wallace faced another tragedy.
    • The woman Wallace had recently married was murdered by the English sheriff of Lanark.
    • Motivated by revenge and hatred for the English, Wallace led a small uprising and killed the sheriff.
    • From here on out, William Wallace is an infamous historical figure.
  • A Scottish Revolution
    • Wallace would then lead a small band of followers and attack many English outposts.
    • He wanted a free Scotland.
    • As these attacks increased, so did the hate for the English and the support for William Wallace grew.
  • Weapon of Choice
    • William Wallace’s weapon of choice was the claymore (Gaelic for big sword ).
    • As long as 4 ½ to 5 ft in length.
    • Was used to behead people.
    • Aside from its razor sharp edges, it could crush bone, even through chainmail or armor.
    • The sword could easily “de-horse” a rider.
  • Face Paint?
    • It is a widely accepted historical fact that woad (the blue face-paint Wallace and his men wear during the battle scenes of Braveheart ) was not used by Scottish warriors during the 13th century, but was in fact used much earlier by ancient Celtic warriors during Roman times, and was obsolete by the time of Wallace's rebellion.
  • The Battle of Sterling Bridge
    • By 1297, Wallace and his followers had captured most of northern Scotland.
    • Wanting to put down the resistance, Longshanks sent an army of 50,000 men to Sterling.
    • The Scottish forces, led by Wallace, were largely outnumbered.
    • Wallace waited till the large army started to cross the small bridge towards the castle before he attacked.
    • The narrowness of the bridge allowed for Wallace and his small band to successfully defend Sterling and defeat the large English army.
  • The Battle of Sterling Bridge
  • The Guardian of Scotland
    • After the defeat of the English army at Sterling, William Wallace was knighted and proclaimed “Guardian of Scotland”.
  • The Battle of Falkirk
    • William Wallace was not so lucky the following year (1298).
    • Wallace would suffer a great defeat at the Battle of Falkirk.
    • The defeat could be attributed to the lack of support Wallace had from other Scottish nobles.
    • It is said that many of the nobles were jealous of his success and growing power.
    • Wallace managed to escape with his life, but his reputation and legend suffered greatly.
  • The Capture of Wallace
    • In 1305, Wallace arranged a meeting with Robert Bruce in Glasgow.
    • Traitorous Scottish knights ; however, passed along his whereabouts and Wallace was captured by the English.
  • The Trial
    • Wallace was taken to England where he was tried for treason.
    • Wallace’s response to the charges was, “I could not be a traitor to Edward, for I was never his subject.”
    • He was found guilty.
    • He was then paraded around in chains in front of English crowds.
  • The Execution
    • William Wallace suffered a terrible execution.
    • First, he was stripped naked and dragged through the city by a horse.
    • He was then strangled by hanging but released whilst he was still alive, (hung).
    • Next, he was pulled and stretched by the limbs, (drawn).
    • After that, he was emasculated, eviscerated and his bowels burnt before him.
    • He was then beheaded and cut into four parts, (quartered).
    • His head was stuck on a pike upon the London Bridge for all to see and his limbs were separately sent to other towns in the four corners of England.
  • Hung, Drawn and Quartered
  • The Legacy
    • Wallace’s death was meant to be a warning against those who dared oppose the English.
    • However; his bravery only rallied the Scottish and inspired Scottish nationalism.
    • Under the lead of Robert Bruce; who became king of the Scots in 1306, the Scottish would defeat the English in the Battle of Banockburn in 1314.
    • The English finally recognized Scottish independence in the Treaty of Northhampton signed in 1328.