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  • 1. KRISTALLNACHT “The Night of Broken Glass”
  • 2. Kristallnacht
    • A massive, coordinated attack on Jews and Jewish shops on November 9, 1938
    • It became known as Kristallnacht, which means “night of broken glass”
    A synagogue burns in Ober Ramstadt during Kristallnacht
  • 3. Segregation
    • Signs such as “Jews not welcome” were posted in many stores and places around German cities.
    • Jews were treated like outcasts and trash during this era.
    “ Jews are not welcome here”
  • 4. How it began
    • It began after Herschel Grynszpan, a 17 year old Jew living in Paris, shot and killed a member of the German Embassy staff because of the poor treatment his father and his family suffered through in the hands of the Nazi party
    • Because of this, the Grynszpan family and over 15,000 other Jews were transported by train and dumped at the Polish border
  • 5. How it began (cont.)
    • The shooting in Paris gave Hitler and the propaganda minister, Joseph Goebbels, a good reason to begin the extermination of the Jews or in Hitler’s words, “rise in bloody vengeance against the Jews.“
    • Joseph Goebbels inspired the Hitler Youth and other Germans to burn down and break windows in Jewish shops, and synagogues in order to make everyone believe that the Jews truly deserved to be punished
  • 6. The Infamous Night
    • On November 9, mob violence broke out as the German police stood by and crowds of spectators watched. Nazi storm troopers, members of the SS, and Hitler Youth beat and murdered Jews, broke into and wrecked Jewish homes and synagogues, and brutalized Jewish women and children.
  • 7. Synagogues
    • Some of the main targets for the mobs were synagogues.
    • The angry mobs were trying to…
      • Destroy the insides of the synagogues
      • Burn down the synagogues
      • Vandalize the walls
      • Burn the torah scrolls
    Hechingen Synagogue in Germany after Kristallnacht
  • 8. After Kristallnacht
    • It was later decided to transfer all Jewish property to the “Aryans”
    • All the burned down synagogues were turned into parking lots
    • About 25,000 Jews were rounded up and sent to concentration camps
  • 9. Aftermath
    • After Kristallnacht, Reinhard Heydrich reported the death toll and results from Kristallnacht
    • He reported…
      • 7500 businesses destroyed
      • 267 synagogues burned (with 177 totally destroyed)
      • 91 Jews killed
  • 10. Bibliography