MercantilismEnforcing the Navigation ActsThe Dominion of New EnglandAn Emerging Colonial SystemSalutory Neglect
Royal Control of the Colonies Monarchy was the legal authority in the colonies. All colonies except Georgia received their charters before the Glorious Revolution of 1688 when the crown lost supremacy to parliament. Colonies continued as “dependencies of the Crown.” Appointed officials served at the “pleasure of the King.” During the English Civil War the Dutch became the dominant shipping power in the North American Colonies and Caribbean. 1561 Parliament adopts the Navigation Act All goods imported to England or colonies carried on English ships with majority English crews.
More Mercantilism Assumed that the total of world’s gold and silver remained the same and only a nation’s share of that wealth was subject to change. The only way to gain was to take another country’s gold and silver. Essential: maintain a favorable balance of trade by controlling every aspect of exports and imports. Colonies were a source of raw materials and markets for goods Navigation Act of 1660 Ships crews had to be ¾ English Products to be shipped only to England Tobacco Rice Hemp Masts Copper Ore furs
Navigation Act of 1663 All colonial imports from Europe had to stop in England, offload and duty paid before shipment to colonies. England had monopoly to sell Tobacco and Sugar produced in Chesapeake colonies and West Indies . All colonial commerce channeled through English merchants All ships built had to be sold to English buyers Increased customs and duties on good shipped through England (everything).
Enforcement of Navigation Acts During English Civil War, very little enforcement and colonies ignored the navigation acts. 1675 Charles II designates “Lords of Trade” to force colonies to abide by Navigation Acts. Lords of Trade named Colonial Governors. Wrote/reviewed governors instructions and handled all correspondence dealing with colonial affairs. Edward Randolph Arrived in Boston in 1676 Demanded Massachusetts abide by Navigation Acts 1678 Massachusetts legislature declares that Navigation Acts had no legal standing in the Massachusetts Bay Colony 1684 Lords of Trade annul the charter of Massachusetts Bay Colony
James II increases enforcement 1685 James II creates “Dominion of New England” includes all colonies from New England south to New Jersey Dominion government named by royal authority Governor & council but no assembly Sir Edmund Andros 1686 in Massachusetts and by 1688 included New York and New Jersey under the Dominion In Massachusetts, Andros enforced Navigation Acts, punished smugglers and suppressed town hall government. Adros and his lieutenants took over a Puritan Church for Anglican worship Glorious Revolution When news reached Boston that Mary Stuart and William of Orange had assumed the throne as joint monarchs and James II had fled to England, the colonists arrested Andros
James II by Peter Lelly Sir Edmund Andros Engraving by unknown Author.
Act to Prevent Frauds and Abuses andthe Board of Trade 1696 Act to Prevent Frauds and Abuses Writs of Assistance: general search warrants that did not have to specify the place to be searched Violators (smugglers) tried in Admiralty Courts which did not permit trial by jury 1696 Board of Trade Investigate enforcement of Navigation Acts
Salutary Neglect 1696-1725 vigorous enforcement 1714-1760 Hanoverian Kings George I and George II less interested in the colonies and allowed their councils to control administration of the colonies. Robert Walpole, First Minister from 1721-1742 deliberately followed a liberal policy of allowing the colonies to pursue their economic interests
The Habit of Self-GovernmentEvolution of Government within American Colonies Evolved without planning All colonies except Georgia were founded by trading companies or feudal proprietors who held charters from the Crown. Over time 8 of these relinquished corporate/ proprietor charters and reverted to the Crown Royal colonies had governors appointed by Crown Proprietary colonies had governors appointed by the proprietor Connecticut and Rhode Island retained corporate charters and elected own governors In corporate and proprietary colonies and in Massachusetts, the Colonial charter acted as a Constitution English government tradition of enacting Constitutions Magna Carta English Bill of Rights
The Habit of Self GovernmentPowers of Colonial GovernorsAbsolute veto over assemblies and Crown could also veto laws passed bycolonial assemblies.Colonial Governor Appoint and remove officials Command the militias Grant pardons Colonial patronagePowers of Colonial AssembliesElected by Colonists Voting Restrictions Property ownership (low threshold) Excluded women, Indians, Slaves A greater population of the colonies could vote than anywhere else in the world.
Powers of Colonial Self -Governing AssembliesTwo important strands of power Controlled the budget by right to vote on taxes and expenditures Power to initiate legislationOnce established, these powers became fixed in the minds of the colonists as a right—not a habit or a privilege
Spanish America in DeclineSpanish Colonies in North America did not become prosperous No precious minerals Focused mainly on searching for gold and converting Native Americans not on sustainable communities
New FranceCentered in Canada Focused on trading posts Focused on converting Native Americans French settlers—mostly men, married Native American women and adopted Native American customs Did not focus on creating sustainable settlements French alliances with Native Americans intended in part to counteract British power in North America Samuel de Champlain’s alliance with the Hurons and Algonquin angered Iroquois who became allies of the British. Champlain’s charter from Louis XIV limited settlers in New France to Roman Catholics. French exploration of Mississippi River led to founding of New Orleans in 1718. By 1732 the population of New Orleans was 2,000 white settlers and 3,800 slaves. New Orleans was a financial burden to French government.
Colonial WarsJames I and Charles I pursued good relations with Louis XIV.William III a committed Calvinist, did not.William III & other kingdoms in Europe: Balance of Power policyto check therising power of France in Europe and around the world.Balance of Power foreign policy resulted in several wars in Europe. King William’s War (1689–1697) Queen Anne’s War (1702–1713) King George’s War (1744–1748)These wars had little effect on England’s North American colonies initiallyEnglish government incurred huge debtLast Colonial War between France and Britain was the 7 Years War/French &Indian War (1754-1763)Fought primarily in North America but spread around the world
Nationalism in Britain and theAmerican Colonies
"Were there nothing at stake between thecrown of Great Britain and France but theLands of the Ohio, we may reckon it as a greatPrize as has ever been contended for betweentwo Nations. For this Country is of that vastExtent Westward as to exceed in good Land allthe European Dominions of Great Britain,France, and Spain, which are almost destituteof Inhabitants. It is impossible to conceive thathad his Majesty been made Acquainted withits value and great importance, the largestrides the French have been making forseveral Years past in their encroachments onhis Dominions that his Majesty would sacrificeone of the best Gems in his Crown to theirUsurpation and Boundless Ambition"
The Ohio CompanyThe Ohio Company was a land speculation firm organized byVirginians including Thomas Lee (great uncle of Lighthorse HarryLee) and George Washington’s two half brothers, LawrenceWashington and Augustine Washington, Jr.) The King (George II) had given the principals a land Grant of 200,000 acres in Ohio Country (generally the same area as present day Ohio) Purpose was to encourage settlement (and land purchases) and trade with the Indians. Ohio Company had 7 years in which to settle 100 families and create a buffer between the French and the British colony of Virginia.Loyal Land Company (a rival company) also granted land by King George in the same area. The principals in this firm included Peter Jefferson (father of Thomas Jefferson)Both the British and the French claimed the Ohio Country but neither had created forts or settlements there.
Lawrence Washington, 1718 Mount Vernon Thomas Lee, 1747
Competing FortsBy 1753, the French had constructed 3 forts and had expelled British traders from thearea.Iroquois Indians were also angered by the French forts.Virginia Governor Robert Dinwiddie (an investor in the Ohio Company) ordered MajorGeorge Washington (brother of two principals in the Ohio Company) to warn the French toleave “Virginia Territory.” Major Washington was 21.Washington reached Fort le Bouef in December, 1753 and General Jaques La Pierrerefused Washington’s claim to British ownership of the territory.Dinwiddie sent a company of 40 men with William Trent (another Ohio Companyprincipal) to construct a fort in January, 1754.Trent was ousted by the FrenchSpring 1754: Washington led 150 Colonial militia and Iroquois to build a fort at theAllegheny, Monongahela and Ohio Rivers (Pittsburgh).Before Washington’s arrival, he learns that the French have already completed FortDuquesne at the same site.Washington makes camp 40 miles away to await reinforcements.
Battle of Jumonville Glen: May 28, 1754French send soldiers under command of Joseph Colon de Jumonville tonegotiate with WashingtonWashington, informed by Mingo Indians that French were coming,ambushes the force with help of Iroquois. De Jumonville is killed (reportedly by having his head split open by a tomahawk) Some of the French captives were reportedly scalped. One French soldier escaped to report the incident to the Fort.Washington retreats to Great Meadows and constructs Fort Necessity.French attacked Fort Necessity on July 3, 1754 and Washington surrendered after one day. All Colonial horses killed 1/3 of Washington’s forces killedFrench took the weapons and permit Washington to retreat
George Washington, 1772 Charles Wilson PealeThis is the first authenticated portrait of George Washington.He is dressed in the uniform of the Virginia Militia.
Albany Congress (June 19-July 10, 1754)Meeting of Colonial Commissioners from Maine to MarylandRepresentative chiefs from the Iroquois ConfederationPlan of Union Drafted by Benjamin Franklin Adopted by unanimous vote of the commissioners Chief Executive/Supreme Governor called “President-General of the United Colonies” Supreme Assembly called “Grand Council” with 48 members chosen by colonial assemblies Oversee defense Indian relations Trade and settlement in the West Levy taxes to support its programs British accepted only Supreme Colonial Commander and suggestion to appoint a New Yorker as a commissioner for Indian affairs.
Braddock ExpeditionGeneral Edward Braddock and two English Divisions along with Colonialmilitia and George Washington as a staff officer. 125 mile wilderness road Hauled heavy artillery to surround French fort Ambushed 6 miles from Fort Duquesne Braddock mortally wounded Washington led retreat of 500 militia to Virginia 900 British and Colonial soldiers died Washington letter to his brother British army “scandalously beaten by a trifling body of men.” The Redcoats “broke and run as sheep before hounds.” The Virginians, “behaved like Men and died like Soldiers.”
A World War1754-1756 War limited to North America1756 war spread to Europe: 7 Years War France, Austria, Russia, Saxony, Sweden, Spain Britain, Prussia and Hanover William Pitt British Primer Minister (“I know I can save England and no one else can!”) Confine 7 Years War to North America Mobilized 45,000 troops in North America (1/2 British & ½ colonists) Treated the colonies as allies & gave subsidies for participation Used British Navy to cut off French supply routes to North America 3-pronged land offensive to defend French invasion routes Niagara River, Lake Champlain and St. Lawrence River Battle of Quebec
The Peace of Paris1763 Britain: all French possessions east of the Mississippi River except New Orleans All of Spanish FloridaNative American anger French gave Native American lands to Britain Pontiac’s Rebellion Native Americans attacked British (formerly French) forts in the Ohio River Valley and Colonial settlements on the frontier. Fort Duquesne changed to Fort Pitt—Americans allegedly distribute blankets infested with smallpox to Native Americans causing a smallpox epidemic Spain New Orleans and French territory West of the Mississippi River