Read for RealHigh Impact Teaching Using Informational Text Barbara A. Marinak, PhD Mount St. Mary’s University email@example.com
Pedagogical Shift•IDEA 2004 and the CCSS are suggesting a major shift in how we approach reading instruction for all students.
Closer Look at CCSS•Expectations of CCSS•Impact on core reading instruction•Impact on intervention
Purpose• State-led effort coordinated by the National Governors Association Center for Best Practices (NGA Center) and the Council of Chief State School Officers (CCSSO).• Developed in collaboration with teachers, school administrators, and experts, to provide a clear and consistent framework to prepare our children for college and the workforce.
Purpose• Are aligned with college and work expectations• Are clear, understandable and consistent• Include rigorous content and application of knowledge through high-order skills• Are evidence-based
English Language Arts• Establish a “staircase” of increasing complexity in what students must be able to read and comprehend in order to be prepared for the demands of college and career.
English Language Arts• Reading: Literature and Informational Text• Writing• Speaking and Listening• Language• Media and Technology• Range, Quality and Complexity• Literacy in History/Social Studies, Science, and Technical Subjects
English Language Arts• By reading a diverse array of classic and contemporary literature as well as challenging informational texts in a range of subjects, students are expected to build knowledge, gain insights, explore possibilities, and broaden their perspective.
Informational Text• Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text.• Describe the overall structure (e.g., chronology, comparison, cause/effect, problem/solution) of events, ideas, concepts, or information in a text or part of a text.
Informational Text• Compare and contrast a firsthand and secondhand account of the same event or topic; describe the differences in focus and the information provided.• Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears.
Informational Text• Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes or topics in order to build knowledge or to compare the approaches the authors take.
Informational Text• Determine the main idea of a text and explain how it is supported by key details; summarize the text.
Impact on Core and Intervention• Read deeply and widely from a truly balanced collection• Read regularly within in and between text• Regular written responding within and between text
Fiction Heavy…Why?•Perception of difficulty•Perception of interests•Perception of turf
Informational Text Imperative • Significantly increase the amount of informational text students access • Increase the diversity of informational text • Select mentor texts that allow multiple core standards to be taught • Teach informational text using high impact methods
High Impact Methods•Explicit•Evidence-based•Portable•Promote transference
Elements of Fiction Characters: The living beings in stories, plays, and poems that speak, think, and carry out the action. A character can be a person, animal or a personified object Setting: When and where the story occurs. Problem: The conflict or goal around which the story is organized. Events: One or more attempts by the main character(s) to achieve the goal or solve the problem. Resolution: The outcome of the attempts to achieve the goal or solve the problem. Theme: The main idea or moral of the story.
Research Findings• Studies also indicate that children become aware of and are comfortable with narrative story structure (characters, setting, problem, events, solution) at an early age. In other words, due to narrative reading practice and instruction in story grammar, fiction text becomes “predictable” (Williams, 2005).
• It is just as important that informational reading practice be increased and that students become aware of and comfortable with the “predictable” elements and text structures that occur across informational text (Marinak & Gambrell, 2007).
Informational GrammarJust as there is a narrative story grammar,there is also an “informational grammar”(Marinak & Gambrell, 2007).
Five Text Elements ofInformational Grammar • Author’s Purpose • Major Ideas • Supporting Details • Aids • Important Vocabulary (Marinak, Moore, & Henk, 1998)
Teach the Text Structures• Hall, Sabey, and McClellan (2005) and Williams (2005) found that text structure instruction promotes informational text comprehension.• Text structure awareness has also been linked to accurate recall and retelling (Richgels, McGee, Lomax & Sheard,1987).
Big Five Text Structures• Enumeration• Time Order• Compare & Contrast*• Problem/Solution• Cause & Effect(Hall, Sabey & McClellan, 2005; Neufeld, 2005; Richgels, McGee, Lomax & Sheard,1987; Williams, 2005)
Knowledge of Content Graphic Organizers• A small cadre of graphic organizers and/or text maps should be used carefully• Should be discipline-specific• Should always be purposeful…discussion, writing, etc.
Compare/Contrast Giraffe Emperor PenguinSupporting Details Attributes Supporting Details Africa Live Antarctica One Number of Babies One Live Type of Birth Egg Kindergarten Protection of Young Kindergarten
Compare/Contrast Summary We can compare and contrast giraffes and Emperor penguins. Giraffes live in Africa but Emperor penguins live in Antarctica. Giraffes have live births. Emperor penguins lay eggs. Both giraffes and Emperor penguins have one baby at a time. Giraffes and Emperor penguins are similar in how they protect their young. These two animals place their babies in kindergartens.
Compare/Contrast Giraffe Emperor PenguinSupporting Details Attributes Supporting Details Africa Number of Babies Kindergarten
Anaconda Reticulated African Indian Python Boa Attributes Python Python ConstrictorWhere do they live?How do they have babies?What do they look like?How do they catch their prey?
Summarization• Summarization is the process of restating the essence of text or an experience in as few words as possible or in a new, yet efficient, manner.• In order to summarize, the student must be able to process the ideas of the passage and consider how they are related to one another.
Summarization• Authors structure text in a variety of ways based on content and topic.• Many studies indicate that teaching students to identify text structure and clarifying important information leads to more effective summarization.
Response Heuristic• Text Perception: is a summary statement about important information from the text.On Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939 Marian Anderson sang to acrowd of 75,000 people on the steps of the LincolnMemorial. She sang at the Lincoln Memorial because theDAR had a "whites only” rule at Constitution Hall.
• Reactions to Text: are evaluative statements that ask students to express their opinion about the text. I was outraged when I read this book. I had no idea that the Daughters of the American Revolution prohibited this great singer from performing at Constitution Hall.
• Associations with the text: are higher level evaluations that require students to associate information with their own prior knowledge or associate current reading with past readings.It is now clear why Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his“I Have a Dream” speech on the steps of the LincolnMemorial. Amazing that Dr. King’s speech didnt happenuntil August 28,1963!
On Easter Sunday, April 9, 1939 Marian Andersonsang to a crowd of 75,000 people on the steps of theLincoln Memorial. She sang at the Lincoln Memorialbecause the DAR had a “whites only” rule atConstitution Hall. I was outraged when I read thisbook. I had no idea that that the Daughters of theAmerican Revolution prohibited this great singerfrom performing at Constitution Hall. It is now clearwhy Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his “I Have ADream” speech on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.Amazing that Dr. King’s speech didnt happen untilAugust 28, 1963!
Good teaching is forever being on the cutting edge of a child’s competence. Jerome Bruner