Hydrogen Gas Turbine


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Hydrogen Gas Turbine

  1. 1. Group Design Project Report Hydrogen Gas Turbine Submitted By: Anglia Ruskin University Students: SID: 1227201 SID: 1227204 Year 2013-2014 – 2 year Module Code: MOD002306
  2. 2. INDEX Chapter 1 1.0 Abstract 1.1 Introduction 1.2 Market Research 1.3 Hypothesis 1.4 Significance of Research 1.5 Aims & Objective 1.6 Project Scope Page 1 Page 2 Page 2 Page 3 Page 5 Page 5 Page 5 Page 5 Chapter 2 2.0 Literature Review & Theory 2.1 Product Design Specification 2.2 Working / Process Page 6 Page 7 Page 8 Page 10 Chapter 3 3.1 Time Scale 3.2 Elements from PDS: Pugh Chart 3.3 Factors to be considered during HGT: Morphological Analysis Page 11 Page 12 Page 12 Page 13 Chapter 4 4.1 Concept Design Page 15 Page 16 Chapter 5 5.1 Value Analysis of Product 5.2 Health & Safety 5.3 Conclusion Page 18 Page 19 Page 20 Page 20 References Page 21 Appendix Page 22
  3. 3. Hydrogen Gas Turbine Chapter 1
  4. 4. Page 2 1.0 Abstract: The group design project “Hydrogen Gas Turbine” focuses on the energy generation from a gas turbine power plant, solely using Hydrogen as the primary source of fuel for the combustors and focuses in increasing the efficiency of the gas turbine. The practical application of this project will result in meeting the progressive demand of the rising electricity costs in the UK market and result to a massive change in electricity production without “Carbon” emission in the atmosphere. This project is prospected to be the future of green energy generation. 1.1 Introduction: UK is one of the top 20 countries (Guardian, 2013) which consume approximately 344,700,000 MW of electricity each year. Majority of the percentage of the electricity production and the demand is met by the fossil fuels. (DECC, 1990). According to the European Union and UK Government – Department of Energy & Climate Change, the focus is more on the generation of the electricity from the green renewable source with zero percentage of carbon emission in the future, which would be looked to be in practice by 2020. “Gone Green” Gone Green is constructed in such a fashion that the renewable energy and carbon emissions targets are always achieved. Analysis is carried out in four sectors, Residential, ‘Service’ (equivalent to the Digest of UK Energy Statistics (DUKES) categories Public Administration and Commercial), Industry and Transport and uses a bottom-up approach that starts at the finest level of detail practical. This results into the calculation of the annual electricity consumption and the peak demand which changes according to the scenario reflecting the potential grid technologies. The total UK energy requirement in Gone Green and progress against targets are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2. Following the introduction and the brief idea what we were looking forward for the group design, resulted us in 75 years old invented technology of “Gas turbine” which is still the best source of the largest power and electricity generation method in United Kingdom apart from the Nuclear power. The focus of this product resulted in using hydrogen as a new source of fuel but before concluding our idea we rethought about a market research and check the product’s marketability.
  5. 5. 1.2 Market Research
  6. 6. Page 4 Below are the couple of the market research done on survey monkey (Appendix 1). How important it is for UK to develop and use alternative energy? Must 33% Fairly important 20% Which of the following best describes you the biggest concern would you have while choosing an alternate energy Aesthetics Extremely important 27% Moderatel y important 20% 0.00% Moderately important 17% Percentage 20.00% Reliability 33.33% Cost 0.00% How important do you think is useful to recycle the household waste Must 36% 46.67% Sustainability 20.00% 40.00% 60.00% Next 10-20 years concersns Sufficient supply The UK not developing technology to use existing… The UK not investing fast enough on alternate source… Extremely important 47% Not important 0% Fairly important 0% The UK becoming too dependent on energy from… UK supplies of fossil fuels not being sufficiently to meet the… Response 0% 20% 40% 60% The result of the survey was not surprising with majority of the people accepted the fact they would be happy to opt for more renewable sources of energy which would be carbon free. Interestingly most of the folks focused more on the application and recycling of biomass which is a good source of the hydrogen too. Choosing to opt which would affect the population more, majority agreed on sustainability rather focusing on price of the power generation. The list of the rest of market research is at the appendix at the end of the report In the other survey research conducted in the electricity market of UK and Ireland, showed that the majority of the power is generated to meet the peak timing demands from early afternoon to the midnight. The graphs (DECC Report, 2012) shows that in the near future the prices for the cost of the electricity production would increase for meeting a demand of 50 GW of electricity a year (Picture 4 )which would be most in the seasons of winter (Picture 3) Picture 3: Showing the demand of the electricity in the UK , courtesy Arup Energy Consultancy.
  7. 7. Page 5 Picture 4: DECC Report showing the demand of the electricity prices and generation. * For more market research related questionnaire and the data feedback please refer appendix 1. In nut the market research concluded the fact that UK is deficient of renewable sources of energy free from carbon and lot needs to be invested to actively support the new green generation of power. This proves that the product Hydrogen , being the most abundant renewable source of energy, as a fuel for gas turbine is a marketable product and is worth investing on. 1.3 Hypothesis: Hydrogen is misunderstood as an explosive and expensive fuel. Hydrogen being explosive with right procedures for usage is not dangerous at all. Hydrogen Economy ≠ Hydrogen Bomb (US Government , Article 2011). Although being costly compared to the fossil fuels the amount of the energy derived from hydrogen is double the energy derived from a fossil fuel. 1.4 Significance of the Research: The research report on Hydrogen Gas turbine is significant since it improves the science of gas turbines, safe and commercial use of the Hydrogen as fuel for the gas turbines and focuses on increasing the compressor efficiency along with the research in the super alloy materials used for the Hydrogen Gas turbine. The investment in this research project will result in meeting the major electricity demand of the UK and the Irish markets which buy electricity from the Scandinavian countries during the peak timing (refer image 3, market research) 1.5 Aims & Objectives: The project report aims at designing a conceptual design of a Hydrogen Gas turbine, with spotlights on:    1.6 Use of hydrogen as primary fuel for the gas turbine Increase the efficiency of the compressor Focus on the materials on Hydrogen Gas Turbine. Project Scope: The project is limited to the research and improvement of the present Gas turbines with changes in the fuel and the materials in the present day Combined Cogeneration Gas Turbines with combined cycles.
  8. 8. Hydrogen Gas Turbine CHAPTER 2
  9. 9. Page 7 2.0 Literature Review: Hydrogen is highly flammable and has negotiable carbon emissions in the atmosphere. Being very reliable on burning it produces water/steam as the emissions with considerate very small negligible amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx). Hydrogen in comparison with the other fuels in markets has the flammability limits of 4–74% which is 6.5% more of natural/ Syngas while the energy required to ignite hydrogen is nearly 0.02mJ lowest compared to any other fuels. Hydrogen can be stored in tank with 47.7% or 10% pure oxygen and doesn’t cause any explosion. This means pure Hydrogen is safe to operate too. Hydrogen when burnt with oxygen also gives low radiant heat (NASA, Hydrogen Safety). One of the important features of the Hydrogen is that is diffuses with the air rapidly which is 3 times more faster than the natural gas (Air Products. Website). Hydrogen for the gas turbine can be derived by many operations and methods where the major ways are:     From Coke and Coal production & Syngas From the Pyrolysis of the biomass & Biogas. From electrolysis of the water to obtain pure hydrogen and oxygen which can stored. From the alkene separation of the biodiesels. The most abundant techniques are the first two methods where carbon is captured and stored while the pure hydrogen can be used for the hydrogen gas turbine. One of the major projects is by the BP & Masdar Hydrogen Power Plant at Abu Dhabi. (Masdar – BP Hydrogen Gas Turbine Power Plant Project 2015). This can concluded that pure Hydrogen can be used as the source of the gas turbine and is safe and highly green source of energy. Increasing Efficiency of the Hydrogen gas turbine It can be increased by effective use of intercooler. This is derived by the formula: where n is the efficiency, f is the Wn is the specific work of the components of compressor turbine and the exhauster and is given by the expression : where the Wt is the work done by the turbine, WLPC is the work done by the Low Pressure Compressor & WHPC is the work done by the High Pressure Compressor. Effectiveness of the intercooler results to a greater efficiency which means the work required for compression is reduced with intercooler. The heat supplied with inter-cooling is more than that with the heat supplied in single stage compression. The net output is also increased but thermal efficiency falls due to increased heat supply. The thermal efficiency increased with total pressure ratio at deferent values for intercooler effectiveness. Also the thermal efficiency increased about 40% when the total pressure ratio increased from 6 to 40. The thermal efficiency increased from 30% to 47% when the total pressure ratio increases from 6 to 36. It is clear that increasing the cycle peak temperature ratio increases the gain in thermal efficiency. As the cycle peak temperature ratio increases, the total work of the compressors decreases. Conclusions 1) The cycle calculation used in the intercooler gas turbine power plant analysis is correct. The examination of effect of varying parameters on the cycle performance is reliable. 2) Comparatively an intercooled gas turbine power plant can offer a fuel consumption of 8% better than that of a simple cycle gas turbine, with a 5-9 % increase in power. 3) As expected the higher total pressure ratio and cycle peak temperature ratio result in better performance. Say a compressor ratio of 30:1 or above.
  10. 10. Page 8 2.1 Product Design Specification: Certain standards need to be looked for designing a Hydrogen Gas Turbine with better compressor efficiency. The PDS below describes every specific needs: Element 1.Design Ergonomics Description Requirement/ Optional 1. The engine design is based on efficiency Want 2. Materials used for compressor, diffuser and the turbine should be of the high quality for example use of titanium alloy products, anti-corrosion, high strength to withstand the pressure. Want 3. Uniaxial body 4. Compressor axial lubricant needs to be used Want 5. Compressor ratio 26 to 30 ratio1 for better efficiency. Optional 6. Use of self-cleaning air ducts for the compressor Want 7. Computer numerated signals to understand and monitor air flows and temperature. Want 8. Operational electrical frequency to be between 45 to 50 % 9. CFD monitoring systems for the flow of air in the compressor Want Optional Optional 10. Tight sealing chambers for the loss of compressed air from the compressor. Want 11. Operational disturbance tolerance and service free design Want 12. Use of customised DLE (Dry Low Emission) burners Want 13. Dual fuel injection burners Optional 14. Small air values opening for cooling the burners during operation Want 15. Extended Scalp Solutions 16. Electron beam wielding rotors for the turbine to make it a unibody operation Optional Want 17. Hot or cold compressor rotor Want 18. Dual large turbine for better use of the exhaust energy Want 19. Turbine rpm of at least or above 6000 for conversion of the mechanical drive application to static electric generation Want 20. Burner flame consistency monitor using CFD for lesser effect on turbine blades. 21. User interaction with displays and controls Want Want 22. Exact dimensions of the turbine to be installed in the access plant area 23. ISO safety terminology and general principles Want
  11. 11. Page 9 Want 24. Turbine enclosed in casing 25. Consistent performance 26. Operating temperature of -70 degrees to 70degrees C 27. Water cooling Want Want Want 28. Low vibration and Low noise operation Optional 29. Compact and light weight Want 30. Low maintenance cost/Low fuel and lube oil consumption Want 31. Low installation cost Want Want 2. Aesthetics Design should be a futuristic, robust, elegant & dynamic Want 2. 3. Testing 1. Compact with no rough edged casing of the gas turbine Want 1. Suppliers of the product with have to go through the flame analysis. Want 2. Use Statistical Process Quality for the flame energy to obtain higher operating limits and lower operating limits Want 3. Mechanical drive application controls for power generation during lower supply of the fuel gas Want 4. Operational safety and hazards Want 5. Cogeneration process and efficiency 6. Waste heat collection and regeneration 7. Compressor and turbine blades operating at high pressure and at or above 1500 degrees C 8. Full Operation at a rated load less than 1200 hours for more than 300MW electricity production 9. Want Want Want Annual Consumption of lubrication less than 5 litres Want Want 10. Collection and analysis of data R&D Want
  12. 12. Page 10 4. Time Scale 1. Specification and operational formulation to be completed by 31/10/13 2. Concept Generation to be completed by 10/11/13 3. Concept evaluation to be completed by 12/11/13 4. Detailed design of the selected design by 16/11/13 Want 5. Cost Estimate, Manufacturing requirements and design review for presentation to be completed by 20/11/13 Want 6. 7. 2D and selective 3D models of the concept to be completed by 20/11/13 Want Want Want Want Final Report to be completed and submitted by 01/01/2014 Want 5. Installation & Product Installation of the product to be hassle free Want 2. Easy to install in operational gas industries Want 3. Political and Social factors to be incorporated by the product that decides its operation and fate Want 4. Marketing constraints 5. International Standards of operations 6. 2.2 1. Service of operation from 100 000 to 200 000 hours (12 -28 years) Optional Want Want Working / Process: The gas turbine has been successfully employed in large scale to generate the electricity, whereas gas turbine ensures better production power.  Air enters in the compressor where is goes into the axial flow stages getting compressed at 40:1 and sent into the combustor.  Combustor is a place where the air/ Pure oxygen (in HGT) is mixed and burned with the help of the ignite and burned to produce the heat and exhaust gases which goes into the exhauster.  Exhauster drives the turbine blades and converts the mechanical output into electrical using a transformer. One of the means is to use intercooler. The intercooler used to reduce the temperature at the high-pressure compressor, causing reduce consumption power on compressor and lower output temperature at high pressure (Maria and Jinyue, 2005). Gas-turbines power plant with high pressure ratios can use an intercooler to cool the air between stages of compression, allowing you to burn more fuel and generate more power. (Picture 5: General Gas Turbine)
  13. 13. Hydrogen Gas Turbine Chapter 3
  14. 14. Page 12 3.1 Time Scale: Every design project needs to be completed in a stipulated period. This is done by the management section and is referred as the Gantt chart. This guides the project along with the time period. The Gantt chart for HGT is displayed below as of 22/11/13. 3.2 Elements from PDS for the Project: Pugh Chart
  15. 15. Page 13 3.3 Factors to be considered during HGT Design HGT (Hydrogen Gas Turbine) design is based on international standards of practice. It includes the concepts and it’s the morphological chart which explains how to achieve them shown in the next page.
  16. 16. Page 14 The tables show that the gas turbine consists of the heat resistant materials of Super alloy made up of the titanium and nickel. The focus is on the axial flow compressor with an operating speed of about 0.8 mach. Keeping the pressure ration above 1.05 results in better efficiency. As the regular heavy duty gas turbines the HGT concept focus on the use of the heat resistant materials like Hast alloy and ceramics bricks and thermal coating of TBC to keep the machine light. Focusing on the CCGT techniques and to obtain maximum output the HGT will have two stage turbines and will be capable of delivering more than 400 MW of electricity in full mode operation.
  17. 17. Hydrogen Gas Turbine Chapter 4
  18. 18. Page 16 4.1 Concept design: The design of the product is an important aspect which makes it different than the other products in the market. The dimensions and the geometry of the Hydrogen Gas turbine is unique since it requires a to eliminate the losses in the efficiency in the compressor, mix the fuel is equal proportions and derive the maximum torque from the exhaust for the turbine to convert the mechanical energy in to the electrical energy. Figure 2: Concept design: The cross section of the Hydrogen Gas Turbine showing the High Pressure Compressor region, Combustor design and exhaust turbine. Figure 1: Concept Design: Showing the cross section area of the Low Pressure Compressor and the use of inter cooler. Figure 2: Concept design: The cross section of the Hydrogen Gas Turbine showing the High Pressure Compressor region, Combustor design and exhaust turbine.
  19. 19. Page 17 55 m diameter Figure 3: Over view of the turbine made up of Hastelloy. Figure 4: Compressor turbines coated with TBC to be light weight made of electron beam wielding. Detachable blades of the turbine designed according to Brayton principles. Figure 5: Block diagram showing use of intercooler Figure 6: DLE Hydrogen Gas Burner.
  20. 20. Hydrogen Gas Turbine Chapter 5
  21. 21. Page 19 5.1 Value Analysis: It is highly important for any industrial project design to have an estimation of cost of manufacturing to installing its proposed product. This is similar for the HGT. The values of the components of the HGT varies with the design, materials cost to shipping and installing. The table below explains an approximate value analysis of HGT:
  22. 22. Page 20 The above table gives the brief idea how the HGT varies in the price. The whole HGT project is expected to be more than 6 billion Great Britain pound (NETL, Energy Lab US) 5.2 Health & Safety: In accordance with the Health & Safety Regulations of UK Government – Department of Energy & Climate Change there are certain guidelines that needs to be followed for the construction of a hazardous industry. There are many important regulations that apply to a wide range of industrial workplaces and may be applicable to the installation and operation of a CHP plant (UK Gov. DECC). To understand the important points on it are mentioned below:       The design should be enclosed ventilation. Manuals for the guidance on selecting equipment’s for use in potentially explosive atmospheres. Since hydrogen in contact with air can be flammable and explosive too, potential risks of using such fuels and leak detection technologies need to be implemented in the designs. Use of CFD (computational Fluid dynamics) for flow of air in compressors and for flame technologies should be used to prevent any mishap of turbines’ rupture and collapsing the protection casing. Use of heat resistant casing. Use noise eliminating coating and materials needs to be introduced in the designs. Apart for the above mentioned sample points there are many factors to be looked through. Much of it can be accessed through the UK DECC website and ISO websites. 5.3 Conclusion: The Hydrogen Gas Turbine has been designed to generate the growing electricity shortage and can be useful to implement the green revolution change in the energy generation sector. Hydrogen being the most abundant element is the scientifically proved to be the best source of fuel. The efficiency of the HGT has been increased with the addition of the intercooler increasing the efficiency nearly to 70% -75%. Focusing with the present electricity market conditions of the UK and the Irish market this project can also be introduced in certain parts of Europe. Couple of such project such as Masdar Abu Dhabi Project along with BP in UAE is one such example. Companies like GE, Siemens, Kawasaki and Rolls Royce are exploring more on the potentials of creating pure Hydrogen Gas Turbine and increase the maximum output (British Petroleum).
  23. 23. References: Page 21 Advantages of Hydrogen Gas Turbine, Advanced Hydrogen Turbine Development. [online] Available at: http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=3&sqi=2&ved=0CEUQFjAC&url=http%3A %2F%2Fwww.energy.siemens.com%2Fbr%2Fpool%2Fhq%2Fenergytopics%2Fpdfs%2Fen%2Figcc%2F6_Avanced_Hydrogen.pdf&ei=w1HJUpiDC4TPhAeIwoDYBA&usg=AFQjCNHJ2Mp3fypi7auDTpkAmkFRrq9YA&sig2=5BXDpsWNy3X14PCO7k7hoQ&bvm=bv.58187178,d.bGQ [Accessed on 2nd October 2013] Using Hydrogen as fuel for Gas Turbine. NETL Gov. [Online] Available at: http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=2&ved=0CDgQFjAB&url=http%3A%2F%2 Fwww.netl.doe.gov%2Ftechnologies%2Fcoalpower%2Fturbines%2Frefshelf%2Figcc-h2sygas%2FUsing%2520H2%2520as%2520a%2520GT%2520Fuel.pdf&ei=MlLJUpKnA4zb7AbxhoGAAw&usg=AFQjCNGkn3 -YPReJSjt3cA3kHtGQFwxSNw&sig2=Wz23HYmaLJKLhUf5R6edHw [Accessed on 20th October 2013] Efficiency of Gas Turbine Compressor, Department of Energy US. [Online] Available at: http://energy.gov/fe/how-gasturbine-power-plants-work [Accessed on 17th November 2013] Gas Turbine Flame technology. TU Karlsruhe [Online]. Available at: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rieabf_Jnk [Accessed on 20th November 2013] Fundamentals of Gas Turbine. [Online]. Available at: http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=10&ved=0CHMQFjAJ&url=http%3A%2F% 2Fwww.castsafety.org%2Fpdf%2F3_engine_fundamentals.pdf&ei=k1PJUuy5MMyAhAfo2ICQBA&usg=AFQjCNHlcpljD2xBjDrF50oKCAb zz9F0Eg&sig2=sGqG5ByVW4r02YHWrMuRwQ [Accessed on 15th December 2013] Heavy duty Gas turbines. General Electronics [Online]. Available at: http://www.geenergy.com/products_and_services/products/gas_turbines_heavy_duty/ [Accessed on 20th December 2013] Siemens H Series Gas Turbines. Product Details. [Online]. Available at http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F% 2Fwww.energy.siemens.com%2Fco%2Fpool%2Fhq%2Fpower-generation%2Fgas-turbines%2FSGT58000H%2Fdownloads%2FH%2520class%2520high%2520performance.pdf&ei=F1TJUtmqFMuqhAfuICwCQ&usg=AFQjCNGduLdXGzEt1p0Vb4VmwoCBq1Q3fQ&sig2=H7hhJ6AI9ZyJ6DAF5u-3YQ [Accessed on 1St January 2014] BP-Masdar Abu Dhabi Hydrogen Power Plant. [Online]. Available at: http://www.zeroco2.no/projects/masdarprecombustion-ccs-project [Accessed on 2nd January 2014] Siemens Gas Turbines. [online]. Available at: http://www.siemens.co.uk Materials for Hydrogen Gas Turbine. Report NETL, US Gov. [Online] Available at: http://www.google.co.uk/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&ved=0CDAQFjAA&url=http%3A%2F% 2Fwww.netl.doe.gov%2Fpublications%2Fproceedings%2F10%2Futsr%2Fpresentations%2Ftuesday%2FAnderson.pdf&e i=5VTJUvKnNqun0wXYqYDwDQ&usg=AFQjCNFj7q2oUUuHxipkGYvaTRsDte6K9g&sig2=jKJXpgcASm3vs5XU8FwD3Q [Accessed on 3rd January 2014]
  24. 24. Appendix Market Research Survey: