The group design project “Hydrogen Gas Turbine” focuses on the energy generation from a gas turbine power plant, solely
using Hydrogen as the primary source of fuel for the combustors and focuses in increasing the efficiency of the gas turbine.
The practical application of this project will result in meeting the progressive demand of the rising electricity costs in the
UK market and result to a massive change in electricity production without “Carbon” emission in the atmosphere. This
project is prospected to be the future of green energy generation.
UK is one of the top 20 countries (Guardian, 2013) which consume approximately 344,700,000 MW of electricity each year.
Majority of the percentage of the electricity production and the demand is met by the fossil fuels. (DECC, 1990). According
to the European Union and UK Government – Department of Energy & Climate Change, the focus is more on the generation
of the electricity from the green renewable source with zero percentage of carbon emission in the future, which would be
looked to be in practice by 2020.
“Gone Green” Gone Green is constructed in such a fashion that the renewable energy and carbon emissions targets are
always achieved. Analysis is carried out in four sectors, Residential, ‘Service’ (equivalent to the Digest of UK Energy
Statistics (DUKES) categories Public Administration and Commercial), Industry and Transport and uses a bottom-up
approach that starts at the finest level of detail practical. This results into the calculation of the annual electricity
consumption and the peak demand which changes according to the scenario reflecting the potential grid technologies.
The total UK energy requirement in Gone Green and progress against targets are shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2.
Following the introduction and the brief idea what we were looking forward for the group design, resulted us in 75 years
old invented technology of “Gas turbine” which is still the best source of the largest power and electricity generation
method in United Kingdom apart from the Nuclear power. The focus of this product resulted in using hydrogen as a new
source of fuel but before concluding our idea we rethought about a market research and check the product’s marketability.
Below are the couple of the market research done on survey monkey (Appendix 1).
How important it is for UK to develop
and use alternative energy?
Which of the following best describes you the
biggest concern would you have while
choosing an alternate energy
How important do you think is useful to
recycle the household waste
Next 10-20 years concersns
The UK not developing
technology to use existing…
The UK not investing fast
enough on alternate source…
The UK becoming too
dependent on energy from…
UK supplies of fossil fuels not
being sufficiently to meet the…
The result of the survey was not surprising with majority of the people accepted the fact they would be happy to opt for
more renewable sources of energy which would be carbon free. Interestingly most of the folks focused more on the
application and recycling of biomass which is a good source of the hydrogen too. Choosing to opt which would affect the
population more, majority agreed on sustainability rather focusing on price of the power generation. The list of the rest of
market research is at the appendix at the end of the report
In the other survey research conducted in the electricity market of UK and Ireland, showed that the majority of the power
is generated to meet the peak timing demands from early afternoon to the midnight. The graphs (DECC Report, 2012)
shows that in the near future the prices for the cost of the electricity production would increase for meeting a demand of
50 GW of electricity a year (Picture 4 )which would be most in the seasons of winter (Picture 3)
Picture 3: Showing the demand of the electricity in the UK
, courtesy Arup Energy Consultancy.
Picture 4: DECC Report showing the demand of the electricity prices and generation.
* For more market research related questionnaire and the data feedback please refer appendix 1.
In nut the market research concluded the fact that UK is deficient of renewable sources of energy free from carbon and lot
needs to be invested to actively support the new green generation of power.
This proves that the product Hydrogen , being the most abundant renewable source of energy, as a fuel for gas turbine is a
marketable product and is worth investing on.
Hydrogen is misunderstood as an explosive and expensive fuel. Hydrogen being explosive with right procedures for usage
is not dangerous at all. Hydrogen Economy ≠ Hydrogen Bomb (US Government , Article 2011). Although being costly
compared to the fossil fuels the amount of the energy derived from hydrogen is double the energy derived from a fossil
Significance of the Research:
The research report on Hydrogen Gas turbine is significant since it improves the science of gas turbines, safe and
commercial use of the Hydrogen as fuel for the gas turbines and focuses on increasing the compressor efficiency along
with the research in the super alloy materials used for the Hydrogen Gas turbine. The investment in this research project
will result in meeting the major electricity demand of the UK and the Irish markets which buy electricity from the
Scandinavian countries during the peak timing (refer image 3, market research)
Aims & Objectives:
The project report aims at designing a conceptual design of a Hydrogen Gas turbine, with spotlights on:
Use of hydrogen as primary fuel for the gas turbine
Increase the efficiency of the compressor
Focus on the materials on Hydrogen Gas Turbine.
The project is limited to the research and improvement of the present Gas turbines with changes in the fuel and the
materials in the present day Combined Cogeneration Gas Turbines with combined cycles.
Hydrogen is highly flammable and has negotiable carbon emissions in the atmosphere. Being very reliable on burning it
produces water/steam as the emissions with considerate very small negligible amounts of nitrogen oxides (NOx).
Hydrogen in comparison with the other fuels in markets has the flammability limits of 4–74% which is 6.5% more of
natural/ Syngas while the energy required to ignite hydrogen is nearly 0.02mJ lowest compared to any other fuels.
Hydrogen can be stored in tank with 47.7% or 10% pure oxygen and doesn’t cause any explosion. This means pure
Hydrogen is safe to operate too. Hydrogen when burnt with oxygen also gives low radiant heat (NASA, Hydrogen Safety).
One of the important features of the Hydrogen is that is diffuses with the air rapidly which is 3 times more faster than the
natural gas (Air Products. Website).
Hydrogen for the gas turbine can be derived by many operations and methods where the major ways are:
From Coke and Coal production & Syngas
From the Pyrolysis of the biomass & Biogas.
From electrolysis of the water to obtain pure hydrogen and oxygen which can stored.
From the alkene separation of the biodiesels.
The most abundant techniques are the first two methods where carbon is captured and stored while the pure hydrogen
can be used for the hydrogen gas turbine. One of the major projects is by the BP & Masdar Hydrogen Power Plant at Abu
Dhabi. (Masdar – BP Hydrogen Gas Turbine Power Plant Project 2015).
This can concluded that pure Hydrogen can be used as the source of the gas turbine and is safe and highly green source of
Increasing Efficiency of the Hydrogen gas turbine
It can be increased by effective use of intercooler. This is derived by the formula:
where n is the efficiency, f is the Wn is the specific work of the components of
compressor turbine and the exhauster and is given by the expression :
where the Wt is the work done by the turbine, WLPC is the work done by the Low Pressure Compressor & WHPC is the work
done by the High Pressure Compressor.
Effectiveness of the intercooler results to a greater efficiency which means the work required for compression is reduced
with intercooler. The heat supplied with inter-cooling is more than that with the heat supplied in single stage compression.
The net output is also increased but thermal efficiency falls due to increased heat supply. The thermal efficiency increased
with total pressure ratio at deferent values for intercooler effectiveness. Also the thermal efficiency increased about 40%
when the total pressure ratio increased from 6 to 40. The thermal efficiency increased from 30% to 47% when the total
pressure ratio increases from 6 to 36. It is clear that increasing the cycle peak temperature ratio increases the gain in
thermal efficiency. As the cycle peak temperature ratio increases, the total work of the compressors decreases.
1) The cycle calculation used in the
intercooler gas turbine power plant analysis
is correct. The examination of effect of
varying parameters on the cycle performance
2) Comparatively an intercooled gas turbine
power plant can offer a fuel consumption of
8% better than that of a simple cycle gas
turbine, with a 5-9 % increase in power.
3) As expected the higher total pressure ratio
and cycle peak temperature ratio result in
better performance. Say a compressor ratio of
30:1 or above.
Certain standards need to be looked for designing a Hydrogen Gas Turbine with better compressor efficiency. The PDS
below describes every specific needs:
The engine design is based on efficiency
Materials used for compressor, diffuser and the turbine
should be of the high quality for example use of titanium alloy
products, anti-corrosion, high strength to withstand the pressure.
Compressor axial lubricant needs to be used
Compressor ratio 26 to 30 ratio1 for better efficiency.
Use of self-cleaning air ducts for the compressor
Computer numerated signals to understand and monitor air
flows and temperature.
Operational electrical frequency to be between 45 to 50 %
CFD monitoring systems for the flow of air in the compressor
10. Tight sealing chambers for the loss of compressed air from the
11. Operational disturbance tolerance and service free design
12. Use of customised DLE (Dry Low Emission) burners
13. Dual fuel injection burners
14. Small air values opening for cooling the burners during operation
15. Extended Scalp Solutions
16. Electron beam wielding rotors for the turbine to make it a unibody operation
17. Hot or cold compressor rotor
18. Dual large turbine for better use of the exhaust energy
19. Turbine rpm of at least or above 6000 for conversion of the
mechanical drive application to static electric generation
20. Burner flame consistency monitor using CFD for lesser effect on
21. User interaction with displays and controls
22. Exact dimensions of the turbine to be installed in the access plant
23. ISO safety terminology and general principles
24. Turbine enclosed in casing
25. Consistent performance
26. Operating temperature of -70 degrees to 70degrees C
27. Water cooling
28. Low vibration and Low noise operation
29. Compact and light weight
30. Low maintenance cost/Low fuel and lube oil consumption
31. Low installation cost
Design should be a futuristic, robust, elegant & dynamic
Compact with no rough edged casing of the gas turbine
Suppliers of the product with have to go through the flame
Use Statistical Process Quality for the flame energy to obtain
higher operating limits and lower operating limits
Mechanical drive application controls for power generation
during lower supply of the fuel gas
Operational safety and hazards
Cogeneration process and efficiency
Waste heat collection and regeneration
Compressor and turbine blades operating at high pressure and at
or above 1500 degrees C
Full Operation at a rated load less than 1200 hours for more than
300MW electricity production
Annual Consumption of lubrication less than 5 litres
10. Collection and analysis of data R&D
4. Time Scale
Specification and operational formulation to be completed by
Concept Generation to be completed by 10/11/13
Concept evaluation to be completed by 12/11/13
Detailed design of the selected design by 16/11/13
Cost Estimate, Manufacturing requirements and design review
for presentation to be completed by 20/11/13
2D and selective 3D models of the concept to be completed by
Final Report to be completed and submitted by 01/01/2014
5. Installation & Product
Installation of the product to be hassle free
Easy to install in operational gas industries
Political and Social factors to be incorporated by the product that
decides its operation and fate
International Standards of operations
Service of operation from 100 000 to 200 000 hours (12 -28
Working / Process:
The gas turbine has been successfully employed in large scale to generate the electricity, whereas gas turbine ensures
better production power.
Air enters in the compressor where is goes into the axial flow stages getting compressed at 40:1 and sent into the
Combustor is a place where the air/ Pure oxygen (in HGT) is mixed and burned with the help of the ignite and
burned to produce the heat and exhaust gases which goes into the exhauster.
Exhauster drives the turbine blades and converts the mechanical output into electrical using a transformer.
One of the means is to use intercooler. The intercooler used to reduce the temperature at the high-pressure compressor,
causing reduce consumption power on compressor and lower output temperature at high pressure (Maria and Jinyue,
2005). Gas-turbines power plant with high pressure ratios can use an
intercooler to cool the air between stages of compression, allowing
you to burn more fuel and generate more power.
(Picture 5: General Gas Turbine)
Every design project needs to be completed in a stipulated period. This is done by the management section and is referred
as the Gantt chart. This guides the project along with the time period. The Gantt chart for HGT is displayed below as of
from PDS for the Project: Pugh Chart
to be considered during HGT Design
HGT (Hydrogen Gas Turbine) design is based on international standards of practice. It includes the concepts and it’s the
morphological chart which explains how to achieve them shown in the next page.
The tables show that the gas turbine
consists of the heat resistant
materials of Super alloy made up of
the titanium and nickel. The focus is
on the axial flow compressor with an
operating speed of about 0.8 mach.
Keeping the pressure ration above
1.05 results in better efficiency. As the
regular heavy duty gas turbines the
HGT concept focus on the use of the
heat resistant materials like Hast
alloy and ceramics bricks and thermal
coating of TBC to keep the machine
light. Focusing on the CCGT
techniques and to obtain maximum
output the HGT will have two stage
turbines and will be capable of
delivering more than 400 MW of
electricity in full mode operation.
4.1 Concept design:
The design of the product is an important aspect which makes it different than the other products in the market. The
dimensions and the geometry of the Hydrogen Gas turbine is unique since it requires a to eliminate the losses in the
efficiency in the compressor, mix the fuel is equal proportions and derive the maximum torque from the exhaust for the
turbine to convert the mechanical energy in to the electrical energy.
Figure 2: Concept design: The cross section of the Hydrogen Gas Turbine showing the High Pressure Compressor region,
Combustor design and exhaust turbine.
Figure 1: Concept
Showing the cross section area of the Low Pressure Compressor and the use of inter cooler.
Figure 2: Concept design:
The cross section of the Hydrogen Gas Turbine showing the High Pressure Compressor region, Combustor design and exhaust turbine.
55 m diameter
Figure 3: Over view of the turbine made up of Hastelloy.
Figure 4: Compressor turbines coated with TBC to be light weight made of electron beam wielding. Detachable blades of the turbine designed according
to Brayton principles.
Figure 5: Block diagram showing use of intercooler
Figure 6: DLE Hydrogen Gas Burner.
It is highly important for any industrial project design to have an estimation of cost of manufacturing to installing its
proposed product. This is similar for the HGT. The values of the components of the HGT varies with the design, materials
cost to shipping and installing. The table below explains an approximate value analysis of HGT:
The above table gives the brief idea how the HGT varies in the price. The whole HGT project is expected to be more than 6
billion Great Britain pound (NETL, Energy Lab US)
In accordance with the Health & Safety Regulations of UK Government – Department of Energy & Climate Change there
are certain guidelines that needs to be followed for the construction of a hazardous industry. There are many important
regulations that apply to a wide range of industrial workplaces and may be applicable to the installation and operation of a
CHP plant (UK Gov. DECC). To understand the important points on it are mentioned below:
The design should be enclosed ventilation.
Manuals for the guidance on selecting equipment’s for use in potentially explosive atmospheres.
Since hydrogen in contact with air can be flammable and explosive too, potential risks of using such fuels and leak
detection technologies need to be implemented in the designs.
Use of CFD (computational Fluid dynamics) for flow of air in compressors and for flame technologies should be
used to prevent any mishap of turbines’ rupture and collapsing the protection casing.
Use of heat resistant casing.
Use noise eliminating coating and materials needs to be introduced in the designs.
Apart for the above mentioned sample points there are many factors to be looked through. Much of it can be accessed
through the UK DECC website and ISO websites.
The Hydrogen Gas Turbine has been designed to generate the growing electricity shortage and can be useful to implement
the green revolution change in the energy generation sector. Hydrogen being the most abundant element is the
scientifically proved to be the best source of fuel. The efficiency of the HGT has been increased with the addition of the
intercooler increasing the efficiency nearly to 70% -75%. Focusing with the present electricity market conditions of the UK
and the Irish market this project can also be introduced in certain parts of Europe. Couple of such project such as Masdar
Abu Dhabi Project along with BP in UAE is one such example. Companies like GE, Siemens, Kawasaki and Rolls Royce are
exploring more on the potentials of creating pure Hydrogen Gas Turbine and increase the maximum output (British
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