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  • 1. Elements of a Short Story Terms
  • 2. Plot
    • A series of related events that present and resolve a conflict
  • 3. Plot Diagram
  • 4. Conflict
    • The Primary struggle between the main character or characters and an adverse character, group or force
    • Internal Conflict
      • A struggle between a character and him/herself
    • External Conflict
      • A struggle between a character and an outside force.
        • Man vs. Man
        • Man vs. Nature
        • Man vs. Supernatural
        • Man vs. Society
  • 5. Main characters
    • Protagonist
      • MAIN CHARACTER of the story
      • Often, hero or character the audience is supposed to feel most sympathetic for
    • Antagonist
      • primary adversary of the protagonist
      • Sometimes the villain
  • 6. Complications
    • Small problems in addition to the conflict that add interest to the story
  • 7. Suspense
    • The uncertainty or anxiety that a reader feels about what will happen in a story
      • Foreshadowing
      • Dilemma
      • Mystery
      • Reversal
  • 8. Foreshadowing
    • Clues (real or false) that hint at a story’s outcome
  • 9. Dilemma
    • A character that we care about is in peril or must choose between two dangerous courses of action
  • 10. Mystery
    • The creation of suspense by withholding information or by presenting unusual circumstances
  • 11. Reversal
    • A sudden change in a character’s situation from good to bad or vice versa
  • 12. Climax and Resolution
    • Climax
      • The most exciting point in the story, when the conflict is decided
    • Resolution
      • The conflict is resolved (positively or negatively) and the story is brought to a close
      • Also know as “Denouement”
  • 13. Characterization
    • The technique used by a writer to create and reveal the personalities of the characters in a written work. This may be done by:
    • Direct Characterization
      • The author directly states aspects of the character’s personality
    • Indirect Characterization
      • describing the character’s physical appearance and situation,
      • revealing a characters thoughts, or
      • showing the reaction of other characters.
  • 14. Types of Characters
    • Flat Character
      • shows only one trait
    • Round Character
      • Shows many different traits, good and bad
    • Static Character
      • character does not change through the course of the story
    • Dynamic Character
      • character develops and grows during the course of the story
  • 15. Setting
    • The time and place in which the action of a narrative occurs
  • 16. Theme
    • The underlying meaning of a literary work.
    • This differs from the subject in that it involves a statement of opinion about that subject.
    • The theme may be stated or implied.
    • Not every literary work has a theme, and some have more than one
  • 17. Point of View
    • The relationship between the narrator of a story and the characters in it
    • Narrator is NOT the same as author
    • Types of POV:
      • First Person
      • Third Person, Omniscient
      • Third Person, Limited Omniscient
      • Third Person, Objective
  • 18. P.O.V. continued
    • First Person
      • The narrator offers a personal account of their own experiences or describes what happens to other characters as the narrator sees it
    • Third Person
      • The narrator stands outside the action (non-participatory) and presents
    • Omniscient
      • (all-knowing) point of view
      • Can see the thoughts & emotions of all (or numerous) characters
    • Limited Omniscient
      • focuses on one character ’s thoughts and viewpoints
    • Objective
      • Describes only what can be seen
      • “ Reporter style”
  • 19. Irony
    • Irony: differences in appearance and reality, or expectations and results, or meaning and intention
      • Dramatic Irony:
        • a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true
      • Situational Irony:
        • an event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, readers, or audience
      • Verbal Irony:
        • words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant (i.e. sarcasm, double-entendre, etc.)