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FIU MUH 3212 Lecture II, Spring 09

FIU MUH 3212 Lecture II, Spring 09



Lecture two of MUH 3212 Lecture series on the Baroque and Classical eras of Western Music. This lecture focuses on Aspects of Performance Practice, additional sources, and it briefly touches on some ...

Lecture two of MUH 3212 Lecture series on the Baroque and Classical eras of Western Music. This lecture focuses on Aspects of Performance Practice, additional sources, and it briefly touches on some aspects of the harpsichord in preparation for Jan. 15 harpsichord masterclass.



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    FIU MUH 3212 Lecture II, Spring 09 FIU MUH 3212 Lecture II, Spring 09 Presentation Transcript

    • Power Point Lecture II MUH 3212 1/13/2009 Prof. Lissette L. Jimenez, instructor
      • Historically Informed Performance Practice (HIPP) .
      • Performance practice is the branch of musicology that seeks to apply the information we derive from the study of music history & historical musical sources to the actual performance of that music. Historically informed performances (HIPs) usually result in music that is fresher and more appealing than performances in an anachronistic modern style that disregards the conventions of the day.
      • That said, there is no Holy Grail of Authenticity – don’t be discouraged by the Early Music Police!
      • It’s an attitude or approach - not limited to early musics .
      • sounds better.
      • it’s easier, and it’s more efficient. You learn more music, faster, and with less effort. For example, once you learn the form of a DaCapo aria, including how to embellish it, the next DaCapo becomes much easier.
      • Should you necessarily or can you possibly learn all this information? – no, but a very little effort goes a long long way. Becoming aware of the general ideas behind HIPP will allow you to approach all music in this way.
      • Sound
        • Instruments
          • Evidence:
            • 1. Existing instruments and strings
            • 2. Drawings and plans
            • 3. Iconography (+ voices)
            • 4. Secondary sources (+ voices)
      • An example of #1: An example of #3
        • Number of Performers
          • Evidence:
            • 1. Eyewitness reports
            • 2. Iconography
            • 3. Secondary Sources & Pay records.
      • Situation
        • The Physical Space (Setting) and the Arrangement of Performers
          • Evidence:
            • 1. Architectural Drawings
            • 2. Iconography
            • 3. Orchestral Seating Charts
            • 4. Secondary sources & Pay records
      • Example of #1
      • Example of #4
        • Acoustics
          • Evidence:
            • 1. Exant locations
            • 2. Iconography and secondary source descriptions
      • Example of #1
      • Pitch
        • Evidence:
          • Existing instruments
          • Secondary sources
            • Time
            • Place
              • Italy
              • France (England)
              • Germany
      • Tuning and Temperaments
        • Meantone and its Derivatives vs. Equal Temperatment
          • Evidence:
            • Treatises
            • The music itself
            • Instruments and their iconography
              • Organs
              • Fixed fret instruments
      • Articulation
        • Evidence:
          • Iconography
          • Instruction manuals
          • Prefaces (le nuove musicae)
          • The music itself
            • Written-in fingerings and articulations
          • Plucked instruments
          • Bowed instruments
          • Keyboard instruments
          • Wind instruments
      • Ornamentation: Fundamental part of performance – composers assumed that their music would be ornamented
        • Evidence:
          • Instruction manuals
          • Ornamented versions
          • Prefaces
          • National styles
            • Italian
            • French
          • The special case of vibrato
            • Vox humana
            • Herbst
            • Straight tone?
      • Improvisation:
      • The ability to improvise was considered a basic part of being a musician.
        • Evidence:
          • Job descriptions of the time – listed as a required skill that was fundamental to the role of accompanist.
      • Basso Continuo
        • Evidence:
          • Instruction manuals
          • The music itself
          • Realized bass lines
      • Melodic and Contrapuntal
        • Evidence:
          • Instruction manuals
          • Ornamented versions
      • Tempo: The true meaning of tempo markings: to communicate affect.
        • Evidence:
          • Treatises
          • Dance
          • Meter
          • Pendulum markings
      • Dynamics: more than just terraced.
        • Evidence:
          • Scores
          • Instruction manuals.
      • Rhythm and Notation
        • Free and unmeasured: preludes and recits
          • Evidence
            • The music itself
            • Treatises
        • Dance music and related forms
          • Evidence:
            • The music itself
            • Treatises
            • Dance manuals
        • Certain conventions were assumed: note inegales, overdotting, cadential trills, and other sorts of ornamentation
          • Evidence
            • Instructional manuals
            • Tablatures
            • Secondary reports
        • The interpretation of scores: what is literal and what is not
          • Evidence:
            • Concordances
            • Introductory materials
            • Function, tradition, and context of score production
      • By being open to accepting the music in its original context.
      • By studying the sources and then going with your instincts: inform your intuition!
      • Karl Hochreither, Performance Practice of the Instrumental-Vocal Works of Johann Sebastian Bach. The Scarecrow Press, Inc. 2002.
      • Timothy J. McGee. Singing Early Music – The Pronunciation of European Languages in the Late Middle Ages and Renaissance. Indiana University Press. 1996.
      • The harpsichord was invented c. 1400 and during the Renaissance it was manufactured in various shapes and sizes and known by different names depending on the region (clavicembalo, clavacin, spinet, virginal.).
      • It is not, however, the same as a clavichord, which was a hammered instrument characterized by its smaller, more intimate sound and the ability to slightly vary dynamics and produce a vibrato.
      • The harpsichord’s action is as follows; when a key is depressed, a jack is activated and a plectrum (a quill) plucks a string and a pitch is sounded.
      • The harpsichord was used as a continuo instrument in ensembles, and conductors of both Baroque and Classical era would conduct the ensemble from the harpsichord.
      • It was not limited to this function, however, there is a wealth of solo repertoire for the harpsichord, including suites of Dance music, inventions, sonatas.
      • Johann Sebastian Bach would regularly arrange concertos for other instruments for harpsichord and his advances on the concerto for solo instrument and ensemble prominently feature concerti for a single harpsichord or multiple harpsichord
      • It also has a prominent solo in his Brandenburg #5, where it is featured as once of the concertino and is the only instrument of the group with a large cadenza, which Bach played himself in its premier.
    • A Flemish Virginal
    • Single manual harpsichord in the Flemish style
    • French Double-manual Harpsichord
      • Hill, John Walter. Baroque Music. W W Norton & Co, 2005.
      • Stolba, K. Marie, ed. The Development of Western Music . 3 rd Ed. McGraw Hill, 1998.
      • Butt, John. Playing With History . Cambridge University Press, 2002.
      • Dolata, David. MUH 3212 Lecture, “Performance Practice.” Spring 2008. Florida International University.
      • Wolff, Christoph, ed. The New Bach Reader . W W Norton & Co, 1998.
      • Wolff, Christoph. Johann Sebastian Bach: The Learned Musician . W W Norton & Co, 2000.
      • Gay, Peter. Age of Enlightenment . Great Ages of Man Series. Time Incorporated, New York, 1966.
      • Mattax, Charlotte, ed. Course Packets for Baroque and Classical Performance Practice, UIUC. 2004.