Central YMCA Qualifications
(CYQ)
Principles of Exercise, Fitness and Health
By the end of this unit you will be able to:
•Understand the relationship between health and physical activity
•Describe t...
Assessment
Unit 3 (Principles of Exercise, Fitness and
Health) will be assessed by an externally set and
assessed written ...
Health & Fitness
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Defining Health and Fitness
• According to the World Health Organisation,
health is a state of complete physical, mental
a...
Defining Health and Fitness
• The term ‘fitness’ refers to the ability to
meet the demands of life safely and
effectively,...
Defining Health and Fitness
• Physical activity is defined as any bodily
movement produced by skeletal muscles that
requir...
Health related Fitness
• Health related fitness is the capacity to
combine all aspects of fitness to facilitate
positive h...
Health related Fitness
• Physical fitness is unique among the
components of ‘whole health’ as it is
accepted that physical...
Relationship between Total Fitness &
Physical Fitness
The Components of Total Fitness
• Emotional and mental – well being, the ability
to think clearly an constructively
• Soci...
The Components of Total Fitness
• Spiritual – attitude, honoring ones own and
others human values
• Physical – a combinati...
The Components of Physical Fitness
• Flexibility - the ability of a joint or joint
complex to work to its full range of
mo...
The Components of Physical Fitness
• Cardiovascular fitness - the ability of the heart
and lungs to take in, transport and...
Factors Influencing Health and Fitness
Health, physical fitness and training potential
are determined by several variables...
Factors Influencing Health and Fitness
• Lifestyle factors:
– Everyday activity
– Health status
– Lifestyle habits
– Diet
Health and Regular Physical Activity
Regular physical activity is one of the most
important things that you can do for you...
Health and Regular Physical Activity
• Promote bone density to protect against
osteoporosis and falls in older age
• Decre...
Health and Regular Physical Activity
• Weight management
• Improve confidence and wellbeing
• Strengthen bones, joints and...
Exercise Prescription for Health
• Chief Medical Officer and Department of
Health `Start Active and Stay Active` report
gu...
Barriers to Fitness and Exercise
Despite growing awareness of the benefits
many people struggle to start or to maintain an...
Key Points
• Total fitness is a multi dimensional concept
that includes various fitness aspects
• Regular physical activit...
Principles of Training
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Principles of Training
Training is a slow and subtle process that should
lead to improved performance resulting from
plann...
Principles of Training
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Overload
Specificity
Reversibility principle
Adaptability
Recovery time
Plateau
Regr...
Short Term Effects of Training
What happens to the body during training?
The following short term responses take place:
• ...
Short Term Effects of Training
• Levels of lactic acid rise
• Blood pressure increases
• Joints become more mobile
Once tr...
Principles of Training
Blood Pooling
• If exercise stops suddenly the blood and
waste products stay in the muscle
• Blood ...
Principles of Training
Applying the FITT principle to achieve overload
• Frequency – the number of sessions in a
given per...
Exercise and the Skeletal System
Regular exercise has a positive impact on the
skeletal system as well as the muscles
Regu...
Exercise and the Skeletal System
Long term
• Increased bone density
• Decreased risk of osteoporosis
• Improved joint stab...
Exercise and Improved Posture
A balanced exercise programme can improve
posture. Benefits of improved posture include:
•Im...
Speed and its Impact on Exercise
• Potentially negative impact on posture
• Increased muscular strength (and control)
requ...
Key Points
• The principles of training are overload,
specificity, adaptability, individuality,
recovery time and plateau
...
Cardiovascular Fitness
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Cardiovascular Fitness
• Cardiovascular fitness is often referred to as
stamina, endurance, cardio-respiratory fitness
(he...
Cardiovascular Exercise
• Cardiovascular exercise can be defined as
being:
– Rhythmic in nature
– Continuous
– Uses large ...
Guidelines for CV Training
ACSM guidelines to achieve and maintain cardiovascular health and
fitness benefits
Frequency

3...
Physical Exercise and the Heart
• The heart is a muscle (specifically cardiac
muscle)
• Improves in response to overload
•...
Heart Rate Training Zones
Aerobic HR training zone
• 50% - 100% maximum HR
• Partly genetic but always affected by age
Heart Rate Training Zones
We use four key aerobic HR training zones
• Moderate aerobic zone - 50%+ MaxHR, mainly for
untra...
Exercise Intensity
• HR changes in response to exercise
– Heart size, stroke volume, HR, oxygen
uptake (V02 MAX)
• HR is a...
Monitoring Exercise Intensity
A quick and simple method for measuring
exercise intensity for aerobic work is to use
heart ...
Measuring Exercise Intensity
• Effective alternative methods of measuring
intensity:
– RPE 6–20 Borg scale
– RPE Borg CR 1...
Exercise Intensity

The 6 – 20 Borg scale
Exercise Intensity
The CR 1-10 scale
Benefits of CV Training
Short term effects of CV activity (during
exercise):
• Heart rate, blood flow, oxygen uptake, card...
Benefits of CV Training
Longer term effects of CV training (health &
fitness):
• The lungs (increased capacity – utilisati...
Benefits of CV Training
• Blood pressure (reduced/normalised)
• The muscles (increased mitochondria – better
oxygen utilis...
CV Training for Special Populations
• Children
– Need to work harder than adults to meet
oxygen requirements
– Developing ...
CV Training for Special Populations
• Ageing
– Fatigue, lactic acid tolerance and recovery
– Age related increased BP, diz...
CV Training for Special Populations
• Disability
– Exercise options may be limited by
disability
– Fitness level may be lo...
Key Points
• CV fitness refers to the body's ability to take in,
transport and utilise oxygen
• CV exercises are rhythmic,...
Muscular Strength and
Endurance
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Muscular Strength
Muscular Strength
`The Maximal tension or force that is produced
by a muscle or muscle group`
Very high ...
Muscular Endurance
Muscular Endurance
`The ability of a muscle, or muscle group, to
exert sub-maximal forces against a res...
Muscular Power
Power is defined as:
Force x Speed
The strength and endurance continuum

The Muscular Strength and Endurance
Continuum
Strength

Strength/endurance

Enduranc...
Guidelines for Improving Muscular Fitness
ACSM guidelines for improving muscular fitness
Frequency

2-3 times per week wit...
Long Term Effects of MSE Training
Long-term moderate levels of CV fitness can
improve:
•The heart
•The lungs
•Circulation
...
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness
• Stress on connective tissue (micro tears)
• Muscle stiffness/pain 12-72 hours after exerci...
Contraindicated Exercises for
Special Populations
Children
•Weight bearing exercise for children is an
important feature o...
Contraindicated Exercises for
Special Populations
Pregnancy
•The hormone relaxin effects joint stability, especially
those...
Contraindicated Exercises for
Special Populations
Ageing
• Decreasing metabolic rate (muscle atrophy
related)
• Regular re...
Contraindicated Exercises for
Special Populations
Disability
• Exercise limitations specific to disability
• Muscles may b...
Key Points
• MSE can be achieved by using a range of repetitions
and resistance
• There are a range of adaptations to stre...
Flexibility
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Flexibility
Flexibility is a measure of the maximum range
of movement (ROM) possible around a joint or
joints
•Age related...
Types of Stretching
• Static
– Passive
– Active
• Dynamic
• Ballistic
• PNF
When to Stretch
During warm up
• Short (preparatory) stretching – static or
dynamic
During cool down/specific stretch sess...
Factors Affecting Flexibility
Factors affecting flexibility
•The structure of the joint
•Ligaments and tendons
•Opposing t...
Guidelines to Flexibility
ACSM guidelines for stretching

Frequency

Minimum of 2-3 times per week

Intensity

3-4 reps pe...
Benefits of Flexibility Training
•
•
•
•

Quality of life
Improved sports performance
Improved posture
Stress management
Flexibility Training for Special Populations
Children
• Stretch with care
• Soft joints and growth spurts
Pregnancy
• Incr...
Flexibility Training for Special Populations
Ageing
• Increased muscle ‘stiffness’
• Decreasing stretch potential
• Heat l...
Flexibility Training for Special Populations
Disability
• Exercise options may be limited due to
disability
• ROM may be l...
Key Points
• Flexibility is the ROM around a joint and is
specific to each joint
• There are several different types of
st...
Motor Skills
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Motor Fitness (Skill)
Components of motor fitness
• Speed
• Agility
• Balance
• Coordination
• Power
• Reaction time
The Importance of Motor Fitness
• Kinaesthetic (spatial) awareness
• Links between the central and peripheral
nervous syst...
Principles of Motor Fitness Training
Skill development can be affected by a number
of factors including:
•Previous skill/e...
Principles of Motor Fitness Training
Skill development and the learning process:
•Individuals need both time and practice ...
Principles of Motor Fitness Training
Three main stages of the motor skills learning
process:
•Cognitive
•Motor (associativ...
Motor Skills Training for Special
Populations
Working with young people (age 14–16 years)
• Muscle growth does not keep up...
Working with Young People
Exercises to avoid:
• Prolonged high intensity (anaerobic training)
• High resistance training
E...
Motor Skills Training for Special
Populations
Ante Post Natal
• The hormone relaxin affects joint stability
(especially in...
Working with Ante Post Natal Clients
Exercises to avoid:
• Supine position exercises after the first
trimester
• Developme...
Motor Skills Training for Special
Populations
Ageing
• Metabolic rate tends to decrease
• Loss of muscle tissue
• Loss of ...
Working with Ageing Clients (50+)
Safety guidelines as defined by the National
Occupational Standards for older people inc...
Working with Ageing Clients (50+)
Exercises to include:
• Back extension (in particular thoracic
extension) to improve pos...
Motor Skills Training for Special
Populations
Disability
• Specific disability related limitations specific to
their disab...
Key Points
• Motor fitness refers to the skill-related
elements of fitness agility
• Motor fitness is essential for everyd...
General Considerations for
Special Populations
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Young People
Working with young people (age 14–16 years)
•A sedentary lifestyle in young people can have
negative health c...
Young People
A young person who is active will have:
• Stronger muscles and bones
• A leaner body, controlled body fat and...
Ante Post Natal
Working with antenatal and post natal clients
• Exercise plays an important role in promoting health
and w...
Ante Post Natal
• Pregnancy is a highly complex physiological process
and precautions are needed to ensure that exercise
d...
Older People
• The advancement of age is something that happens
to us all
• People are commonly living well into their 80s...
Older People
Age should not be a barrier to exercise, regular physical
activity can:
•Stimulate physical and mental health...
Disability
• Over 10 million disabled people in the UK
• Only 7% are sufficiently physically active for
disease prevention...
Age
• Disabled people may realise greater benefits
from keeping physically active as it can help
to reduce, manage or even...
Key Points
• Due to physiological differences in special
populations, specialist training is required
• For the apparently...
Nutrition
L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and
Health
Recommendations for a
Healthy Diet
• The NHS Live Well website recommends the following
guidelines using the eatwell plate...
The Eatwell Plate
The eatwell plate is based on the five food
groups:
•Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy
food...
The eatwell Plate
Key Nutrients
• The body needs fuel to provide energy for all
organs and cells to be able to do their job
• These fuels ar...
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates in the food we eat come in two
different forms:
•Simple carbohydrates
– naturally occurring su...
Fats
Dietary fats are complex organic substances
that are not soluble in water
There are two basic types of fat; saturated...
Micronutrients
Vitamins and minerals
•Vitamins – to enable us to effectively use the energy
from the macronutrients
– Vita...
Fibre
• The body also needs fibre, which is a form of
carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls.
• Fibre is essential...
Hydration

Water
•Water provides the right conditions for all
other functions
•Approximately 65% of adult body weight is
m...
Hydration
Water is lost from our bodies in a number of
ways:
• urine and faeces
• evaporation from the skin as sweat
• Exp...
Hydration
• Approximately 50% can be replaced from the
food we eat
• An inactive person needs to drink about six
glasses o...
Dehydration
• If you lose too much water from the body
and it is not replaced, the building of body
tissues, temperature r...
The Dietary Role of Key Nutrients
• Carbohydrates - energy production
– Complex
– Simple
• Fats - insulation, protection, ...
The Dietary Role of Key Nutrients
• Proteins - tissue growth & repair, oxygen
transport, cell function and fighting diseas...
Healthy Eating Advice
Choosing a variety of foods from within each
group will add to the range of nutrients you
consume. F...
Healthy Eating Advice
• Restrict intake of foods with a high sugar
content
• Eat less saturated fat and replace these with...
Metabolism and Energy Balance
• The range of internal activities that take place in our
bodies is known as metabolism and ...
Metabolism and Energy Balance
• BMR is usually around 1,500 kcals (kilocalories) for an
average female and 2,000 kcals for...
The Energy Balance Equation
• The body will remain the same weight when calorific
intake equals calorific expenditure
• If...
The Energy Balance Equation
• To lose weight there must be a deficit
• A deficit of 3,500 kcals is required to lose 1lb
of...
Health Risks of Poor Nutrition
There are many health risks associated with a poor
diet including:
•Overweight (obesity) or...
Professional Boundaries and Nutritional
Advice
• Fitness instructors are limited in providing
information to clients witho...
Key Points
• Good quality foods of the correct quantity are
essential to health
• The main food groups are carbohydrates, ...
CYQ Level 2 Principles of Exercise
CYQ Level 2 Principles of Exercise
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CYQ Level 2 Principles of Exercise

  1. 1. Central YMCA Qualifications (CYQ) Principles of Exercise, Fitness and Health
  2. 2. By the end of this unit you will be able to: •Understand the relationship between health and physical activity •Describe the aspects of total fitness •Name the five components of physical fitness •Explain the factors that affect health, physical fitness and training potential •Understand all aspects of cardiovascular fitness with particular reference to the aerobic heart rate training zone model •Define the terms: muscular strength, muscular endurance and understand aspects of training for muscular strength and endurance •Explain the terms: flexibility, static flexibility, ballistic flexibility and developmental stretching •Define the term motor fitness and understand aspects of training motor fitness •Explain adaptations for special populations for the components of physical fitness •Explain basic nutritional guidelines for exercise and health
  3. 3. Assessment Unit 3 (Principles of Exercise, Fitness and Health) will be assessed by an externally set and assessed written test. The test will be: • Externally set and assessed (by CYQ) • Multiple choice questions • 40 questions (70% pass mark - 28 marks required) • Time allocation 60 minutes
  4. 4. Health & Fitness L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  5. 5. Defining Health and Fitness • According to the World Health Organisation, health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well being; not merely the absence of disease or infirmity (WHO, 1946)
  6. 6. Defining Health and Fitness • The term ‘fitness’ refers to the ability to meet the demands of life safely and effectively, without exhaustion or undue stress. Fitness is a multi-dimensional concept and the level of fitness in one area can influence other aspects of ‘total health’ including: emotional & mental, social, medical, nutritional, spiritual and physical
  7. 7. Defining Health and Fitness • Physical activity is defined as any bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles that require energy expenditure. Physical inactivity is an independent risk factor for chronic disease and is estimated to cause 1.9 million deaths globally
  8. 8. Health related Fitness • Health related fitness is the capacity to combine all aspects of fitness to facilitate positive health and maintain optimal quality of life • This is often referred to as ‘total fitness’
  9. 9. Health related Fitness • Physical fitness is unique among the components of ‘whole health’ as it is accepted that physical fitness can have a beneficial impact on ALL other aspects ‘total fitness’
  10. 10. Relationship between Total Fitness & Physical Fitness
  11. 11. The Components of Total Fitness • Emotional and mental – well being, the ability to think clearly an constructively • Social – ability to interact, communicate and form relationships with others • Medical – state of health and absence of disease • Nutritional – eating a well balanced diet
  12. 12. The Components of Total Fitness • Spiritual – attitude, honoring ones own and others human values • Physical – a combination of attributes that allows you to function effectively, to enjoy leisure and cope with emergencies
  13. 13. The Components of Physical Fitness • Flexibility - the ability of a joint or joint complex to work to its full range of movement • Motor skills - the ability to perform a range of skills such as balance, coordination, speed, agility, power and reaction time
  14. 14. The Components of Physical Fitness • Cardiovascular fitness - the ability of the heart and lungs to take in, transport and utilise oxygen • Muscular strength - the ability of a muscle or group of muscles to use maximum force • Muscular endurance - the ability of a muscle or muscle group to perform continual repetitions
  15. 15. Factors Influencing Health and Fitness Health, physical fitness and training potential are determined by several variables including: •Genetic Factors – Heredity – Body type (ectomorph, mesomorph and endomorph) •Gender •Age
  16. 16. Factors Influencing Health and Fitness • Lifestyle factors: – Everyday activity – Health status – Lifestyle habits – Diet
  17. 17. Health and Regular Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most important things that you can do for your health. According to the WHO, at least 30 minutes of regular, moderate-intensity physical activity on most days can help: •Decrease the risk of coronary heart disease •Decrease the risk of some cancers •Normalise blood pressure •Decrease high cholesterol
  18. 18. Health and Regular Physical Activity • Promote bone density to protect against osteoporosis and falls in older age • Decrease the risk of type 2 diabetes • Reduce the risks of developing some types of cancers • Promote healthy growth in children
  19. 19. Health and Regular Physical Activity • Weight management • Improve confidence and wellbeing • Strengthen bones, joints and muscles to improve joint stability and posture • Decreasing the risk of injury
  20. 20. Exercise Prescription for Health • Chief Medical Officer and Department of Health `Start Active and Stay Active` report guidelines: • Under fives – 180 min per day • Children and young adults – 60 min and up to several hours per day • Adults 19-64 and older – 150 minutes each week of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity http/:www.bhfactive.org.uk
  21. 21. Barriers to Fitness and Exercise Despite growing awareness of the benefits many people struggle to start or to maintain an effective long term exercise habit. Common barriers include: • Physical • Physiological • Financial • Time • Motivational
  22. 22. Key Points • Total fitness is a multi dimensional concept that includes various fitness aspects • Regular physical activity is beneficial to health • Physical fitness has five components and is affected by several factors • Common barriers can influence an individuals participation in regular exercise
  23. 23. Principles of Training L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  24. 24. Principles of Training Training is a slow and subtle process that should lead to improved performance resulting from planned physiological and psychological changes. Programming considerations include: • Overload principle • Progressive principle - Repetitions, resistance, rate, rest, complexity • Specificity principle - Specific adaptations to imposed demands (SAID)
  25. 25. Principles of Training • • • • • • • Overload Specificity Reversibility principle Adaptability Recovery time Plateau Regression
  26. 26. Short Term Effects of Training What happens to the body during training? The following short term responses take place: • Activity of the nervous system increases • Heart rate, blood flow, oxygen uptake, cardiac output and stroke volume increase • Blood vessels dilate • Concentration of CO2 rises in the blood leading to increased breathing rate • Muscle and core body temperature rises
  27. 27. Short Term Effects of Training • Levels of lactic acid rise • Blood pressure increases • Joints become more mobile Once training stops, the body returns to its normal resting state. However, this process must be gradual to avoid blood pooling
  28. 28. Principles of Training Blood Pooling • If exercise stops suddenly the blood and waste products stay in the muscle • Blood pooling can be avoided by incorporating an effective cool down whereby the intensity is reduced slowly
  29. 29. Principles of Training Applying the FITT principle to achieve overload • Frequency – the number of sessions in a given period (how often) • Intensity – the level of work performed during an activity session (how hard) • Time – the duration of a given session (how long) • Type – the choice of activity. For example, running, weight training, stretching etc.
  30. 30. Exercise and the Skeletal System Regular exercise has a positive impact on the skeletal system as well as the muscles Regular weight bearing exercise has been shown to have the following benefits: Short term •Increased ROM •Increased secretion of synovial fluid •Improved shock absorption
  31. 31. Exercise and the Skeletal System Long term • Increased bone density • Decreased risk of osteoporosis • Improved joint stability • Increased joint mobility • Stronger connective tissue • Improved ROM • Improved posture • Improved coordination and balance • Decreased risk of injury
  32. 32. Exercise and Improved Posture A balanced exercise programme can improve posture. Benefits of improved posture include: •Improved functional performance •Reduced risk of injury •Elevated self esteem Discuss postural focused exercises within: •Muscular strength •Muscular endurance •Flexibility •Core stability
  33. 33. Speed and its Impact on Exercise • Potentially negative impact on posture • Increased muscular strength (and control) required to maintain posture at speed • Speed can be used to increase or decrease intensity • Not always the most appropriate method of increasing exercise intensity
  34. 34. Key Points • The principles of training are overload, specificity, adaptability, individuality, recovery time and plateau • Overload is applied using the FITT principle • Modifications, progressions and adaptations are required to meet individual needs • And effective cool down will ensure that safely the body returns to normal
  35. 35. Cardiovascular Fitness L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  36. 36. Cardiovascular Fitness • Cardiovascular fitness is often referred to as stamina, endurance, cardio-respiratory fitness (heart and lungs) or aerobic fitness. All these terms essentially refer to ‘the ability to take in,transport and utilise oxygen`
  37. 37. Cardiovascular Exercise • Cardiovascular exercise can be defined as being: – Rhythmic in nature – Continuous – Uses large muscle group – Under low to moderate tension – Over an extended period of time – Frequently referred to as ‘aerobic exercise’.
  38. 38. Guidelines for CV Training ACSM guidelines to achieve and maintain cardiovascular health and fitness benefits Frequency 3-5 days per week Intensity Moderate and vigorous Time Moderate 30 minutes 5 days a week OR vigorous 20-25 minutes 3 days a week Type Rhythmic aerobic activity that involves large muscle groups
  39. 39. Physical Exercise and the Heart • The heart is a muscle (specifically cardiac muscle) • Improves in response to overload • HR is very individual • Not necessarily an indication of CV fitness (heart size) • Resting HR will be lower in response to regular and progressive CV training • Massive health benefits in reduced risk of CHD
  40. 40. Heart Rate Training Zones Aerobic HR training zone • 50% - 100% maximum HR • Partly genetic but always affected by age
  41. 41. Heart Rate Training Zones We use four key aerobic HR training zones • Moderate aerobic zone - 50%+ MaxHR, mainly for untrained sedentary individuals & realistic first step to training • The fitness zone - 60%-70% MaxHR, ‘Fat burning’ – suitable for most individuals & next step in intensity • The performance zone - 70%-80% MaxHR, for improvements in CV fitness `aerobic training zone` • Performance anaerobic zone - 80%-90% MaxHR, for very well trained individuals, to increase speed, pace and performance
  42. 42. Exercise Intensity • HR changes in response to exercise – Heart size, stroke volume, HR, oxygen uptake (V02 MAX) • HR is a valid measure of both: – Exercise intensity – CV performance progression (fitness) • HR affected by a number of factors (medication, pregnancy, etc)
  43. 43. Monitoring Exercise Intensity A quick and simple method for measuring exercise intensity for aerobic work is to use heart rate •Heart rate (HR) – beats per minute – Resting HR – Maximum HR – Age adjusted prediction (220 – age)
  44. 44. Measuring Exercise Intensity • Effective alternative methods of measuring intensity: – RPE 6–20 Borg scale – RPE Borg CR 10 scale – Talk test – Observation
  45. 45. Exercise Intensity The 6 – 20 Borg scale
  46. 46. Exercise Intensity The CR 1-10 scale
  47. 47. Benefits of CV Training Short term effects of CV activity (during exercise): • Heart rate, blood flow, oxygen uptake, cardiac output and stroke volume all increase • Blood vessels dilate • Concentration of CO2 in the blood increases and thereby breathing rate • Muscle temperature and overall core body temperature increase • Levels of lactic acid in the blood rise
  48. 48. Benefits of CV Training Longer term effects of CV training (health & fitness): • The lungs (increased capacity – utilisation rather than size) • The blood (increased transport – blood volume and red blood cells) • The heart (increased cardiac output – larger and stronger heart muscle) • Blood capillaries (increased number – increased exchange)
  49. 49. Benefits of CV Training • Blood pressure (reduced/normalised) • The muscles (increased mitochondria – better oxygen utilisation) • The bones (improved density – dependant on weight baring activity) • Blood fat profile (LDL and HDL profile changes) • Blood pooling (increased blood supply to working muscles – cool down
  50. 50. CV Training for Special Populations • Children – Need to work harder than adults to meet oxygen requirements – Developing energy supply systems – Interval or fartlek training more appropriate • Pregnancy – Low to moderate intensity – maintain blood flow to foetus – Overheating and breathlessness
  51. 51. CV Training for Special Populations • Ageing – Fatigue, lactic acid tolerance and recovery – Age related increased BP, dizziness and blood re-distribution – Rib cage flexibility and breathing rate (oxygen exchange) – Bones and joints – may need to avoid prolonged high impact exercise)
  52. 52. CV Training for Special Populations • Disability – Exercise options may be limited by disability – Fitness level may be low due to disability related inactivity – Consider exercise options carefully and seek professional advice
  53. 53. Key Points • CV fitness refers to the body's ability to take in, transport and utilise oxygen • CV exercises are rhythmic, continuous using large muscle groups under moderate tensions • Max Hr can be estimated by using the formula 220 minus age • There are four heart rate training zones • Heart rate during exercise can me monitored by several methods • CV can provide protection against CHD and provide health benefits
  54. 54. Muscular Strength and Endurance L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  55. 55. Muscular Strength Muscular Strength `The Maximal tension or force that is produced by a muscle or muscle group` Very high resistance x low repetitions 75% (or above) of 1RM x low repetitions (1-10 reps)
  56. 56. Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance `The ability of a muscle, or muscle group, to exert sub-maximal forces against a resistance over an extended period of time` Low to moderate intensity x high repetitions 40% – 60% of 1RM x high repetitions (15-25 reps)
  57. 57. Muscular Power Power is defined as: Force x Speed
  58. 58. The strength and endurance continuum The Muscular Strength and Endurance Continuum Strength Strength/endurance Endurance Heavy resistance Heavy/moderate resistance PC/LA energy system Moderate resistance 1-8 repetitions 8-12 repetitions 12-25 + repetitions Fast twitch muscle fibres Mix of fibre types Slow twitch muscle fibres PC energy system LA/O2 energy system
  59. 59. Guidelines for Improving Muscular Fitness ACSM guidelines for improving muscular fitness Frequency 2-3 times per week with 48 hours separating the training sessions Intensity 2-4 sets of 8-12 repetitions, with a rest interval of 2-4 minutes between sets. For older adults and the deconditioned, 1 or more sets of 10-15 repetitions Time Relative to the number of exercises and sets/reps Type Whole-body, multi joint exercises for the major muscle groups Free weights, resistance machines, body weight etc.
  60. 60. Long Term Effects of MSE Training Long-term moderate levels of CV fitness can improve: •The heart •The lungs •Circulation •Blood •Blood pressure •The skeleton •The muscles
  61. 61. Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness • Stress on connective tissue (micro tears) • Muscle stiffness/pain 12-72 hours after exercise – Risk for new clients (untrained) or following change of exercise routine • Eccentric training – 30-40% more resistance capacity than concentric phase – Higher level of muscle damage (micro tears) – Not suitable for de-trained clients
  62. 62. Contraindicated Exercises for Special Populations Children •Weight bearing exercise for children is an important feature of development •Appropriate repetitions and resistance stimulate bone growth •High intensity strength training may damage bone and the growth plates •Muscle growth does not keep up with bone growth in developing children
  63. 63. Contraindicated Exercises for Special Populations Pregnancy •The hormone relaxin effects joint stability, especially those in the pelvis •Changing body shape and lax ligaments lead to postural changes •A supine lying position should be avoided after the first trimester due to the restriction of blood return to the heart and the pressure on internal organs. •Relaxin may remain in the system up to five months after childbirth.
  64. 64. Contraindicated Exercises for Special Populations Ageing • Decreasing metabolic rate (muscle atrophy related) • Regular resistance training preserves muscle mass • Regular muscular fitness training reduces the risk of osteoporosis and bone fractures in later life and can reduce the frequency and severity of falls and fractures.
  65. 65. Contraindicated Exercises for Special Populations Disability • Exercise limitations specific to disability • Muscles may be de-conditioned or atrophied due to disability related inactivity • Consider exercise options carefully and seek professional advice
  66. 66. Key Points • MSE can be achieved by using a range of repetitions and resistance • There are a range of adaptations to strength and endurance training • DOMs describes the micro tears in the tissues associated with very high intensity training • Body weight can be adapted for strength and endurance by lever length and body position • ACSM provide guidelines for improving muscular fitness • The benefits of MSE training contribute to health, improved lifestyle, self-image and ease of daily activities
  67. 67. Flexibility L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  68. 68. Flexibility Flexibility is a measure of the maximum range of movement (ROM) possible around a joint or joints •Age related awareness of flexibility •Under rated and under practiced component of physical fitness •There are many health related benefits to maintaining good flexibility
  69. 69. Types of Stretching • Static – Passive – Active • Dynamic • Ballistic • PNF
  70. 70. When to Stretch During warm up • Short (preparatory) stretching – static or dynamic During cool down/specific stretch sessions • Maintenance stretching • Developmental stretching
  71. 71. Factors Affecting Flexibility Factors affecting flexibility •The structure of the joint •Ligaments and tendons •Opposing tissue bulk (muscle or fat tissue) •Muscle and its connective tissues •Gender •Age •Time of day •Temperature
  72. 72. Guidelines to Flexibility ACSM guidelines for stretching Frequency Minimum of 2-3 times per week Intensity 3-4 reps per muscle group to the end of the range of movement, without inducing discomfort 15-60 seconds for static. A 6 minute contraction followed by a 10-30 second assisted stretch for PNF techniques Time Type Static, dynamic or PNF (ballistic may be considered for persons who sporting activities involve ballistic movements
  73. 73. Benefits of Flexibility Training • • • • Quality of life Improved sports performance Improved posture Stress management
  74. 74. Flexibility Training for Special Populations Children • Stretch with care • Soft joints and growth spurts Pregnancy • Increased ability to achieve a greater ROM (Relaxin) • Stretch with care • Short stretches only • Avoid developmental stretching
  75. 75. Flexibility Training for Special Populations Ageing • Increased muscle ‘stiffness’ • Decreasing stretch potential • Heat loss
  76. 76. Flexibility Training for Special Populations Disability • Exercise options may be limited due to disability • ROM may be limited due to disability related inactivity • Consider exercise options carefully and seek professional advice
  77. 77. Key Points • Flexibility is the ROM around a joint and is specific to each joint • There are several different types of stretching • Short stretches are performed in the warm up, maintenance and developmental stretching in the cool down • Benefits to improve flexibility include improvements in quality of life, sporting performance, posture and prevention of chronic back pain
  78. 78. Motor Skills L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  79. 79. Motor Fitness (Skill) Components of motor fitness • Speed • Agility • Balance • Coordination • Power • Reaction time
  80. 80. The Importance of Motor Fitness • Kinaesthetic (spatial) awareness • Links between the central and peripheral nervous systems • Every day activities • Sporting performance • Reduced risk of injury
  81. 81. Principles of Motor Fitness Training Skill development can be affected by a number of factors including: •Previous skill/experience •Kinaesthetic awareness •Genetic factors •Lifestyle factors
  82. 82. Principles of Motor Fitness Training Skill development and the learning process: •Individuals need both time and practice to develop new specific skills •Managing your body weight, maneuvering centre of gravity, coordinating body movements, moving at different speeds, in different directions and at different intensities, will in the long term help to improve your motor skills. •There are three main stages of learning when training motor skills
  83. 83. Principles of Motor Fitness Training Three main stages of the motor skills learning process: •Cognitive •Motor (associative) •Automatic (autonomous)
  84. 84. Motor Skills Training for Special Populations Working with young people (age 14–16 years) • Muscle growth does not keep up with bone growth • Very high intensity training should be avoided • Weight bearing is an important feature of their development
  85. 85. Working with Young People Exercises to avoid: • Prolonged high intensity (anaerobic training) • High resistance training Exercises to include: • Interval type training (reduce the impact and intensity between efforts) • Body weight exercises incorporating gravity and lever length as resistance • Functional activities such as pulling and pushing • Activities to develop motor skills
  86. 86. Motor Skills Training for Special Populations Ante Post Natal • The hormone relaxin affects joint stability (especially in the pelvis) therefore greater risk of injury • Time scales for release and withdrawal of relaxin should be considered • Changes in body shape leads to postural changes in gravity
  87. 87. Working with Ante Post Natal Clients Exercises to avoid: • Supine position exercises after the first trimester • Developmental, PNF or ballistic stretching • High impact exercises Exercise to include: • Interval type exercises • Maintenance stretches e.g. static stretches • Core stability exercises •
  88. 88. Motor Skills Training for Special Populations Ageing • Metabolic rate tends to decrease • Loss of muscle tissue • Loss of bone density • Increased susceptibility to falls
  89. 89. Working with Ageing Clients (50+) Safety guidelines as defined by the National Occupational Standards for older people include: Exercises to avoid: •High impact. Prone/flexion activities. Complex choreography
  90. 90. Working with Ageing Clients (50+) Exercises to include: • Back extension (in particular thoracic extension) to improve posture • Interval type activities which allows for rest between harder bouts of activity • Functional activities to assist in everyday tasks • Multijoint/compound type activities • Balance activities • Core stability activities
  91. 91. Motor Skills Training for Special Populations Disability • Specific disability related limitations specific to their disability • Poor motor skills resulting from disability or disability related inactivity • Consider exercise options carefully and seek professional advice
  92. 92. Key Points • Motor fitness refers to the skill-related elements of fitness agility • Motor fitness is essential for everyday life, sporting activities and specific exercises • To develop motor fitness skills need to be broken down into a logical learning process
  93. 93. General Considerations for Special Populations L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  94. 94. Young People Working with young people (age 14–16 years) •A sedentary lifestyle in young people can have negative health consequences both now and later in their life •An obese child has an 80% chance of growing up to be an obese adult •Possibly due to unhealthy lifestyle choices and learned behaviours from their parents
  95. 95. Young People A young person who is active will have: • Stronger muscles and bones • A leaner body, controlled body fat and be less likely to become overweight • A decreased risk of developing type 2 diabetes • Possibly lower blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels • Be more confident and have a better outlook on life
  96. 96. Ante Post Natal Working with antenatal and post natal clients • Exercise plays an important role in promoting health and well being before, during and after pregnancy • Women who exercise during pregnancy have reduced weight gain, more rapid weight loss after delivery, improved mood and improved sleep patterns • Women who exercise regularly during pregnancy may have less incidence of induction, faster labours, are less likely to require epidural analgesia, have fewer operative births and a quicker recovery from delivery
  97. 97. Ante Post Natal • Pregnancy is a highly complex physiological process and precautions are needed to ensure that exercise does not contribute to any complications. • After birth, most of the physiological changes persist for 4–6 weeks, therefore gradual introduction of prepregnancy exercise should be based on capability
  98. 98. Older People • The advancement of age is something that happens to us all • People are commonly living well into their 80s • Increased need to be physically fit to enable individuals to be independent and enjoy life
  99. 99. Older People Age should not be a barrier to exercise, regular physical activity can: •Stimulate physical and mental health •Increase mobility and independence •Improve stamina, strength, posture, coordination and reduce the risk of falls •Reduce the risks of osteoporosis and fractures •Help to overcome loneliness and isolation •Assist in reducing anxiety and depression and promote a sense of well-being
  100. 100. Disability • Over 10 million disabled people in the UK • Only 7% are sufficiently physically active for disease prevention • Appropriate levels of physical activity is known to reduce the incidence of certain chronic diseases by as much as 50%
  101. 101. Age • Disabled people may realise greater benefits from keeping physically active as it can help to reduce, manage or even reverse some impairments • Exercise with care. Seek expert advice. Work within your knowledge and qualifications • Individuals with hearing or sight impairment can easily be integrated within a regular training environment
  102. 102. Key Points • Due to physiological differences in special populations, specialist training is required • For the apparently healthy, simple adaptations to mainstream sessions can be made • Working with specialist populations can be rewarding and fun for the instructor and potentially life-changing for the client
  103. 103. Nutrition L2 Principles of Exercise Fitness and Health
  104. 104. Recommendations for a Healthy Diet • The NHS Live Well website recommends the following guidelines using the eatwell plate. • The eatwell plate is a visual representation of how different foods contribute towards a healthy balanced diet • The size of the segments for each of the food groups is consistent with government recommendations for a diet that would provide all the nutrients required for a healthy adult or child (over the age of two).
  105. 105. The Eatwell Plate The eatwell plate is based on the five food groups: •Bread, rice, potatoes, pasta and other starchy foods •Fruit and vegetables •Milk and dairy foods •Meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein •Foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar
  106. 106. The eatwell Plate
  107. 107. Key Nutrients • The body needs fuel to provide energy for all organs and cells to be able to do their job • These fuels are provided in the form of the following macronutrients:
  108. 108. Carbohydrates Carbohydrates in the food we eat come in two different forms: •Simple carbohydrates – naturally occurring sugars found in fruits and milk •Complex carbohydrates – starches found in plants, particularly grains, seeds and root vegetables like potatoes
  109. 109. Fats Dietary fats are complex organic substances that are not soluble in water There are two basic types of fat; saturated and unsaturated:
  110. 110. Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals •Vitamins – to enable us to effectively use the energy from the macronutrients – Vitamins A, D, E & K are fat soluble •Minerals for a range of very specific tasks Deficiencies in vitamins and minerals can lead to anaemia, reduced bone mineral density/osteoporosis, digestive disorders such as constipation and diarrhoea, reduced muscle mass, weight loss/gain and deficiencies in essential fatty acids.
  111. 111. Fibre • The body also needs fibre, which is a form of carbohydrate that is found in plant cell walls. • Fibre is essential for optimum function of the digestive system
  112. 112. Hydration Water •Water provides the right conditions for all other functions •Approximately 65% of adult body weight is made up of water •We can survive for a number of weeks without food, but four to five days without water •Lost water MUST be replaced
  113. 113. Hydration Water is lost from our bodies in a number of ways: • urine and faeces • evaporation from the skin as sweat • Expired breath • Even without moving around we lose 2–2.5 litres of water per day via these routes
  114. 114. Hydration • Approximately 50% can be replaced from the food we eat • An inactive person needs to drink about six glasses of fluid a day • A sportsperson or active trainer would need to drink much more. Up to 4–5 litres per day. More in hot environments
  115. 115. Dehydration • If you lose too much water from the body and it is not replaced, the building of body tissues, temperature regulation and metabolic rate are all affected • The resulting dehydration can lead to fatigue, headaches, lack of concentration and constipation • A loss of only 10% of your normal bodily requirements can result in severe dehydration that may be fatal
  116. 116. The Dietary Role of Key Nutrients • Carbohydrates - energy production – Complex – Simple • Fats - insulation, protection, vitamin transport & energy production – Saturated – Unsaturated
  117. 117. The Dietary Role of Key Nutrients • Proteins - tissue growth & repair, oxygen transport, cell function and fighting disease • Vitamins Minerals - multi functional with major health benefits • Fibre - aids digestion • Water - required
  118. 118. Healthy Eating Advice Choosing a variety of foods from within each group will add to the range of nutrients you consume. Foods in the eatwell plate fifth group (foods and drinks high in fat and/or sugar) are not essential to a healthy diet •Eat predominantly complex carbohydrates •Five to seven portions of fruit and vegetables per day
  119. 119. Healthy Eating Advice • Restrict intake of foods with a high sugar content • Eat less saturated fat and replace these with mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fats • Drink at least two litres of water per day • Reduce salt intake • Moderate intakes of protein, less protein from animal sources
  120. 120. Metabolism and Energy Balance • The range of internal activities that take place in our bodies is known as metabolism and the amount of energy that is required at rest to drive metabolism is known as our `basal metabolic rate` (BMR) • BMR is measured in calories • BMR will be different for each individual as it depends on: - body weight - body composition - how active we are
  121. 121. Metabolism and Energy Balance • BMR is usually around 1,500 kcals (kilocalories) for an average female and 2,000 kcals for an average male • BMR estimated by body weight (kgs) x 25 i.e. 65 kgs x 25 = BMR 1625 kcals (irrespective of gender)
  122. 122. The Energy Balance Equation • The body will remain the same weight when calorific intake equals calorific expenditure • If intake exceeds output, the excess is stored as fat weight • If output exceeds input the result is weight loss Energy in > energy out = weight gain Energy in < energy out = weight loss Energy in = energy out = weight maintenance
  123. 123. The Energy Balance Equation • To lose weight there must be a deficit • A deficit of 3,500 kcals is required to lose 1lb of stored fat • This is best achieved through a combination of increased physical activity and a reduction in calories
  124. 124. Health Risks of Poor Nutrition There are many health risks associated with a poor diet including: •Overweight (obesity) or underweight •Medical health issues including: – Hypertension – CHD – Bone and joint disorders – Diabetes – Some forms of cancer •Mental, emotional and social health issues
  125. 125. Professional Boundaries and Nutritional Advice • Fitness instructors are limited in providing information to clients without further training. • Stick to the guidelines as per the Food Standards Agency and the eatwell plate • Seek professional expert advice • Pursue additional nutrition specific personal qualifications
  126. 126. Key Points • Good quality foods of the correct quantity are essential to health • The main food groups are carbohydrates, fats and protein • Vitamins, minerals, fiber and water are also necessary for a variety of bodily processes • The energy balance equation explains why we gain, loose or remain the same weight • A poor diet can lead to many health problems • Instructors are limited in providing nutritional information without further training
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