Latitude Earth has geographic North pole and geographic South pole Half way between them is the Equator The Equator divides the Earth into two halves: The Northern Hemisphere and the Southern Hemisphere
Each hemisphere is divided into circles called parallels (because they are parallel to the equator ) The distance north or south of the equator is called latitude Latitude is measured in degrees beginning at the equator which is at 0°
Latitude lines above the equator are labeled N Latitude lines below the equator are labeled S 30° N 45° S
Each degree of latitude is divided into 60 equal parts called minutes ( ' ) Each minute is divided into 60 equal parts called seconds ( " ) Washington DC 38°53'51" N
5 Main Lines of Latitude to Know: 0°0'0" 23.5°N 23.5°S 66°33‘39“N 66°33‘39“S
Longitude Meridians are used to identify locations east-west locations. Each meridian is a half circle that runs from pole to pole The Prime Meridian passes through Greenwich, England
Longitude is also measured in degrees, minutes and seconds. The Prime Meridian is at longitude 0° All locations east of the Prime Meridian have longitudes from 0° to 180° E All locations west of the Prime Meridian have longitudes from 0° to 180° W
Washington DC 38°53'51" N 77°0‘33" W Latitude lines have equal distance between them But since longitude lines meet at the poles, the distance between them becomes less the further north or south you go
Magnetic Declination When using a compass to find a location an adjustment needs to be made for the difference between geographic north and magnetic north The angle between magnetic north and true north is called the magnetic declination Geographic north pole
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