Population and Community

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Population and Community

  1. 1. 3.1 POPULATION Donna.Roldan.Penton
  2. 2. biosphere ecosystem community population organism What is population?
  3. 3. POPULATION -- group of similar species/organism living in a certain place at the same time.
  4. 4. 3.2 Characteristics of Population
  5. 5. Population Dynamics Three Key Features of Populations 1. Size 2. Density 3. Distribution
  6. 6. SIZE -- pertains to the number of individuals in a population. Example: The recorded population of people in the Philippines on July 2000 is 72, 000, 000. KIND PLACE TIME NUMBER Homo Sapiens Philippines July 2000 72, 000, 000
  7. 7. FACTORS THAT AFFECTS THE SIZE OF A POPULATION 1. Natality -- numbers of species that are born 2. Mortality -- number of species that die
  8. 8. 3. Immigration - numbers of species that entered the land 4. Emigration - numbers of species that leave the land
  9. 9. Immigration Emigration Births Deaths Population Change + + - - Factors That Affect Population Growth
  10. 10. DENSITY -- number of individuals or species living in a particular area of that population. EXAMPLE: 100 cows/hectare
  11. 11. DISTRIBUTION -- describes the spacing of organisms relative to each other. Patterns of Distribution: 1. Clumped Distribution 2. Uniform Distribution 3. Random Distribution
  12. 12. CLUMPED DISTRIBUTION The organism are concentrated in an area. It may offer the population protection from enemies. UNIFORM DISTRIBUTION The organisms are evenly distributed over an area.
  13. 13. RANDOM DISTRIBUTION There is no specific order in random distribution, the organism is spread throughout the area with-out an over-all pattern.
  14. 14. 3.3 POPULATION GROWTH
  15. 15. SURVIVORSHIP and MORTALITY The growth of a population depends upon the balance of mortality and natality.
  16. 16. BIOTIC POTENTIAL It is the number of offspring that could exist if all offspring survived and produced young.
  17. 17. The life history of a housefly. A female can lay 120 eggs and hatch them in one day. Within the sixth day, the pupa forms. In a week, adults emerge from the pupa. In the span of two weeks, single pair of flies produce 120 offsprings.
  18. 18. ENVIRONMENTAL RESISTANCE Factors that reduces the growth rate of population. It is when a population does not reach its biotic potential because there are factors that affect its growth. - resource shortage (water/food) - disease, competition of organisms, predation
  19. 19. Carrying Capacity- the maximum number of individuals in a particular population that the environment can support over an indefinite period of time in terms of food, space and shelter. CARRYING CAPACITY
  20. 20. 3.4 Limiting Factors of Population
  21. 21. 1. Density-dependent factors Biotic factors in the environment that have a greater limiting effect as population size increases. Examples: disease competition parasites
  22. 22. 2. Density-independent factors Abiotic factors in the environment that affect populations regardless of their density. Examples: temperature storms habitat destruction drought
  23. 23. 4.1 COMMUNITY
  24. 24. COMMUNITY It is the place where populations interact. Can considered from two viewpoints: - Autecology – each organism is a member of a community - Synecology – group of organisms in a particular area
  25. 25. 4.2 SPECIAL RELATIONSHIP AMONG ORGANISMS
  26. 26. Biotic communities live and interact together. Interaction between different trophic levels of organisms involves predation and competition.
  27. 27. PREDATION Predator: consumer that captures and eats other consumers. Prey: the organism that is eaten by a predator.
  28. 28. COMPETETITION Competition doesn’t involve always the same species, but it is more severe among the same numbers of species because they have common needs.
  29. 29. 4.3 SYMBIOTIC RELATIONSHIP
  30. 30. SYMBIOSIS It means living together of two or more organisms of different species. 1. Parasitism: one organism benefits (the mosquito) while the other (the host) is harmed. 2. Mutualism: both species benefit. 2. Commensalism: one species benefits while the other remains unaffected.
  31. 31. 4.4 COMMUNITY ROLES
  32. 32. Producers: Organisms that make their own energy (food). a. Use the process of photosynthesis. b. Oxygen is a by-product (waste material). Consumers: Organisms that can’t make their own food. Must eat producers or other consumers for energy.
  33. 33. Decomposers: Organisms that feed on dead plants and animals.
  34. 34. 4.5 ECOLOGICAL HABITATS AND NICHES
  35. 35. Habitat: The place where an organism lives and that provides food, shelter, moisture, and temperature needed for survival. Examples: a. Swamp b. Field c. Lake d. Tree Where an organism lives.
  36. 36. Niche: Role of an organism in the ecosystem, including unique ways an organism survives, such as: how it interacts with other organisms, how it obtains food and shelter, and avoids danger. Examples: a. Anteaters keep the ant population. b. Bacteria eats dead animals assisting in decomposition. And keeping them from piling up, while adding nitrogen to the soil Role an organism plays
  37. 37. 4.5 ENERGY FLOWS/ENERGY TRANSFER/FOOD CHAIN/FOOD WEB
  38. 38. TROPHIC PATTERN
  39. 39. Three Classifications of Consumers: a. Herbivores: plant-eaters b. Carnivores: animal-eaters c. Omnivores: plant and animal eaters
  40. 40. Food Chains are basic representation of energy transfer from producers to consumers.
  41. 41. Food Webs demonstrate how the organisms are interconnected in a more complex, realistic way. Food Web

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