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Victor horta work and influences


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victor hortar's work and influences

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Victor horta work and influences

  1. 1. "If it is correct that logic is the basis of a creator's slightest reasoning, I believe that it must not be allowed to interfere with one's dreams of "charm", that delicate superfluous entity which often adds to harsh necessity'" VICTOR HORTA
  2. 2. Works and influence of VICTOR HORTA • Victor, Baron Horta (6 January 1861 - 8 September 1947) was a Belgian architect and designer. • One of the key European Art Nouveau architecths • is sometimes credited as the first to introduce the style to architecture from the decorative arts, especially in Belgium.
  3. 3. Early life BIRTH 6 JANUARY 1861 • Born and raised in Ghent ; Born in the family of a shoemaker • In 1873, went to study musical theory at the Ghent 1873 Conservatory STUDY MUSICAL • Expelled for misbehaviour. Joined Department of Architecture THEORY at the Royal Academy of Fine Arts in Ghent 1878 LEFT FOR PARIS 1880, he • Found work with architect and designer Jules Debuysson returned to in Montmartre Belgium and moved to Brussels 1880 • Went to study architecture at Academie Royale Des Beaux-Arts DEATH OF FATHER; RETURN TO BRUSSELS
  4. 4. 1881 ASSISTANT; FIRST GLASS & IRON WORK Taken as assistant by his professor Alphonse Balat, architect to Leopold II of Belgium- together designed Royal Greenhouses of Laeken (Horta's first work to use glass and iron) Image 1 : Winter Garden Section Site Plan Image 1 :
  5. 5. Image 1: The Dome Image 4: Ornamentation on ribs Image 3 : Winter Garden - Inside Image 2 : The Cupola Image 6 : Ornamentation of Door Handles Image 1 : Image 2: /4531930532/lightbox/ Image 3: /4531945786/ Image 4: 6/in/photostream/ Image 5: Detailing of the Dome Image 5: /in/photostream/ Image 6:
  6. 6. 1884 WON THE FIRST PRIX GODECHARLE • awarded for achitecture(for his unbuilt project for Parliament) as well as the Grand Prix on leaving the royal academy. 1885 STARTED INDIVIDUAL PRACTICE • 3 houses that yr. joined central society of Belgian architecture. 1892 ART NOUVEAU EXHIBITION 1915 LEFT FOR LONDON • Horta was inspired. Commissioned to design a home for professor Emile Tassel, he transfused the recent influences into Hôtel Tassel, completed in 1893 • attended the Town Planning Conference on the Reconstruction of Belgium, organised by the International Garden Cities and Town Planning Association. • Unable to return ,due to the war, went to the United States, gave lectures at universities including Cornell, Harvard, MIT, Smith College, Wellesley College and Yale and, in 1917, became Professor of Architecture at George Washington University, and Charles Eliot Norton Memorial Lecturer
  7. 7. He revolutionized the typical traditional Plan of the private houses from Brussels (three adjoining rooms) by means of An organic ornamental form. (As can be seen of Hotel Tassel) TYPICAL BELGIAN HOUSES
  8. 8. HÔTEL TASSEL PLAN;%20Brussels,%20Tassel%20House, %201893-5,%20section2.JPG FACADE consider to be the first Art Nouveau building, TASSEL HOUSE. an alternate "take" on historical styles, and the modern materials of iron and glass. The stone exterior includes the consoles, mouldings, and columns of classical architecture. But the columns are iron, not stone. The building had a smooth, fluid façade, unlike the carefully articulated planes of true classical buildings.
  9. 9. formal Analysis Supported and supporting elements - Built-in support (you can do without bearing walls). free plant Decorative function, especially capitals. Rafters, and iron sight (element of the set) Metal structure Fine wrought iron columns:
  10. 10. OUTER SPACE Its shape is narrow and deep justified because Brussels is not exceeded the ground and the house suited to the unlikely soil. No clash around
  11. 11. Building of three floors and an attic: 1st floor: windows separated by stone columns. 2nd floor: gallery with high iron columns and glass. 3rd floor: terrace with iron railings. Decorative elements of the facade very original for the time. Walls covered with stone masonry.,%20ext.%20facade.jpg Facade with large areas of glass to improve interior lighting. Wavy.
  12. 12. https://encrypted cTCLzefxeXSrvzXsYVr8UDtcTCLzefxeXSrvzXsYVr8UDt2uuXdaZYaaTjmVMgKv-KY0OSv-bkg 2uuXdaZYaaTjmVMgKv-KY0OSv-bkg Stone columns separate windows el/BrusselsHotel%20Tassel,%20ext.%20facade.jpg 3rd floor terrace Columns metal gate very original d9GcRQMvi5ZvOKHgBTGpExU7VGvae4H1
  13. 13. It integrates all the arts, the interior being very important, taking care to detail in the decoration: door knobs, railings, gates, mosaics, wall paintings, lamps, furniture, etc..
  14. 14. HÔTEL TASSEL PART SECTION SECTION;%20Brussels,%20Tassel%20House,%201893-5,%20section2.JPG (,%20ext.%20facade.jpg)
  16. 16. Window detail Mail Slot
  17. 17. External Façade Windows
  18. 18. 1901 HOTEL VAN ETVELDE Horta found it the best expression to his ideas. His skill is demonstrated in his ability to slip his domestic designs into narrow constricted sites. The interiors become of great importance as centres of light, which permeates through the filigree domes and skylights—usually in the centre of the building. The Hotel van Eetvelde is a remarkable example of the way Horta handled the situation and used it to highlight the imposing staircase, which leads up to the first-floor reception rooms."
  20. 20.
  21. 21. Recessed ground floor with the first and second floors resting on iron consoles The facade has bays with arched windows and exposed metalwork. Iron Consoles
  22. 22. The top story with carved tendrils in stone and elaborate ironwork Carved stone ironwork mosaic decoration on the facade
  23. 23. Gate Detail Front Door
  24. 24. Light Well Central hall Door Handle Detail
  25. 25. 1919 RETURNED BRUSSELS 1928 PALAIS DES BEAUX-ARTS 1932 BARON 1947 DEATH 1952 • Sold his workshop workshop on the rue Américaine(American Street), and became full member of Belgian royal family • Change of style , Art Deco and Cubist styles seen • In recognition of his work, Horta was awarded the title of Baron by Albert I of Belgium in 1932 • Died while working on his last project. Brussels Central Railway Station Another shift- to Modernism. • His colleagues led by Maxime Brunfaut completed his plans. • The Brussels Central Railway station was finally opened
  26. 26. On the rue Royale/Koningsstraat, high er up the hill, the Centre was not permitted to spoil the king’s view of the lower town. The height of the building was therefore strictly limited and the majority of the "Palace" was built underground. des_Beaux-Arts_de_Lille finally built between 1923 and 1928) which associates the demands of the site with a noble simplicity, reflecting Horta’s refinement and ideas of course but without neglecting his mission : enhancing the museum’s future collections. Museum in Tournai PALAIS DES BEAUX-ARTS
  27. 27. Horta was working on Brussels-Central railway station when he died in 1947, and the building was completed to his plans by his colleagues led by Maxime Brunfaut. It eventually opened on 4 October 1952
  28. 28. ART NOUVEAU SHIFTING TO MODERNIST CLASSICAL ART DECO 1861 – Birth 1873- went to study music 1878 – left for paris 1880- death of father 1884 – won Prix Godecharle 1885- own practice starts 1888- joins freemasons 1892 – head of graphic design at universitie libre; attended art nouveau exhibition 1893 – returned to design houses n shops; promoted to prof; hotel tassel completed 1898- his own residence 1901 – hotel van eetvelde 1915- left for london 1919 – returns to belgium 1927- director, academe royale des beaux arts 1932 – Named Baron 1947- Death
  30. 30. Typical Details of Horta’s Buildings Victor Horta used · Iron railings in curved lines · Stenciled walls and ceilings · Mosaic floor tiles · Irregular shapes · Exposed cast iron structurally · A centralised floor plan · Glass and iron facades · Asymmetrical balance · White tiles · Muted colours (olive, mustard, sage, brown gold, salmon…)
  31. 31. Influences on Horta
  32. 32. Philosophy of innovation : Iron was only accepted for industrial use, his philosophy was based on apparent use of iron framework used in a very efficient manner Beams used by him
  33. 33. "My stay in Paris, walking the city streets, visiting the monuments and museums threw wide open the windows of my artistic soul. No school could have done more to tire me with an enthusiasm for architecture than viewing and deciphering those monuments - an enthusiasm that has never left me." (Mémoires, p.8) Victor Horta Influence of Paris
  34. 34. Inspiration were drawn from theories of ‘ Eugene Viollet – le – Duc’ – projects based on an imp notion of rationality. “It is necessary to step back from traditional architectural rules and to privilege a consistency and a strong coherence between the plan, the façade and the purpose of the building.” “ Use of a new material had to be reflected by the usage of new forms” Eugene Viollet le Duc
  35. 35. The Art Nouveau Movement Art Nouveau Movement considered that each material should be presented by its own formal expression. As a student of Alphonse Balat, Horta was highly influenced by the Art Nouveau theories.
  36. 36. Biblography • pdf • • • • George Kohlmeir, House of Glass • • Hemant kandpal Prashansha sachdeva