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Elements of Short Story

Kevin Doblon
Kevin Doblon
Kevin DoblonEnglish Instructor

elements of a short story

Elements of Short Story

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Elements of Short Story
SHORT STORY
•A prose narrative shorter than a novel
•May be written in the mode of fantasy, realism or
naturalism
•Dealing with few characters
•A short work of fiction
ELEMENTS
OF SHORT
STORY
CHARACTER
•is a person, or sometimes even an animal,
who takes part in the action of a short story or
other literary work.
CHARACTER
PROTAGONIST ANTAGONIST
CHARACTER
• Main characters are primarily responsible for the major actions in
the story, while the rest are secondary characters.
• Hero and villain / protagonist and antagonist.
According to their role
and importance
• Flat characters are simple and one-dimensional
• Round characters are complex and multidimensional
According to the
complexity of their
characterization
• Dynamic characters alter the course of events in the story.
• Static characters do not effect changes in the story.
According to their role in
advancing the plot
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Elements of Short Story

  • 2. SHORT STORY •A prose narrative shorter than a novel •May be written in the mode of fantasy, realism or naturalism •Dealing with few characters •A short work of fiction
  • 4. CHARACTER •is a person, or sometimes even an animal, who takes part in the action of a short story or other literary work.
  • 6. CHARACTER • Main characters are primarily responsible for the major actions in the story, while the rest are secondary characters. • Hero and villain / protagonist and antagonist. According to their role and importance • Flat characters are simple and one-dimensional • Round characters are complex and multidimensional According to the complexity of their characterization • Dynamic characters alter the course of events in the story. • Static characters do not effect changes in the story. According to their role in advancing the plot
  • 7. METHODS OF CHARACTERIZATION INDIRECT DIRECT PHYSICAL APPEARANCE THE NARRATOR’S DIRECT COMMENT ABOUT THE CHARACTER SPEECH, THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, OR ACTIONS OF THE CHARACTER
  • 8. SETTING •the place where the story takes place •It encompasses both the physical locale, the frames, the action and the specific time including dates and years, the climate actions, and even the historical period during which the story took place.
  • 9. FUNCTIONS OF SETTING •to create a mood or atmosphere •to show a reader a different way of life •to make action seem more real •to be the source of conflict or struggle •to symbolize an idea
  • 10. PLOT •is a series of events and character actions that relate to the central conflict
  • 11. PLOT
  • 12. PLOT •EXPOSITION - is the beginning of the story and prepares the way for upcoming events. in the exposition, the author introduces the major characters, establishes the setting and reveals major conflicts in the story. the author often discusses the characters' backstory, so readers gain insight as to why characters act or respond as they do.
  • 13. PLOT •RISING ACTION - occurs when the main problem or conflict is addressed with a form of action. During the rising action, the protagonist often encounters some sort of crisis that creates tension.
  • 14. PLOT •CLIMAX - the pivotal point in the story when the protagonist deals with the culmination of events. the climax often centers on the protagonist's most difficult challenge or bleakest moment
  • 15. PLOT •FALLING ACTION - occurs immediately after the climax and details the consequences -- good or bad -- that the characters must deal with after the turning point of events.
  • 16. PLOT •RESOLUTION - tells us what happens to the characters after the conflict is resolved. all the loose ends are tied up, unless the author plans to write a sequel and purposely leaves room for further plot developments.
  • 17. SPECIAL TECHNIQUES OF PLOT •SUSPENSE – excitement or tension •FORESHADOWING – hint or clue about what will happen in the story •FLASHBACKS – interrupts the normal sequence of events to tell about something that happened in the past. •SURPRISE ENDING – conclusion that reader does not expect (use of irony)
  • 18. CONFLICT •the conflict is a struggle between two people or things in a short story •it is the driving force in any story, as it influences the turn of events in the plot. Without conflict, there is no story arc and no character development.
  • 24. POINT OF VIEW the author is the person who wrote the story. The narrator is the person who is recounting the events in the story.
  • 25. POINT OF VIEW 1st Person “I, Me, My, Mine, We” 2nd Person “You, Your” 3rd Person “He, She, They”
  • 26. First Person – is used when the main character is telling the story. This is the kind that uses the “I” narrator. “It was times like these when I thought my father, who hated guns and had never been to any wars, was the bravest man who ever lived.” - To Kill a Mockingbird by Harper Lee “And I like large parties. They’re so intimate. At small parties there isn’t any privacy.” - The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald “I could not unlove him now, merely because I found that he had ceased to notice me.” - Jane Eyre by Charlotte Brontë
  • 27. •SECOND PERSON – is generally used in instructional writing. It is told from the perspective of “you” “My fellow Americans, ask not what your country can do for you, ask what you can do for your country.” - John F. Kennedy "If you have built castles in the air, your work need not be lost; that is where they should be. Now put the foundations under them." - Henry David Thoreau “You must be the change you wish to see in the world.” - Mahatma Gandhi
  • 28. •THIRD PERSON – is used when the narrator is not a character in the story . Third Person Limited - Limited means that the POV is limited to only one character. Which means that the narrator only knows what that character knows. Third Person Omniscient - This point of view still uses the "he/she/it" narration but now the narrator knows EVERYTHING. Third Person Multiple - This type is still in the "he/she/it" category, but now the narrator can follow multiple characters in the story. The challenge is making sure that the reader knows when you are switching from one character to another.
  • 29. THEME •Is the central idea or belief in a short story. The plot is considered as the body of the story and the theme is its soul.
  • 30. SYMBOL AND IRONY •SYMBOL – it is an object, a person, a situation, an action or some other item that has a literal meaning in the story but suggests or represents other meanings as well. •IRONY – is a term with a range of meanings.
  • 31. THREE KINDS OF IRONY Verbal Irony – is a figure of speech in which the opposite is said from what is intended. Dramatic Irony – is the contrast between what a character says and what the reader knows to be true. Irony of Situation – is the discrepancy between appearance and reality
  • 32. LANGUAGE AND STYLE •LANGUAGE – refers to the idiom used and how it is used. •STYLE – is a term which may refer to the precise use of language, both literary and figuratively.