Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th  Edition by Roger Kamien  Part VI The 20th Century & Beyond Music before 1945 2011 © Mc...
Ch. 1 - Musical Styles: 1900-1945 <ul><li>First 13 years brought radical changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers broke wit...
<ul><li>Vast range of musical styles during this time </li></ul>1900-1945: An Age of Musical Diversity <ul><ul><li>Intensi...
<ul><li>Tone Color </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th  Century Music <ul><li>Unusual playing techniques for sound effects ...
<ul><li>Harmony </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th  Century Music <ul><li>Harmony and treatment of chords changed </li></u...
<ul><li>Harmony </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th  Century Music <ul><li>Composers want alternatives to major/minor </li>...
<ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th  Century Music <ul><li>Rhythmic vocabulary expanded </li></ul><ul><ul><u...
Ch. 3 - Impressionism and Symbolism <ul><li>Musical outgrowth of French art and poetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed up clo...
Ch. 4 - Claude Debussy <ul><li>French Impressionist composer </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed Romantic/20 th  Cent. (1862-1918) <...
Listening <ul><li>Prelude a l’Apres-midi d’un faune </li></ul><ul><li>by Claude Debussy (1894) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening...
Ch. 5 - Neoclassicism <ul><li>Flourished 1920-1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Based new compositions upon devices and forms of the ...
Ch. 6 - Igor Stravinsky <ul><li>Born in Russia (1882-1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied with Rimsky-Korsakov </li></ul><ul><l...
Listening <ul><li>Le Sacre du printemps  (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>by Igor Stravinsky </li></ul><ul><li>Part I:  Introducti...
Ch. 7 - Expressionism <ul><li>Attempts to explore inner feelings rather than depict outward appearances </li></ul><ul><li>...
Ch. 8 - Arnold Schoenberg <ul><li>Born in Vienna (1874-1951) </li></ul><ul><li>First to completely abandon the traditional...
Listening <ul><li>Mondestrunken (Moondrunk) </li></ul><ul><li>from Pierrot Lunaire,  Op. 21  ( Moonstruck Pierrot) </li></...
Listening <ul><li>A Survivor from Warsaw ( 1947) </li></ul><ul><li>by Arnold Schoenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Cantata for narr...
Ch. 9 - Alban Berg <ul><li>Born in Vienna, 1885-1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Student of Schoenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote atona...
Ch. 10 - Anton Webern <ul><li>Born in Vienna, 1883-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Schoenberg’s other famous student </li></ul><ul>...
Listening <ul><li>Five Pieces for Orchestra   (1911-1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Piece </li></ul><ul><li>by Anton Webern ...
Ch. 11 - B é la Bart ó k <ul><li>Hungarian, 1881-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Taught piano in Hungary and wrote books for  pedag...
Listening <ul><li>Concerto for Orchestra   (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>Second movement:  Game of Pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Alle...
Ch. 16 – Albert Ginastera <ul><li>From Buenos Aires, Argentina (1916 – 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to percussive sou...
Listening <ul><li>Estancia  Suite, Op. 8a (1941) by Ginastera </li></ul><ul><li>Final Dance:  Malambo </li></ul><ul><li>Li...
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20th century1900

  1. 1. Music: An Appreciation, Brief 7 th Edition by Roger Kamien Part VI The 20th Century & Beyond Music before 1945 2011 © McGraw-Hill Higher Education
  2. 2. Ch. 1 - Musical Styles: 1900-1945 <ul><li>First 13 years brought radical changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers broke with tradition & rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rules came to be unique to each piece </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Key, pitch center, and harmonic progression practices of the past were mostly abandoned </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Seen as time of revolt & revolution in music </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some reviewers said the new music had no relationship to music at all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Open-minded listening, without expectations based upon previous musical practice, provides an opportunity for musical adventure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1913 performance of The Rite of Spring caused riot </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sounds that were foreign to turn of the century ears are common to us now </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Vast range of musical styles during this time </li></ul>1900-1945: An Age of Musical Diversity <ul><ul><li>Intensifying of the diversity seen in Romantic </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Musical influences drawn from Asia & Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Folk music incorporated into personal styles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>American jazz also influenced composers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For American composers, jazz was nationalistic music </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For European composers, jazz was exoticism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Medieval, Renaissance, & Baroque music was “re-discovered,” performed, & recorded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers drawn to unconventional rhythms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Forms from earlier periods were imitated, but with 20 th Century harmonic & melodic practices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Romantic music, especially Wagner, was seen as either a point of departure or a style to be avoided </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Tone Color </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th Century Music <ul><li>Unusual playing techniques for sound effects </li></ul><ul><li>Percussion use greatly expanded </li></ul><ul><ul><li>New instruments added/created </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Xylophone, celesta, woodblock, … </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other “instruments:” typewriter, auto brake drum, siren </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Music not written for choirs of instruments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Glissando , flutter tongue, col legno , extended notes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Orchestra scoring also reflects this trend </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Composers write for timbres, or “groups of soloists” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unusual groupings of instruments for small ensembles </li></ul></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Harmony </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th Century Music <ul><li>Harmony and treatment of chords changed </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opposite sides of the coin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before 1900: consonant (stable) and dissonant </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After 1900: degrees of dissonance </li></ul></ul>New chord structures <ul><li>Polychord </li></ul><ul><li>Quartal and quintal harmony </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster </li></ul>Consonance and Dissonance
  6. 6. <ul><li>Harmony </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th Century Music <ul><li>Composers want alternatives to major/minor </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Serialism, an ultra strict method, develops from 12 tone sys. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Modes of Medieval & Renaissance were revived </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some composers created their own scales/modes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Another approach: use 2 or more keys at once </li></ul><ul><li>Atonality </li></ul>Alternatives to the Traditional Tonal System <ul><ul><li>Scales from music outside western Europe utilized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polytonality (bitonality) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No central or key note, sounds just “exist” and flow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>12 tone system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Atonal, but with strict “rules” concerning scale use </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Rhythm </li></ul>Characteristics of 20 th Century Music <ul><li>Rhythmic vocabulary expanded </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Irregular meters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Polyrhythm </li></ul></ul>Melody <ul><li>Melody no longer bound by harmony’s notes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis upon irregularity and unpredictability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Shifting meters </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Major and minor keys no longer dominate </li></ul><ul><li>Melody may be based upon a variety of scales, or even all 12 tones </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequent wide leaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rhythmically irregular </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Unbalanced phrases </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Ch. 3 - Impressionism and Symbolism <ul><li>Musical outgrowth of French art and poetry </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed up close, the painting appears unfinished </li></ul></ul>French Impressionist Painting <ul><li>Used broad brush strokes and vibrant colors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Viewed from a distance it has truth </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Focused on light, color, & atmosphere </li></ul><ul><li>Depicted impermanence, change, and fluidity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A favorite subject was light reflecting on water </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Named after Monet’s Impression: Sunrise </li></ul>French Symbolist Poetry <ul><li>Symbolists also broke with traditions & conventions </li></ul><ul><li>Avoided hard statements—preferred to “suggest” (symbolize) their topics </li></ul><ul><li>Symbolist poetry became the basis for many Impressionist musical works </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ch. 4 - Claude Debussy <ul><li>French Impressionist composer </li></ul><ul><li>Crossed Romantic/20 th Cent. (1862-1918) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied in Paris and Rome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used 5-note chords instead of traditional 3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lived large—liked luxury, but stayed in debt </li></ul>Debussy’s Music <ul><li>Attempted to capture in music what Impressionist painters did in visual art </li></ul><ul><li>Titles imply a program music type approach </li></ul><ul><li>Used orchestra as pallet of sounds, not tutti </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded harmonic vocabulary and practice </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Made use of pentatonic and whole-tone scales </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Obscured harmony, tempo, meter, & rhythm </li></ul>
  10. 10. Listening <ul><li>Prelude a l’Apres-midi d’un faune </li></ul><ul><li>by Claude Debussy (1894) </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 296 Basic Set, CD 7:17 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 4:38 </li></ul><ul><li>The program material evokes the dreams and erotic fantasies of a faun -- pagan, half man/half goat creature </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Use of solo instruments </li></ul><ul><li> Disguised meter </li></ul><ul><li> Extended harmonic style </li></ul>
  11. 11. Ch. 5 - Neoclassicism <ul><li>Flourished 1920-1950 </li></ul><ul><li>Based new compositions upon devices and forms of the Classical & Baroque </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Partially due to limited resources in post-WWII Europe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preferred to write for small ensembles </li></ul><ul><li>Sounded modern, not classical </li></ul><ul><li>Eschewed program music for absolute </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Used earlier techniques to organize 20 th Century harmonies & rhythms ( painting p. 362) </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Ch. 6 - Igor Stravinsky <ul><li>Born in Russia (1882-1971) </li></ul><ul><li>Studied with Rimsky-Korsakov </li></ul><ul><li>Utilized shifting and irregular meters </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal & instrumental—many styles & forms </li></ul><ul><li>Early success writing ballet music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The Rite of Spring caused riot at premier in Paris </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moved due to the wars </li></ul><ul><ul><li>WWI went to Switzerland, to France afterward, then to US at onset of WWII </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequently used ostinato </li></ul>Stravinsky’s Music <ul><ul><li>Sometimes more than one meter at once </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Listening <ul><li>Le Sacre du printemps (1913) </li></ul><ul><li>by Igor Stravinsky </li></ul><ul><li>Part I: Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 301 Basic Set, CD 7:38 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:01 </li></ul><ul><li>Part I: Omens of Spring—Dances of the Youths & Maidens </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 301 Basic Set, CD 7:40 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:03 </li></ul><ul><li>Part I: Ritual of Abduction </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 301 Basic Set, CD 7:44 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:07 </li></ul><ul><li>Ballet piece: tells story of prehistoric tribe paying tribute to the god of spring </li></ul><ul><li>Note use of rhythmic accent intended to portray primitive man (remember, this is a work for dance) </li></ul>
  14. 14. Ch. 7 - Expressionism <ul><li>Attempts to explore inner feelings rather than depict outward appearances </li></ul><ul><li>Used deliberate distortions </li></ul><ul><li>Direct outgrowth of the work of Freud </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To assault and shock the audience </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To communicate tension and anguish </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Rejected “conventional prettiness” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored “ugly” topics such as madness and death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Art also seen as a form of social protest </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Anguish of the poor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bloodshed of war </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Man’s inhumanity to man </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Ch. 8 - Arnold Schoenberg <ul><li>Born in Vienna (1874-1951) </li></ul><ul><li>First to completely abandon the traditional tonal system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Father of the 12-tone system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When Nazis came to power he (a Jew) was forced to leave—came to America </li></ul>Schoenberg’s Music <ul><ul><li>Gives equal importance all 12 pitches in octave </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Starting 1908, wrote music w/ no key center </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Taught at UCLA until his death </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Atonality </li></ul><ul><li>The 12-Tone System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pitches arranged in a sequence or row ( tone row ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No pitch occurs more than once in the 12 note row in order to equalize emphasis of pitches </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Listening <ul><li>Mondestrunken (Moondrunk) </li></ul><ul><li>from Pierrot Lunaire, Op. 21 ( Moonstruck Pierrot) </li></ul><ul><li>by Schoenberg (1912) </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 309 Basic Set, CD 8:01 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:09 </li></ul><ul><li>Program piece: The poet (Pierrot) becomes intoxicated as moonlight floods the still horizon with desires that are “horrible and sweet.” </li></ul><ul><li>Note: This song part of a 21 song cycle </li></ul><ul><li> Departure from voice/piano Romantic Art song: scored for voice, piano, flute, violin, & cello </li></ul><ul><li>Freely atonal, intentionally no key center </li></ul><ul><li>Use of Sprechstimme , song/speech style that was developed by Schoenberg </li></ul>
  17. 17. Listening <ul><li>A Survivor from Warsaw ( 1947) </li></ul><ul><li>by Arnold Schoenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Cantata for narrator, male chorus, and orchestra </li></ul><ul><li>Vocal Music Guide: p. 310 Basic Set, CD 8:02 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:10 </li></ul><ul><li>Tells story of Nazi treatment and murder of Jews in occupied Poland </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Sprechstimme </li></ul><ul><li>12-tone technique </li></ul><ul><li>English and German text with Hebrew prayer </li></ul><ul><li>Expressionist music and text—shocking </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ch. 9 - Alban Berg <ul><li>Born in Vienna, 1885-1935 </li></ul><ul><li>Student of Schoenberg </li></ul><ul><li>Wrote atonal music </li></ul><ul><li>Due to ill health, did not tour or conduct </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Possibly also reason for his small output </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Most famous work is Wozzeck </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Story of a soldier who is driven to madness by society, murders his wife, and drowns trying to wash the blood from his hands (Expressionist topic & music) </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Ch. 10 - Anton Webern <ul><li>Born in Vienna, 1883-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Schoenberg’s other famous student </li></ul><ul><li>Expanded Schoenberg’s idea of tone color being part of melody </li></ul><ul><ul><li>His melodies are frequently made up of several two to three note fragments that add up to a complete whole </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tone color replaces “tunes” in his music </li></ul></ul><ul><li>His music is almost always very short </li></ul>Webern’s Music <ul><li>His music was ridiculed during his lifetime </li></ul><ul><li>Shy family man, devoted Christian </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shot by US soldier by mistake near end of WWII </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Listening <ul><li>Five Pieces for Orchestra (1911-1913) </li></ul><ul><li>Third Piece </li></ul><ul><li>by Anton Webern </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 318 Basic Set, CD 8:10 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:13 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Lack of traditional melody </li></ul><ul><li> Tone color washes over the listener </li></ul><ul><li> Dynamics never get above pp </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ch. 11 - B é la Bart ó k <ul><li>Hungarian, 1881-1945 </li></ul><ul><li>Taught piano in Hungary and wrote books for pedagogy </li></ul><ul><li>Like many other composers, fled Nazis and came to live in the US </li></ul><ul><li>Used folksongs as basis of his music </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Went to remote areas to collect/record folksongs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Best known for instrumental works </li></ul>Bart ó k’s Music <ul><ul><li>Especially piano pieces & string quartets </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Compositions contain strong folk influences </li></ul><ul><li>Worked within tonal center </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Harsh dissonances, polychords, tone clusters </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Listening <ul><li>Concerto for Orchestra (1943) </li></ul><ul><li>Second movement: Game of Pairs </li></ul><ul><li>Allegretto scherzando </li></ul><ul><li>by Bart ó k </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline: p. 320 Basic Set, CD 8:20 </li></ul><ul><li>Brief Set, CD 5:14 </li></ul><ul><li>Note: Title of work derived from treatment of instruments in soloistic ( concertant ) manner </li></ul><ul><li>Ternary form </li></ul><ul><li>Pairing of instruments in “A” section gives name to this movement </li></ul><ul><li>Prominent drum part </li></ul>
  23. 23. Ch. 16 – Albert Ginastera <ul><li>From Buenos Aires, Argentina (1916 – 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Attracted to percussive sounds </li></ul><ul><li>Studied w/ Aaron Copland </li></ul><ul><li>Operas included scenes of explicit sex & violence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Don Rodrigo (1964) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bomarzo (1967) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Beatrix Cenci (1971) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Moved to Switzerland, continued to compose </li></ul><ul><li>__________________________________________ </li></ul><ul><li>Ginastera’s Music </li></ul><ul><li>Employs forceful rhythms </li></ul><ul><li>Powerful percussions </li></ul><ul><li>Dense orchestra textures </li></ul><ul><li>Argentinean folk material </li></ul>
  24. 24. Listening <ul><li>Estancia Suite, Op. 8a (1941) by Ginastera </li></ul><ul><li>Final Dance: Malambo </li></ul><ul><li>Listening Outline p. 334 </li></ul><ul><li>Basic Set, CD 8:56 Brief Set, CD 5:32 </li></ul><ul><li>Ballet depicting various aspects of ranch activities </li></ul><ul><li>Malambo – dance for men performed by gaucho </li></ul><ul><li>Perpetual motion; percussive sounds </li></ul>

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