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Motion

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  • 1. MOTION
  • 2. What is Motion?  Motion is the act or process of moving.  Any object that changes in position is in motion, wheter you are riding a bicycle, running or even walking, you are in motion.
  • 3. Some Motion Terms Scalar .vs. vector Distance & Displacement Velocity & Speed Acceleration Uniform motion
  • 4. Motion can be described in terms of measured quantities: SCALAR QUANTITY - completely described by the size or magnitude (e.g. volume, mass, time) VECTOR QUANTITY - described by the magnitude or size of the distance traveled as well as its direction. (e.g. velocity, acceleration)
  • 5. Distance & Displacement  Distance is the actual distance traveled.  Displacement depends only on Start & Finish line. Shortest distance between two points.  Displacement is the distance traveled, in a certain direction.
  • 6. Distance & Displacement
  • 7. SPEED  Rate of movement of an object from one place to another at a period of time. distance (d) S = time (t)
  • 8. Example:  A runner runs 100 meters in 7 seconds. What is his speed?  Given: d= 100 m t= 7 sec. Speed = ?
  • 9. (d) S = (t) = 100 m 7 sec. = 14.29 m/sec.
  • 10. VELOCITY  Rate of change in the position of an object as it moves in a particular direction. distance (d) Velocity (u) = time (t) *with direction
  • 11. Example:  A car travels 30 kilometers east in one hour. Calculate the velocity of the car. (d) Velocity = (t) 30 km = 1 hr = 30 km/hr east
  • 12. AVERAGE VELOCITY  Change in displacement per change in time. change in distance Average Velocity (u) = change in time = d2 – d1 t2-t1
  • 13. Example:  Starting from rest an ambulance travels 50 km west for 1.5 hrs to pick up a patient. What is the average velocity of the ambulance?  Given: d1 = 0 d2 = 50 km T1 = 0 T2 = 1.5 hrs Average velocity = ?
  • 14. Solution: 50 km – 0 u = 1.5 hrs – 0 = 50 km 1.5 hrs = 33.33 kph
  • 15. Instantaneous speed and velocity  Instantaneous speed is the speed of an object at any particular given instant while the instantaneous velocity shows the velocity of an object at one point.
  • 16. ACCELERATION  Rate of change in velocity over time due to change in speed or/and direction.  An accelerating object is speeding up, slowing down, or changing the direction in which it is moving. v a = t *m/s/s
  • 17. Average Acceleration  Rate at which velocity changes divided by an elapsed time.  For example, if the velocity of a marble increases from 0 to 60 cm/s in 3 seconds. Its average acceleration would be 20 cm/s/s.
  • 18.  a = Vf - Vi Tf – Ti = 60cm/s – 0 3sec – 0 = 20 cm/s/s
  • 19. ACCELERATION DUE TO GRAVITY  Is the acceleration for any object moving under the sole influence of gravity.  It is such an important quantity that physicist have a special symbol to denote it – the symbol g.  All objects falling near the earth’s surface fall with a constant acceleration. The numerical value for this is accurately known as 9.8 m/s/s.
  • 20. Two Dimensional Motion  PROJECTILE MOTION -- is the curved motion of an object that is objected into the air.  Projectile – is any object that is thrown projected into the air.  Trajectory – is the path taken by a projectile.
  • 21. UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION  Can be described as the motion of an object in a circle at a constant speed. As an object moves in a circle it is constantly changing its direction. At all instances, the object is moving tangent to the circle.
  • 22. CENTRIPETAL FORCE  Is the force directed toward the center of a circle
  • 23. NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION First Law “ An object at rest stays at rest and an object in motion stays in motion with the same speed and in the same direction unless acted upon by an unbalanced force”
  • 24. INERTIA  tendency of an object to resist any change in its motion  Inertia makes objects keep on doing whatever they are doing. Everything made of matter has inertia, even you.
  • 25. NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION Second Law “ The acceleration of an object depends directly upon the net force acting upon the subject and inversely upon the mass of the object”
  • 26. 1. A constant force produces a constant acceleration 2. Doubling the force will double the acceleration 3. Doubling the mass requires a force twice as large to achieve the same acceleration F = m a
  • 27. NEWTON’S LAW OF MOTION Third Law “ Whenever one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal and opposite force on the first”
  • 28.  Newton’s third law of motion states that an object experiences a force because it is interacting with some other object. The force that object A exerts on object B must be of the same magnitude but in the opposite direction as the force that object B exerts on object.
  • 29. UNIVERSAL LAW OF GRAVITATION “Every particle in the universe attracts every other particle in the universe with a force that depends on the product of the two particles' masses divided by the square of the distance between them”
  • 30. Gravitational constant (G) X mass (m1) X mass (m2) (F) = distance (d) 2 Where: G = 6.67 X 10 -11 Nm 2 /kg 2