Elements of a Short Story
Terms
Plot
• A series of related
events that present
and resolve a conflict
Plot Diagram
Conflict
• The Primary struggle
between the main
character or
characters and an
adverse character,
group or force
• Intern...
Main characters
• Protagonist
– MAIN CHARACTER
of the story
– Often, hero or character
the audience is
supposed to feel mo...
Complications
• Small problems in
addition to the
conflict that add
interest to the story
Suspense
• The uncertainty or anxiety that a reader
feels about what will happen in a story
– Foreshadowing
– Dilemma
– My...
Foreshadowing
• Clues (real or false)
that hint at a story’s
outcome
Dilemma
• A character that we
care about is in peril
or must choose
between two
dangerous courses of
action
Mystery
• The creation of
suspense by
withholding
information or by
presenting unusual
circumstances
Reversal
• A sudden change in a
character’s situation
from good to bad or
vice versa
Climax and Resolution
• Climax
– The most exciting point
in the story, when the
conflict is decided
• Resolution
– The con...
Characterization
• The technique used by a writer
to create and reveal the
personalities of the characters
in a written wo...
Types of Characters
• Flat Character
– shows only one trait
• Round Character
– Shows many different traits, good and bad
...
Setting
• The time and place in
which the action of a
narrative occurs
Theme
• The underlying meaning
of a literary work.
• This differs from the
subject in that it involves
a statement of opin...
Point of View
• The relationship
between the narrator
of a story and the
characters in it
• Narrator is NOT the
same as au...
P.O.V. continued
• First Person
– The narrator offers a
personal account of their
own experiences or
describes what happen...
Irony
• Irony: differences in appearance and reality, or
expectations and results, or meaning and
intention
– Dramatic Iro...
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Literary Terms S

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Literary Terms S

  1. 1. Elements of a Short Story Terms
  2. 2. Plot • A series of related events that present and resolve a conflict
  3. 3. Plot Diagram
  4. 4. Conflict • The Primary struggle between the main character or characters and an adverse character, group or force • Internal Conflict – A struggle between a character and him/herself • External Conflict – A struggle between a character and an outside force. • Man vs. Man • Man vs. Nature • Man vs. Supernatural • Man vs. Society
  5. 5. Main characters • Protagonist – MAIN CHARACTER of the story – Often, hero or character the audience is supposed to feel most sympathetic for • Antagonist – primary adversary of the protagonist – Sometimes the villain
  6. 6. Complications • Small problems in addition to the conflict that add interest to the story
  7. 7. Suspense • The uncertainty or anxiety that a reader feels about what will happen in a story – Foreshadowing – Dilemma – Mystery – Reversal
  8. 8. Foreshadowing • Clues (real or false) that hint at a story’s outcome
  9. 9. Dilemma • A character that we care about is in peril or must choose between two dangerous courses of action
  10. 10. Mystery • The creation of suspense by withholding information or by presenting unusual circumstances
  11. 11. Reversal • A sudden change in a character’s situation from good to bad or vice versa
  12. 12. Climax and Resolution • Climax – The most exciting point in the story, when the conflict is decided • Resolution – The conflict is resolved (positively or negatively) and the story is brought to a close – Also know as “Denouement”
  13. 13. Characterization • The technique used by a writer to create and reveal the personalities of the characters in a written work. This may be done by: • Direct Characterization – The author directly states aspects of the character’s personality • Indirect Characterization – describing the character’s physical appearance and situation, – revealing a characters thoughts, or – showing the reaction of other characters.
  14. 14. Types of Characters • Flat Character – shows only one trait • Round Character – Shows many different traits, good and bad • Static Character – character does not change through the course of the story • Dynamic Character – character develops and grows during the course of the story
  15. 15. Setting • The time and place in which the action of a narrative occurs
  16. 16. Theme • The underlying meaning of a literary work. • This differs from the subject in that it involves a statement of opinion about that subject. • The theme may be stated or implied. • Not every literary work has a theme, and some have more than one
  17. 17. Point of View • The relationship between the narrator of a story and the characters in it • Narrator is NOT the same as author • Types of POV: – First Person – Third Person, Omniscient – Third Person, Limited Omniscient – Third Person, Objective
  18. 18. P.O.V. continued • First Person – The narrator offers a personal account of their own experiences or describes what happens to other characters as the narrator sees it • Third Person – The narrator stands outside the action (non- participatory) and presents • Omniscient – (all-knowing) point of view – Can see the thoughts & emotions of all (or numerous) characters • Limited Omniscient – focuses on one character’s thoughts and viewpoints • Objective – Describes only what can be seen – “Reporter style”
  19. 19. Irony • Irony: differences in appearance and reality, or expectations and results, or meaning and intention – Dramatic Irony: • a contradiction between what a character thinks and what the reader or audience knows to be true – Situational Irony: • an event occurs that directly contradicts the expectations of the characters, readers, or audience – Verbal Irony: • words are used to suggest the opposite of what is meant (i.e. sarcasm, double-entendre, etc.)

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