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Modal verbs of obligation
 

Modal verbs of obligation

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Modal Verbs of obligation: must, have to, and should.

Modal Verbs of obligation: must, have to, and should.

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    Modal verbs of obligation Modal verbs of obligation Presentation Transcript

    • Modal verbs of obligation
    • must or have to
    • must or have to modal
    • must or have to indicative ‘helping verb’
    • be careful with +ive —ive ?ive
    • be careful with +ive —ive ?ive in both form and meaning
    • form
    • I must go. I have to go. +ive
    • He must go. He has to go. +ive
    • You mustn’t go. I don’t have to go. —ive
    • Must she go? Does she have to go? ?ive
    • - She had to go. past
    • exercise
    • convert ‘must’ to ‘have to’ and ‘have to’ to ‘must’
    • must have to I must go. She has to study. He mustn’t tell anyone. Do they have to come? You must try harder. Students don’t have to answer all q.’s. Must you make that noise? You have to see that film. We mustn’t smoke in here. Does she have to do it again? We must work hard.
    • must have to I must go. I have to go. She must study. She has to study. He mustn’t tell anyone. He doesn’t have to tell anyone. Must they come? Do they have to come? You must try harder. You have to try harder. Students mustn’t answer all q.’s. Students don’t have to answer all q.’s. Must you make that noise? Do you have to make that noise? You must see that film. You have to see that film. We mustn’t smoke in here. We don’t have to smoke in here. Must she do it again? Does she have to do it again? We must work hard. We have to work hard.
    • pronunciation
    • < mustn’t > / mʌsnt /
    • < mustn’t > / mʌsnt /
    • < have to > / hæftə /
    • < have to > / hæftə /
    • < has to > / hæstə /
    • < has to > / hæstə /
    • < had to > / hætə /
    • < had to > / hætə /
    • meaning
    • +ive
    • I must wash my hair.
    • You must arrive early.
    • must [+ive] expresses strong personal obligation
    • personal obligation means: - dictated by people - imposed by a 1st or 2nd person
    • I have to get up early tomorrow.
    • Policemen have to wear a uniform.
    • In tennis, you have to hit the ball over the net.
    • have to [+ive] expresses strong impersonal obligation
    • impersonal obligation means: - dictated by circumstance - dictated by a 3rd person - laws - regulations - rules
    • —ive
    • You mustn’t smoke in here.
    • You mustn’t tell anyone.
    • must [—ive] expresses strong negative obligation or prohibition
    • We don’t have to get up early at weekends.
    • You don’t have to tell your parents if you don’t want.
    • have to [—ive] expresses absence of obligation
    • have to [—ive] expresses absence of obligation —there’s no need—
    • we can express the same concept (with different emphasis) using ‘can’
    • We don’t have to get up early at weekends. We can get up early if we want.
    • Translate non dovere using mustn’t and don’t have to, etc Non devi dirlo a nessuno! È domenica. Non dobbiamo alzarci presto. Sua madre fa tutto per lui. Non deve fare nulla. Non devi girare qui. È un senso unico. Ho già I crediti. Non devo superare l’esame. Non devi guardare le risposte prima di fare l’esercizio. Non devo fare tardi di nuovo. Se non ti piace, non devi mangiarlo. È velenoso. Non devi mangiarlo.
    • Translate non dovere using mustn’t and don’t have to, etc Non devi dirlo a nessuno! You mustn’t tell anyone. È domenica. Non dobbiamo alzarci presto. It’s Sunday. We don’t have to get up early. Sua madre fa tutto per lui. Non deve fare nulla. His mother does everything for him. He doesn’t have to do anything. Non devi girare qui. È un senso unico. You mustn’t turn here. It’s a one-way street. Ho già I crediti. Non devo superare l’esame. I’ve already got the credits. I don’t have to pass the exam. Non devi guardare le risposte prima di fare l’esercizio. You mustn’t look at the answers before doing the exercise. Non devo fare tardi di nuovo. I mustn’t be late again. Se non ti piace, non devi mangiarlo. If you don’t like it, you don’t have to eat it. È velenoso. Non devi mangiarlo. It’s poisonous. You mustn’t eat it!
    • ?ive
    • Must I eat the vegetables?
    • must [?ive] is rare between adults
    • must [?ive] is used when children talk to figures of authority (parents, school teachers, etc) with the meaning: “is it really necessary for me to do this thing?”
    • you can ignore must [?ive]
    • Do I have to do my homework for next Monday?
    • Do they have to book the exam?
    • have to [?ive] is used for (almost) all questions about obligations
    • past
    • I must go to the dentist next week. I had to go to the dentist last week.
    • I must go to the dentist next week. I had to go to the dentist last week.
    • +ive —ive ?ive must personal obligation I must wash my hair negative obligation You mustn’t tell anyone. not used - have to impersonal obligation I have to go to the dentist. absence of obligation We don’t have to get up early. all questions Do I have to do it for Monday?
    • Use must or have to in the right form – use negatives where appropriate She _____ work on Saturdays. It’s a secret. You _____ tell my boyfriend. Yesterday I _____ get up early. _____ you _____ take your passport? She finds it easy. She _____ try. He’s a masochist. He enjoys _____ work hard. _____ you _____ stay in this evening? I _____ go to the dentist next week. I _____ go to the dentist last week. You _____ help me. I can do it by myself. It’s been a great evening. We _____ do it again.
    • Use must or have to in the right form – use negatives where appropriate She has to work on Saturdays. impersonal obligation It’s a secret. You mustn’t tell my boyfriend. negative obligation Yesterday I had to get up early. past Do you have to take your passport? question She finds it easy. She doesn’t have to try. zero obligation He’s a masochist. He enjoys having to work hard. no form for must Do you have to stay in this evening? question I must go to the dentist next week. personal obligation I had to go to the dentist last week. past You don’t have to help me. I can do it by myself. zero obligation It’s been a great evening. We must do it again. personal obligation
    • must and should
    • You should practice every day.
    • You should see that film.
    • should is a weak version of must
    • should expresses advice or weak obligation
    • You shouldn’t eat so many sweets.
    • Should I buy that jacket?
    • should [?ive] is used to ask for advice
    • I think you should try harder.
    • (I think) you should try harder.
    • I don’t think you should give up. = You shouldn’t give up.
    • I don’t think you should give up. = You shouldn’t give up. —ive on the first verb
    • homework
    • module 7, parts 6, 8, 9
    • www.davidnicholson.it