Belfast Blitz 1941


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Belfast Blitz 1941

  1. 1. Belfast Blitz 1941 <ul><li>Leaving Cert History </li></ul><ul><li>Case Study </li></ul><ul><li>Sovereignty and Partition 1912-1949 </li></ul>
  2. 2. Belfast Blitz 1941 <ul><li>N. Ireland during World War 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Industry </li></ul><ul><li>Strategic Importance </li></ul><ul><li>Belfast Blitz - Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Events of the Blitz 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Results of Blitz </li></ul><ul><li>Partition Consolidated </li></ul><ul><li>1945 British General Election </li></ul>
  3. 3. N. Ireland during World War 2 <ul><li>Unionists happy to be able to show loyalty </li></ul><ul><li>Turned to shock at Churchill’s offer of unity </li></ul><ul><li>The government of NI were old and did little to prepare </li></ul><ul><li>Conscription not extended to NI </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists joined up as there were no jobs </li></ul><ul><li>700 IRA interned - IRA killed 5 RUC </li></ul><ul><li>1940 100,000 British troops stationed in NI in case of a German invasion </li></ul><ul><li>Rationing & Blackout </li></ul><ul><li>James Craig died in 1940 – replaced by JM Andrews – nothing changed </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Harland and Wolfe shipyard produced 140 warships </li></ul><ul><li>Short’s built 1200 Stirling bombers </li></ul><ul><li>Linen industry boomed </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of engineering parts supplied from Northern Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>  </li></ul><ul><li>Agriculture did well </li></ul>Industry
  5. 5. <ul><li>Germans controlled the sea, south of Ireland, so the northern route to the US important </li></ul><ul><li>A naval and air base in Derry patrolled for German U-boats </li></ul><ul><li>After 1941 Americans were based in NI to prepare for the North African campaign </li></ul><ul><li>250,000 arrived for D-Day </li></ul><ul><li>The German U-boat fleet were made surrender in Derry in recognition of it’s role in the war </li></ul>Strategic Importance
  6. 6. Events of the Blitz 1941 <ul><li>7 th and 8 th of April 1941 </li></ul><ul><li>Harbour area hit </li></ul><ul><li>13 killed and not much damage </li></ul><ul><li>Only 3000 responded to government calls for evacuation </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>15 th and 16 th April </li></ul><ul><li>90 Junkers and Heinkels came in waves. </li></ul><ul><li>Flares dropped first. Then high explosives, incendiaries and parachute mines </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke screens in the docklands led to the Germans missing their targets and hitting working class areas such as New Lodge, Lower Shankill and Antrim Road </li></ul><ul><li>30 died when a parachute bomb hi t an air raid shelter </li></ul><ul><li>At least 900 died. Many not identified </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt made to bury Catholics and Protestants separately </li></ul><ul><li>DeValera sent 70 fire-fighters north but the water mains had been cut </li></ul><ul><li>Half the cities population left, many sleeping in ditches </li></ul>Events of the Blitz 1941
  8. 8. <ul><li>5 th May </li></ul><ul><li>Clear night </li></ul><ul><li>H arland and W olfe shipyard destroyed and did not resume production for 6 months </li></ul><ul><li>Not as many casualties </li></ul>Events of the Blitz 1941
  9. 9. Results of Blitz <ul><li>Most severe except for London </li></ul><ul><li>Stopped as the Germans turned their attention to USSR </li></ul><ul><li>1100 dead </li></ul><ul><li>People outside the city who offered refuge were shocked at the poverty of the people </li></ul>
  10. 10. Partition Consolidated <ul><li>By being part of the war, NI strengthened its position in the UK </li></ul><ul><li>Neutrality had distanced the South further from the UK </li></ul>
  11. 11. 1945 British General Election <ul><li>Clement Atlee and Labour came to power </li></ul><ul><li>Wartime leader Churchill defeated </li></ul><ul><li>The Beverage Report and the Welfare State brought a flow of money to N. Ireland </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics benefited, as they were poorer </li></ul><ul><li>In 1947 free secondary education and generous third level grants </li></ul><ul><li>Catholics made good use of this as many could not get jobs anyway </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Presentation prepared by: </li></ul><ul><li>Dominic Haugh </li></ul><ul><li>St. Particks Comprehensive School </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon </li></ul><ul><li>Co. Clare </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation can be used for educational purposes only – all rights remain with author </li></ul>