Vocabulary Slides - Selecting & Teaching

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  • • Synonyms (in ancient Greek syn 'συν' = plus and onoma 'όνομα' = name) are different words with similar or identical meanings and are interchangeable.
  • • Which synonym is the most energetic and vivacious, which the least?
  • • A ntonyms , from the Greek anti ("opposite") and onoma ("name") are word pairs that are opposite in meaning , such as hot and cold , obese and skinny , and up and down .
  • • Which is the strongest, most negative opposite?
  • ・ Denotation refers to the literal meaning of a word, the "dictionary definition." ャ For example, if you look up the word snake in a dictionary, you will discover that one of its denotative meanings is "any of numerous scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles チ Khaving a long, tapering, cylindrical body and found in most tropical and temperate regions.” ・ Connotation , on the other hand, refers to the associations that are connected to a certain word or the emotional suggestions related to that word. The connotative meanings of a word exist together with the denotative meanings. The connotations for the word snake could include evil or danger.
  • • Homonym - 1. Pathology An abnormal concretion in the body, usually formed of mineral salts and found in the gallbladder, kidney, or urinary bladder, for example. - 2. Dentistry See tartar . - 3. Mathematics a. The branch of mathematics that deals with limits and the differentiation and integration of functions of one or more variables. b. A method of analysis or calculation using a special symbolic notation. c. The combined mathematics of differential calculus and integral calculus. - 4. A system or method of calculation: " [a] dazzling grasp of the nation's byzantine budget calculus" David M. Alpern. • Homophone - ・ Carat (mass) , a unit of mass for gemstones, equal to 0.2 gram ・ Carat (purity) or karat, a unit of purity for gold - Caret is the name for the symbol ^ in ASCII and some other character sets . - A carrot ( Daucus carota ) is a root vegetable , usually orange or white in color with a woody texture. The edible part of a carrot is a taproot . -----> chow/ciao (interlingual homophones) • Homograph - bow, the front part of a ship - bow, to bend - bow, a decorative knot
  • Littice: From http://www.jfsowa.com/logic/math.htm
  • Littice: From http://www.jfsowa.com/logic/math.htm
  • • un malfrat [mal fra](informal) - thug, crook, truant; Il y a une bande de malfrats dans ce quartier - There's a gang of truants around here.Related: malfaisant (adj) - evil, wicked; un malfaiteur - criminal, gangster, thief
  • • un malfrat [mal fra](informal) - thug, crook, truantIl y a une bande de malfrats dans ce quartier - There's a gang of truants around here.Related: malfaisant (adj) - evil, wicked; un malfaiteur - criminal, gangster, thief
  • Vocabulary Slides - Selecting & Teaching

    1. 1. Vocabulary Instruction Douglas K. Hartman, Ph.D. TE 302
    2. 2. Background: Four Types of Vocabulary • Listening • Speaking • Reading • Writing
    3. 3. Vocabulary Comprehension Reading Vocabulary
    4. 4. Read Text Read Text Teach Vocabulary Measure Comprehension Measure Comprehension Group 1 Group 2
    5. 5. Why did the vocabulary instruction not increase comprehension?
    6. 6. What type of vocabulary instruction does not increase comprehension? • “Wrong” words are taught. • Indepth-word knowledge is not produced.
    7. 7. What type of vocabulary words and instruction does improve comprehension? • ‘Mature’ and/or ‘Domain Specific’ words are taught. • Indepth-word knowledge is produced.
    8. 8. ‘Mature’ and ‘Domain Specific’ Words
    9. 9. Types of Vocabulary Words Tier Label Features Utility Examples 3 Domain Words •low frequency •domain specific •specializing language user high inside knowledge domain isotope lathe peninsula refinery 2 Mature Words •high frequency •across domains •maturing language user high across knowledge domains incidence absurd industrious fortunate 1 Basic Words •high frequency •in everyday domains •beginning language user high in everyday domain clock baby happy walk Beck, McKeown, & Kucan (2002)
    10. 10. Selecting Words: Process
    11. 11. Selecting Words: Quantity • How many words to teach?
    12. 12. Selecting Words: Quantity • How many words to teach? • Depends on -- your students -- your subject -- your materials -- your goals
    13. 13. Selecting Words: Quantity • How many words to teach? • “The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two”1 • 5-10 words (at a time) 1 Miller, G.A. (1956). The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on our Capacity for Processing Information. Psychological Review, 63, 81-97.
    14. 14. Indepth-Word Knowledge
    15. 15. Indepth-Word Knowledge Part 1
    16. 16. What principles are characteristic of instruction that produces in-depth word knowledge?
    17. 17. Instructional Principles • Integration • Repetition • Meaningful Use • Active
    18. 18. Process of Using Principles • Introducing • Engaging
    19. 19. Introducing • Definitions • --Problems • --Solution: “Explanations” • ----1. Characterize Word • ----2. Use Everyday Language
    20. 20. Example: tamper • Definition: “to interfere in a secret or incorrect way” • Explanation: “to change something secretly so that it does not work properly or becomes harmful”
    21. 21. Example: ally • Definition: “one associated with another” • Explanation: “someone who helps you in what you are trying to do, especially when there are other people who are against you”
    22. 22. Example: illusion • Definition: “appearance or feeling that misleads because it is not real” • Explanation: “something that looks like one thing but is really something else or is not there at all”
    23. 23. Engaging • Have students use word meanings right away • Have students process word meanings deeply
    24. 24. Example: Word Associations • Explanations for: accomplice, virtuoso, philanthropist, novice • Which word goes with crook? • Which word goes with “gift to build a new hospital”? • Which word goes with piano? • Which word goes with kindergartner?
    25. 25. Example: Have You Ever …? • Describe a time when you might: • -- urge someone • -- commend someone • --banter with someone
    26. 26. Example: Idea Completions • The audience asked the virtuoso to play another piece of music because … • The skiing instructor said Maria was a novice on the slopes because … • When might you … ? • How might you … ?
    27. 27. Your Turn Apply These Research-Based Elements to a Textbook or Trade Book
    28. 28. Indepth-Word Knowledge Part 2
    29. 29. Review “Mastering the information and ideas of any language or discipline is largely a matter of mastering the vocabulary used to represent concepts.” --Doug Hartman
    30. 30. Principle • Pre-teach words in relation to other words.
    31. 31. Synonyms, Antonyms & Denotation/Connotation 1. Synonyms 2. Antonyms 3.Denotation/ Connotation
    32. 32. 1. Synonyms Synonyms (Cognates) Words similar in meaning • revitalize • revive • invigorate • refresh • stimulate • enliven • animate
    33. 33. 1. Synonyms • revitalize • revive • invigorate • refresh • stimulate • enliven • animate
    34. 34. 2. Antonyms Antonyms Words nearly opposite in meaning • revitalize • wear out • exhaust • deaden • dampen • dim • repress
    35. 35. 2. Antonyms • revitalize • wear out • exhaust • deaden • dampen • dim • repress
    36. 36. 3. Denotation/Connotation Denotation/ Connotation Literal meaning & affective/ imaginative meaning • snake - scaly, legless, sometimes venomous reptiles - evil or danger
    37. 37. Homonym, Homophone & Homograph Sound Spelling Meaning Example 4. Homonym same same different calculus/ calculus/ calculus 5. Homophone same different different carat/ caret/ carrot 6. Homograph different same different bow/ bow
    38. 38. 7. Graphic Organizer
    39. 39. 7. Graphic Organizer
    40. 40. 7. Graphic Organizer
    41. 41. 7. Graphic Organizer
    42. 42. 7. Graphic Organizer
    43. 43. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    44. 44. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    45. 45. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    46. 46. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    47. 47. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    48. 48. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    49. 49. 8. Semantic Feature Analysis
    50. 50. 9. Semantic Word Map Word Feeling Explanation Experience
    51. 51. 9. Semantic Word Map Word Feeling Explanation Experience malfrat thug, crook
    52. 52. 9. Etymology (The study of word histories.) DIEGO Gender: Masculine Usage: Spanish Pronounced: DYE-go Possibly a short form of SANTIAGO, but it is more likely derived from the medieval name Didacus which meant "teaching" from Greek διδαχη (didache). A famous bearer of this name was Mexican muralist Diego Rivera.
    53. 53. 9. Etymology • FRACTION: 1391, from L.L. fractionem (nom. fractio) "a breaking," especially into pieces, from root of L. frangere (pt. fregi) "to break," from PIE base *bhr(e)g- (cf. Skt. (giri)-bhraj "breaking-forth (out of the mountains);" Goth. brikan, O.E. brecan "to break;" Lith. brasketi "crash, crack;" O.Ir. braigim "break" wind). Mathematical sense was the original one in Eng. Sense of "broken off piece, fragment," is from 1606.
    54. 54. 10. Word Analysis
    55. 55. 10. Word Analysis
    56. 56. 11. Dramatize/Enact • Act out word meanings through scenarios • Examples - “run the gauntlet” - “proton, neutron, electron” - “union, intersection” - “avenge, revenge”
    57. 57. Your Turn Apply These Research-Based Elements to a Textbook or Trade Book

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