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Comma Rules because Commas Rule!


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Comma Rules because Commas Rule!

  1. 1. COMMAS RULE !!
  2. 2. RULE 11F: Items in a Series Use a comma with 3 or more items (series) joined with “and” or “or”. (IS) <ul><li>The adults talked , laughed , took photographs , and shared memories. </li></ul>
  3. 3. EXCEPTION! NO Comma if… Do NOT use a comma if you have a compound subject, verb or any other compound part. <ul><ul><li>He went to tennis practice and finished his homework before 9 PM. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. RULE 11F: Adjectives in a Series Use a comma with two or more adjectives that are together without any conjunction and only if they can be reversed or “and” put between them. (IS) <ul><li>The gray , darkening sky caused me to hurry home. </li></ul>If one of the words modifies another, do not separate them with a comma. Example: I study in our small dining room . Dining room is considered as one part of speech.
  5. 5. RULE 11G Compound Sentence Use a comma before FANBOYS ( For, And, Nor, But, Or, Yet, So) when they join independent clauses. (CS) <ul><li>Hector pressed the button , and the engine started up. </li></ul>
  6. 6. RULE 11H Nonessential Elements Use a comma/commas to set off non-essential dependent clauses or nonessential participial phrases. (NEC) <ul><li>Griffins , which are mythological beasts , are seen on many coat of arms. </li></ul>
  7. 7. RULE 11H Essential Elements Use NO commas if the clause is essential to the meaning of the sentence. <ul><li>All of the students who will run in the cross country meet should meet in the lobby. </li></ul>A clause or phrase that tells which one is essential. Without the clause, the meaning changes.
  8. 8. RULE 11i Introductory Words Use a comma after an introductory word. (Intro W) <ul><li>Ah , nothing tastes as good as cold lemonade on a hot day! </li></ul>
  9. 9. RULE 11i Introductory Phrases Use a comma after an introductory … - participial phrase. (Intro P) - infinitive phrase used as an adverb - multiple prepositional phrases - long prepositional phrase (4+ words)
  10. 10. 11I: Introductory Phrases <ul><li>Participial Phrase : </li></ul><ul><li>Switching on a flashlight , the ranger led </li></ul><ul><li>the way down the path. </li></ul><ul><li>Adverb Infinitive Phrase : </li></ul><ul><li>To get to the park , turn left at the next corner. </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple Prepositional Phrases : </li></ul><ul><li>By the end of the train ride , the children were </li></ul><ul><li>exhausted. </li></ul><ul><li>Long Prepositional Phrase : </li></ul><ul><li>Inside the green gate , she built a shed. </li></ul>
  11. 11. RULE 11i: Introductory Adverb Clause Use a comma with an introductory adverb clause. (DC,IC) <ul><li>When you see smoke , you know there is a fire. </li></ul>
  12. 12. NO Comma? Do NOT use a comma before a regular order adverb clause. (ROAC) <ul><li>I will call my best friend about my homework after I finish eating dinner . (ROAC) </li></ul>
  13. 13. RULE 11J: Interrupters Use commas to set off nonessential appositives and nonessential appositive phrases . (APP) <ul><li>Their new parrot , Mina, is very gentle. </li></ul><ul><li>He recited the second stanza of “Childhood” by the poet Margaret Walker . </li></ul>
  14. 14. RULE 11J: Interrupters Use a comma for direct address (DA) <ul><li>Mr. Young , would you please explain the definition again? </li></ul>
  15. 15. RULE 11J: Interrupters Use a comma to set off parenthetical expressions. (Inter W/P) <ul><li>My essay, according to my English teacher , is the best in the class. </li></ul><ul><li>Nevertheless , you must do all of your homework. </li></ul>
  16. 16. RULE 11K: Conventional Situations Use commas with dates and addresses. (CONV) <ul><li>On December 5 , 1984 , their address became 25 Peralta Road , Oakland , CA 94611. </li></ul><ul><li>Please send this letter to Ms. Marybeth Correio , 1255 S.E. 56 th Street , Belleview , Wa. 98006. </li></ul>