Michigan Reading Association 2013 - Bena Hartman

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Michigan Reading Association 2013 - Bena Hartman

  1. 1. How  Peritextual  Features  of  Picturebooks  Increase  Meaning-­‐ Making by Dr.  Bena  R.  Hartman benahartmanbooks.com Michigan  Reading  AssociaBon March  2013 1
  2. 2. A  picturebook  is/has…• An  art  object.   (Sipe,  2008)• An  aestheBc  whole;  every  part  contributes  to   its  total  effect.• PaSerns  (i.e.,  circle  stories,  cumulaBve  tales)   Finding  paSerns  is  the  making  of  meaning  and   when  we  make  meaning  we  experience   pleasure.   (Chambers,  1985)  • A  child  who  has  a  fuller  understanding  of  a   story  enjoys  it  much  more! 2
  3. 3. Why  use  children’s  literature?It’s  a  prevalent  dimension  of  high-­‐quality  literacy   instrucBon  and  has  many  beneficial  outcomes.   (Galda,   2010)•  Children  learn  about  themselves  &  the  world   around  them.   (Hefflin  &  Barksdale-­‐Ladd,  2001)•  Children  develop  the  ability  to  read  &  write   independently.   (Sipe,  2008)•  Children  build  language  &  background  knowledge.   (BenneS-­‐Armistead,  Duke,  &  Moses,  2005;  Edwards,  1992) 3
  4. 4. More  Outcomes  of  children’s   literature…-­‐  Children  are  encouraged  to  want  to  read  more.  (Guthrie,  2011)-­‐  Children  increase  their  vocabulary,   comprehension,  text  structure  knowledge  &   author  &  illustrator  knowledge.   (Beck  &  McKeown,  2001)-­‐  Children  learn  the  love  &  appreciaBon  for   reading.   (Galda,  2010) 4
  5. 5. Why  Engage  in  Read-­‐alouds?• It’s  one  of  the  most  significant   predictors  of  school  achievement  and   the  cornerstone  of  reading   instrucBon  in  the  early  grades.   (Edwards,  1992)   5
  6. 6. Read-­‐alouds• “Read-­‐alouds  can  become  filler  acBviBes.”   (Teale,  2003,   pp.  135-­‐136).• Teachers  must  be  knowledgeable  about   literature  and  be  able  to  foster  the   development  of  children’s  higher-­‐level  literary   interpreBve  skills.   (Sipe,  2008)• The  act  of  reading  a  story  does  not  guarantee   literacy  development;  what  does  is  the  quality   of  the  interacBon  among  the  parBcipants.   (Meyer,   Wardrop,  Stahl,  &  Linn,  1994) 6
  7. 7.   7
  8. 8. Common  Core     tate  Standards S 7
  9. 9. Framework    • As  a  result  of  the  tremendous  importance  of   infusing  literature  into  literacy  instrucBon,  a   significant  porBon  of  the  CCSS  is  dedicated  to   its  use.• The  intenBon  of  the  standards  is  to  provide   guidance  on  core  content  or  a  core  set  of   expectaBons.   (Pearson  &  Hiebert,  2013) 8
  10. 10. CCSS (Pearson  &  Hiebert,  2013)• The  key  features  of  the  reading  standards  for   literature  are  to  support  students’  ability  to   read  and  comprehend  increasingly  complex   text  with  deep  understanding. – Quan%ta%ve  (i.e.,  syntacBc  complexity)   – Qualita%ve  (i.e.,  levels  of  meaning,  structure,   language  convenBons,  knowledge  demands)   9
  11. 11. Text  ComplexityIncreased  text  challenge  will  not  lead  to   increased  capacity  for  students  to  deal  with   complexity  without  increased  teacher   scaffolding  and  knowledge  of  the  nature  of   text  and  language   and  how  to  scaffold   (Fillmore  &  Snow,  2000)   conversaBons  around  text.   (Murphy,  Wilkinson,  Soter,  Hennessey,  &  Alexander,  2009). 10
  12. 12. 4  Subareas  of  CCSS  for  Reading:Key  Ideas  &  Details  (1-­‐3)   (Answer  who,  what,  when,  where,  how;  Retell)Cra?  and  Structure  (4-­‐6)   (Knowledge  of  various  genres,  vocab.,  dialogue)IntegraAon  of  Knowledge  &  Ideas  (7-­‐9)     (Discussions  of  text  &  illustraBons)Range  of  Reading  and  Level  of  Text  Complexity  (10)   (wide  &  varied  reading) 11
  13. 13. Close  Reading   (Peasron  &  Hiebert,  2013)Students  who  meet  the  Standards  readily  undertake  the  close,  aFenAve  reading  that  is  at  the  heart  of  understanding  and  enjoying  complex  works  of  literature  (p.  3  CCSS)Close  reading  occurs  both  within  and  across  texts  Students  read  closely  to  acquire  knowledge,  criBque  and  evaluate  claims  made  by  authorsHelping  students  watch  their  knowledge  grow,  change,  and  deepen  is  the  ulBmate  goal  of  close  reading 12
  14. 14. Picture  books• “Books  intended  for  young  children…tell   stories  through  a  series  of…pictures   combined  with  relaBvely  slight  text  or  no   text  at  all.”   (Nodelman,  1988,  p.vii)   The  principle  format  in  which  most   children  experience  literature.   (Sipe,  2008)   13
  15. 15. ThemaAcally  Related  Texts• ThemaBcally  related  texts  help  increase   intertextual  links  by  helping  students  make   connecBons  between/across  learning.    It’s   authenBc,  real-­‐world  reading.   (Hartman,  1995) 14
  16. 16. Also…• The  more  stories  children  know,  the  greater   number  of  criBcal  tools  they  bring  to  the   literature  encounter.   (Sipe,  2008)• Children  like  to  compare  and  contrast  similar   stories.• Variants  of  the  same  story  is  called  a  text  set. 15
  17. 17. What  are  Peritextual  Features?• Anything  in/around  the  book  other  than  the  printed   text.  (GeneSe,  1997) – Dust  Jacket/CaldecoS  medal – Front  Dust  Flap – Front  Cover – Front  endpapers  (endpages) – Title  page – DedicaBon/acknowledgement  page – Publisher  InformaBon – Back  endpapers  (endpages) – Back  Dust  Flap – Back  Cover – Lights,  sounds,  pop-­‐ups,  tabs,  pullouts 16
  18. 18. Why  Study  Peritextual  Features?• They  convey  meaning: – Size  of  book – Choice  of  colors – Typography – PosiBoning – Layout – Shape  of  illustraBons – Publishing  informaBon – The  peritext  is  just  as  much  a  source  of   meaning  as  the  verbal  text  of  the  story.  (Sipe,  2008) 17
  19. 19. Why  Study  Peritextual  Features?• They  develop  children’s  criBcal  and   inferenBal  thinking,  and  visual   interpretaBon  skills.   (Sipe,  2008)• They  contain  background  informaBon   &  prepare  children  for  the  verbal  text   begins.  They  guide  children  in   developing  predicBons  so  they  know   the  tone  of  the  story.   (Sipe,  2002) 18
  20. 20. Teach  terms  of  books…• Knowing  terms  draws  children’s  aSenBon  to     elements  of  picturebook  design  and   producBon  and  helps  them  look  closely  at   these  features.   (Sipe,  1998) – Bleed  (no  white  space) – ConBnuous  narraBon – Double-­‐page  spread – GuSer – Page  break 19
  21. 21. How  Peritextual  features  prepare   students  for  visual  meaning-­‐making• Discussion  about  the  peritext  enables  the   understanding  of  structure/form  in  stories• Help  students  make  predicBons  about  main   characters,  sepng,  etc.• Help  students  confirm  or  disconfirm   predicBons,  descripBons,  &  interpretaBons 20
  22. 22. Research  on  Peritextual  FeaturesAs  literature  becomes  more  prominent  in   elementary  classroom,  it’s  use  has  become  more   important.  Pantaleo  (2003)  found  that  peritextual   features  in  picture  books  significantly  contributed   to  first-­‐grade  students  aestheBc  appreciaBon  &   cogniAve  and  literary  understandings  of  books.     21
  23. 23. Research  on  Peritextual  Features• Sipe  &  McGuire  (2006)  focused  on  picturebook   endpapers  in  their  study  with  K-­‐2  grade  students  and   found  children  highly  engaged  in  using  the  front   endpapers  for  predicBve  purposes,  and  assumed  the   endpapers  were  the  preparaBon  for  the  story.• Thought  criBcally  about  the  choices  the  designer  &   illustrator  made• Understood  endpapers  begin  &  end  the  story• Speculated  why  plain  colors  were  chosen.    Connected   the  book’s  design,  content,  or  general  tone. 22
  24. 24. So…• Don’t  skip  to  the  first  words  of  the  story   and  begin  reading.  That’s  like  arriving  at   the  opera  arer  the  overture  is  finished.   (Moebius,  1986)• Do  study  the  peritext.    It  has  been   carefully  designed  and  orchestrated  to   prepare  us  to  read  the  story.   (Sipe,  2008) 23
  25. 25. •Examples  of  peritextual   features  in                                                   books 24
  26. 26. Glossy  -­‐vs-­‐  MaFe  Paper   (Sipe,  2008)• Shiny/Smooth  =  Glossy  -­‐  Gives  colors  a   glistening  clarity  &  aSracts  aSenBon  to  the   surface  of  the  picture  making  it  harder  to  focus   on  specific  objects.• MaSe=  rougher  stock  -­‐  Invites  our  touch  as  in   Chris  Van  Allsburg’s  Jumanji. 25 25
  27. 27. The  Polar  Express   Chris  Van  Allsburg,  1985 26 26
  28. 28. Dust  Jacket  –  Wrapper  around  the   book• Remove  dust  jackets.    Jan  BreS’s  books  have  a   surprise.    Why  did  the  illustrator,  designer,   publisher  make  these  choices? 27
  29. 29. Front  Flap  Jacket  –  The  fold  over    front   cover• Contains  a  summary  of  story 28
  30. 30. Front  Cover  –  Does  the  typography  coordinate  with  the  meaning  of  the  text  &  look  of  the  book? 29
  31. 31. Back  Cover    Why  include  this  informaAon?• Endorsement  Statements• “Welcome  back  Rocket” 30
  32. 32. Front  endpapers  (set  the  tone)• The  first  pages  of  a  book  are  like  stage   curtains.    Stories  begin  before  the  first  line  of   text.  Some  books  use  the  peritext  to  begin  the   narraBve.   (Sipe,  2008)   31
  33. 33. Front  MaFer  (alerts  us  to  the  story)Fine  print  • Title  page – Title  of  book – Author – Illustrator – Publishing  informaBon,  ©,  ISBN  #,  city Half  Title  Page  –  Contains  Btle  of  book   32
  34. 34. Title  Page• Title  of  Book  –  Where  author  signs  name 33
  35. 35. Publishing  InformaAon  –  lists  genre 34
  36. 36. Acknowledgements• Polacco’s  book  reads,  “Great  ExpectaBons”  by   Dickens,  a  story  about  growth  &  personal   development. 35
  37. 37. Back  Flap  Jacket• InformaBon  about  the  author/illustrator 36
  38. 38. Back  endpapers 37
  39. 39. Peritextual  Parts  of  the  Text• Where  is  text  box  located  on  the  page?•  “Openings”  or  “double-­‐page  spreads”  • Typography  –  the  font 38
  40. 40. What  does  the  font  suggest?   39
  41. 41. Point  of  view  (Your  posiBon  in   relaBon  to  the  scene) 40
  42. 42. Page  turns  What’s  happening  between  the  pages?   41
  43. 43. How  Children  Respond  to  Peritext   Features   (Sipe,  2008)• Refer  to  picturebook  construcBon,  producBon• DescripBon• InterpretaBon/evaluaBon• PredicBon• ASenBon  to  wriSen  language• Intratextual  (i.e.,  connecBons  to  other   peritextual  features  within  the  book) 42
  44. 44. How  Children  respond  during  Read-­‐• AnalyAcal  –  Comments  about  sepng,  theme,  plot,   characters  (73%)• Intertextual  –  Relate  text  to  other  texts  or  cultural   products  (i.e.,  song,  movie)  (10%)• Personal  –  Connect  text  to  personal  life  (life  to   text  or  text  to  life)  (10%)• Transparent  –  Enter  story  world  and  become  one   with  it  (manipulated  by  text)  (2%)  “Lost  in  book”• PerformaAve  –  Enter  world  of  text  to  manipulate   it  for  their  own  purpose  (manipulate  text)  (5%) 43
  45. 45. Examples• Descrip4on  –  “Well,  it’s  like  a  curtain,  like  on   the  front  cover,  the  curtain’s  open,  the   curtain’s  red,  and  um,  then  the  endpages,   they’re  red  too,  and  it’s  like,  like  the  curtain’s   closed,  and  you’re  gepng’  ready  for  the  play   to  start.”  (Response  to  The  Three  Li0le  Pigs) 44
  46. 46. Discussion  about  Endpapers  inInterpreta4ons:    Teacher:    Why  do  you  think  it’s  red?  (the   endpages)  I  don’t  know  why  it’s  red,  I’m  just  asking  you  what   you  think.Tony:    ‘Cause  I  like  that  color.Bob:    Li0le  Red  Riding  Hood!    Because  of  LiSle  Red  Riding   Hood!    Teacher:    Oh,  maybe  LiSle  Red  Riding  hood  is  going  to  be  in   here;  we’ve  been  reading  a  lot  of  LiSle  Red  Riding  hoods.Faye:    Because  of  the  paint  (the  Btle  on  the  front  cover  appears   painted  in  red).Teacher:    Oh,  because  the  Btle  is  red  and  you  think  it  just  goes   nicely  with  it?    I  was  just  thinking  that  to  myself.    Maybe   that’s  the  reason.    Let’s  read. 45
  47. 47. • The  teacher  reads  the  first  line  of  text…”Three   weeks  and  not  a  drop,  she  says,  sagging  over  her   parched  plants.”• Amanda:    Um,  I  know  why  the  endpages  are  red.     Because  it’s  hot  and  then  at  the  last  endpages,   they  gonna  be  blue  because  it  rains!  (PredicAon)• Teacher:    Oh!    They’re  gonna  be  blue  at  the  end,   because  it  rains!    Oops!    Maybe!    That  was  a  real   good  thought…Let’s  see.    At  the  end,  she  shows   the  back  endpages.• Teacher:    And  here  we  see…• Children:    “Blue  endpages!    Yeah!  (applause) 46
  48. 48. Discussion  about  Endpapers  in  • Interpreta4on:    Sally:    That  makes  sense,  because  it’s   dark  when  the  story  starts,  so  there’s  a  darker   endpage,  and  it’s  lighter  when  it  ends.    So  the  endpage   is  lighter,  back  there.• Gordon:    Yeah,  that  makes  sense!    Darker,  then  lighter.     That’s  different,  like  most  books,  the  endpages  are  the   same  on  the  front  and  the  back.• Teacher:    Yes,  that’s  very  interesBng,  it  is  one  of  the   few  books  I’ve  seen  where  the  endpages  are  different   at  the  beginning  and  the  end,  and  it’s  certainly  a  good   choice  the  illustrator  made.• Brad? 47
  49. 49. • Brad:    The  flea  is  the  alarm  clock  in  this  story?• Tom:    Yeah,  it  is!• Teacher:    What  an  interesBng  idea,  Brad.    Tell   me  more.• Brad:    Well,  the  flea  wakes  ‘em  all  up,  they’re   all  sleeping,  and  the  flea’s  their  alarm  clock   because  he  wakes  ‘em  up.• Tom:    Brrrrriiiiiing!    (imitaBng  an  alarm  clock)     Time  to  wake  up,  all  you  guys! 48
  50. 50. 49 49
  51. 51. 49 49
  52. 52. Reading  the  IllustraAons• IllustraBons  that  “bleed”  suggest  a  life  going   on  beyond  the  confines  of  the  page.”   (Sipe,  2008)    • In  Where  the  Wild  Things  Are,  the  wild  rumpus   stretches  over  3  double-­‐page  spreads.   50
  53. 53. • Why  do  you  think  the  author  did  not  include   an  illustraBon  to  accompany  the  final  text  in   the  book  Where  the  Wild  Things  Are?• and  it  was  sBll  hot. 51
  54. 54. How  high  characters  appear  on  the   page  may  indicate  social  statusWhich  one  is  Rocket? 52
  55. 55. Border  -­‐vs-­‐  Cut-­‐out  (no  frame)   Are  illustraBons  framed  or  cut-­‐out?  Framed   may  mean  a  limited  perspecBve.    MoBon  &   freedom  are  suggested  by  lack  of  a  frame. 53
  56. 56. ConBnuous  NarraBon 54
  57. 57. To  color  or  not  to  color…• Dark  colors  are  associated  with  sadness  and   fear. 55
  58. 58. Bright  colors  are  associated  with  joy     happiness,  &  confidence 56
  59. 59.     –  Bring  colors  are  high   intensity  colors                                         57
  60. 60. Low  intensity,  subdued  tones,  &  hues  on  the  violet  end  suggest  dreamlike,  sad,  fearful  scenes 58
  61. 61. Lines  &  Shape• The  thickness  of  a  line  conveys  meaning. – Smooth  lines  may  suggest  serenity – Rough  lines  may  suggest  energy • Shape  conveys  meaning. • Horizontal  mean  stability  and  calm  (Bang,  2000) • VerBcal    suggest  energy • Diagonal  evoke  moBon  and  tension • Pointed  create  anxiety  and  fear • Round  make  us  feel  comfortable  and  safe 59
  62. 62. Texture• ArBsts  use  various  techniques  to  provide   surface:    rough,  smooth,  delicate,  sturdy.   (Kiefer,  1995)• The  total  effect  of  an  arBsts  work  is  considered   their  style.  (Nodelman,  1988) – Pictorial-­‐a  style  characterisBc  of  a  parBcular  Bme   or  place  (Renaissance,  Impressionist) – ArBsBc  –  Changes  in  emphasis  or  subject  maSer,   but  not  overall  method – Personal  –  Unique  to  themselves 60
  63. 63. Size  &  Number  of  Shapes• The  larger  an  object,  the  stronger  it  feels  to  us• ArBsts  lead  our  eyes  around  illustraBons,  from   shape  to  shape.    Like  viewing  a  landscape.• An  illustraBon  with  fewer  shapes  gives  the   impression  of  calm  and  quiet   (Sipe,  2008). 61
  64. 64. PosiAoning• PosiBoning  a  shape  on  the  ler  side  of  the   picture  gives  it  more  weight  and  force  since  we   tend  to  “read”  pictures  from  ler  to  right.   (Arnheim,  1974) 62
  65. 65. The  RelaAonship  of  text  &  pictures• “Words  and  pictures  have  to  be  good  partners.”  “The  best   books  are  a  good  marriage  of  pictures  and  story.”  (Lunn,  2003,   p.  189)• Two  equally  important  parts  of  a  duet.  (Cech,  1983)• Words  describe  relaBonships  to  details;  pictures  give  a  sense   of  the  whole  (Nodelman,  1988).• Children  transmediate  between  pictures  &  illustraBons   (Translate  content  from  one  sign  system  to  another)  (Siegel,   1995)• Words  provide  a  cogniBve  map  (Nodelman,  1988)• Think  of  the  story,  Where  the  Wild  Things  Are  without  the   illustraBons. 63
  66. 66. 5  Ways  Text  &  Pictures  Relate (Nikolajeva  &  ScoS,  2001)• Symmetry  –  Equivalence  of  words/pictures• Complimentarity  –  words/pictures  work   independently• Enhancement  –  Words/pictures  extend  each   other’s  meaning• Counterpoint  –  Words/pictures  tell  different   stories  and  are  an  ironic  relaBonship  (i.e.,  a   character  is  menBoned  in  text,  but  not  portrayed)• Absolute  –  contradicBon  of  words/pictures 64
  67. 67. Where  are  people  placed?  Placement  in   upper  half  of  a  picture  implies  happiness,   triumph.Words  propel  us  forward,  pictures  invite  us  to   linger.   (Doonan,  1993) 65
  68. 68. Counterpoint  –  Omifng  informaAon• In  the  story  the  mother  is  menBoned  in  the   text,  but  not  illustrated.  By  contrast  some   characters  are  in  pictures,  but  not  menBoned. 66
  69. 69. Enhancement  (extension  of  words)• A  few  pages  before,  it  says,  “..let  the  wild   rumpus  start!”     67
  70. 70. Do  words  limit  illustraAons?  The  larger   the  object  the  stronger  it  feels  to  us.  Words  tell  us  things  that  pictures  omit,  and   pictures  tell  us  things  the  author  leaves  out.    In   a  well-­‐made  picture  book,  neither  the  words   nor  the  pictures  could  tell  the  story  alone. (Sipe,  2008) 68
  71. 71. Types  of  QuesAons  Teachers  ask  during  Picturebook  Readalouds:   (Sipe,  2008)• InvitaAons  –  “What’s  happening  here?”• Encouragements  –  “Anything  else?”• Probes  –  “Why  do  you  think  that?”• PredicAng  quesAons  –  “What  do  you  think  will   happen?”• Factual  quesAons  –  “Who  saved  Red  Riding   Hood?”• Teachers  play  an  essenBal  role  in  supporBng  &   developing  story  understanding  (scaffolding) 69
  72. 72. Literature-­‐based  Reading  Series• In  literature-­‐based  basal  reading  series    almost   all  the  peritextual  elements  have  been   omiSed.   (Sipe,  2008)• As  a  result,  children  are  deprived  of  the  rich   meaning-­‐making  experiences  that  the  peritext   affords.   (Feathers  &  Bochenek,  2006) 70
  73. 73. An  art  historian  &  aestheAc  theorist   posits:• To  marvel  is  the  beginning  of   knowledge,  and  when  we   cease  to  marvel,  we  may  be  in   danger  of  ceasing  to  know   (Gombrich,  1969). 71
  74. 74. ReferencesArnheim,  R.  (1974).    Art  and  visual  percepBon:    A  psychology  of  the  creaBve  eye.    Berkeley  and  Los  Angeles:    University  of  California   Press.Beck,  I.,  &  McKeown,  M.  G.  (2001).    Text  talk:    Capturing  the  benefits  of  read-­‐aloud  experiences  for  young  children.    The  Reading   Teacher,  55  (1),  10-­‐20.Bank,  M.  (2000).    Picture  this:    How  pictures  work.  Boston:    LiSle,  Brown.BenneS-­‐Armistead,  V.,  Duke,  N.,  &  Moses,  A.  (2005).    Literacy  and  the  youngest  learner:    Best  pracBces  for  educators  of  children   birth  to  5.    New  York,  NY.      ScholasBc.Burns,  M.,  Griffin,  P.,  &  Snow,  C.  (Eds.)  (1999).    StarBng  out  right:    A  guide  to  promoBng  children’s  reading  success.    Washington,   DC:    NaBonal  Academy  Press.Carlisle,  J.  (2004).  MeeBng  the  literacy  needs  of  struggling  readers  in  the  early  elementary  years.    PresentaBon  for  the  summer   insBtute.    University  of  Michigan.Cech,  J.  (1983-­‐84).    Remembering  CaldecoS:    “The  Three  Jovial  Huntsmen”  and  the  art  of  the  picture  book.    The  Lion  and  the   Unicorn,  7/8,  110-­‐119.Chambers,  A.  (1985).    Booktalk:    Occasional  wriBng  on  literature  and  children.    New  York:    Harper  &  Row.Doonan,  J.  (1993).    Looking  at  pictures  in  picture  books.    Stroud,  Glos.,  UK:    The  Thimble  Press.Edwards,  P.  (1992).    Involving  parents  in  building  reading  instrucBon  for  African-­‐American  children.    Theory  into  PracBce,  31  (4),   350-­‐359.Feathers,  K.,  &  Bochenek,  J.  (2006).    How  do  basal  and  original  stories  compare?:    Primary  grade  students  take  a  closer  look.     Michigan  Reading  Journal,  39  (1),  9-­‐15.Fillmore,  L.  W.,  &  Snow,  C.  (2000).    What  teachers  need  to  know  about  language.    Washington,  DC:    Center  for  Applied  LinguisBcs.Galda,  L.  (2010).    First  things  first:    Why  good  books  and  Bme  to  respond  to  them  maSer.    New  England  Reading  AssociaBon   Journal,  46  (1),  1-­‐7.Galda,  L.,  Cullinan,B.,  &  Sipe,  L.  (2009).    Literature  and  the  child  (7th  ed.).    Belmont,  CA.    Wadsworth/Thomson  Learning.Guthrie,  J.  T.  (2011).    Best  pracBces  in  moBvaBng  students  to  read.    In  L.  M.  Morrow  &  L.  B.  Gambrell  (Eds.),  Best  pracBces  in   literacy  instrucBon  (4th  ed.,  pp.  177-­‐198).  New  York:    Guilford  Press. 72
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