Modal Verbs of Deduction

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Modal verbs of deduction behave differently to the other types of modal verbs

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Modal Verbs of Deduction

  1. 1. Modal verbsofdeduction
  2. 2. cancan’twill /won’tshall may mustcould would should might -
  3. 3. Is Sally at home now?
  4. 4. we use indicative tensesto say what we know
  5. 5. Sally is at home now.I know
  6. 6. we use modals when wesuppose, deduce, imagine
  7. 7. Sally must be at home now.I suppose
  8. 8. the choice of modal verb sayshow certain we are
  9. 9. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.
  10. 10. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I’m convinced(even if I don’tknow)
  11. 11. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I suppose
  12. 12. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.it’s possible
  13. 13. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.c.f. modal verbsof possibility
  14. 14. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I suppose sheisn’t
  15. 15. Sallymustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe at home now.I’m sure she isn’t(even if I don’tknow)
  16. 16. notice the opposites
  17. 17. Sally must be at home now.Sally can’t be at home now.
  18. 18. Sally will be at home now.Sally won’t be at home now.
  19. 19. modal verbs of deductionhave a continuous form
  20. 20. Somethingmustwillmaymightwon’tcan’tbe working.
  21. 21. use the continuous infinitiveafter the modal
  22. 22. continuous infinitivebe workingbe speakingbe thinkingetc.
  23. 23. N.B.
  24. 24. other meanings of the modalsdon’t use the continuousinfinitive
  25. 25. e.g.He can’t speak French.He can’t be speaking in French.
  26. 26. e.g.He can’t speak French.He can’t be speaking in French.he doesn’tknow how
  27. 27. e.g.He can’t speak French.He can’t be speaking in French.I don’t believehe’s doing it
  28. 28. modal verbs of deductionhave a past form
  29. 29. Somethingmustwillmaymightwon’tcan’thave worked.
  30. 30. use the perfect infinitiveafter the modal
  31. 31. perfect infinitivehave workedhave spokenhave thoughtetc.
  32. 32. N.B.
  33. 33. other meanings of the modalsdon’t use the perfect infinitive
  34. 34. e.g.He couldn’t speak French.He can’t have spoken in French.
  35. 35. e.g.He couldn’t speak French.He can’t have spoken in French.he didn’t know howwhen he wasyounger
  36. 36. e.g.He couldn’t speak French.He can’t have spoken in French.I don’t believe hespoke in French
  37. 37. exercise
  38. 38. convert continuous modalsto perfectand perfect modalsto continuous
  39. 39. continuous modal perfect modalShe might be calling.They can’t have studied.He must be going by bus.She won’t have cooked dinner.He will be wearing the jacket.They won’t have taken their exams.I must be dreaming it.They may have argued.He can’t be choosing.You must have paid a lot.She will be enjoying her holiday.
  40. 40. continuous modal perfect modalShe might be calling. She might have called.They can’t be studying. They can’t have studied.He must be going by bus. He must have gone by bus.She won’t be cooking dinner. She won’t have cooked dinner.He will be wearing the jacket. He will have worn the jacket.They won’t be taking their exams. They won’t have taken their exams.I must be dreaming it. I must have dreamt it.They may be arguing. They may have argued.He can’t be choosing. He can’t have chosen.You must be paying a lot. You must have paid a lot.She will be enjoying her holiday. She will have enjoyed her holiday.
  41. 41. may have donevs.might have done
  42. 42. 1. when we don’t know
  43. 43. Theymaymighthave lost my letter.
  44. 44. Theymaymighthave lost my letter.it’s possible thatthey have lost myletter
  45. 45. Theymaymighthave lost my letter.‘may’ and ‘might’mean the same
  46. 46. 2. result that didn’t happen
  47. 47. You might have killed yourself.
  48. 48. You might have killed yourself.you didn’t killyourself, but youdid risk it
  49. 49. You might have killed yourself.only ‘might’ ispossible
  50. 50. I might not have married her.
  51. 51. I might not have married her.I married her butif…
  52. 52. homework
  53. 53. module 7, parts 12, 13, 14
  54. 54. www.davidnicholson.it

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