Four styles for ot audience cotton 2

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  • Using an inductive reasoning process, I wanted to develop a theory about caregiving style that was grounded in the data
  • End goal is theory of style. What is a style? What are the essential ingredients for something to be a style? Pattern over time, but what else? Used the literature to define style = essential elements. Used these elements as a hierarchy for codes.
  • If I looked at my participants as individuals (rather than clumping the data together as a whole) I saw there were three possible conditions. BTW, looking at things individually rather than as a block of data is part of what researchers mean when they say they are considering the context (contextualizing, placing in context).How did the cg talk about taking care of themselves? I asked specifically what they did to recharge their batteries and some had strategies and some didn’t …BTW, if I had not asked the batteries question, what would have been the effect on the trustworthiness of my analysis?
  • Facilitative - Seeks to maintain identity of CR (i.e., clothing, former roles)Self-image tied to “good caregiving”Directive-Priority is physical health of CRElaborate regimes of medication, nutrition, or use of supplementsAppearances important (keeps house clean, worries about being embarrassed)
  • Facilitating- also tries to keep care recipient active
  • Four styles for ot audience cotton 2

    1. 1. Caregiving StylesMary A Corcoran PhD, OT/LProfessor and Associate DeanGeorge Washington University
    2. 2. Why Study Caregiving Styles? “If you’ve seen onecaregiver, you’ve seen one caregiver”
    3. 3. The Caregiving Style StudiesSpouses (68) 5 years National Institute on AgingAdult children (33) 1 year Virginia Commonwealth, ARDRAF
    4. 4. Mixed Methods Design• QUAL-quant • Grounded theoryFocusing on qualitative analysis today
    5. 5. Data• Qualitative • Long interview (250+ total hours) • Videotapes (33+ total hours)• Quantitative • Sociodemographics • Measures of well-being
    6. 6. Qualitative Analytic ApproachThree iterative tasks Coding Describe what is going on Categories Identify larger “parts” Theme Develop a theory of caregiving style
    7. 7. Getting from Codes to CategoriesCoding – unlinked descriptions of dataCategories – arrange codes as hierarchies Hierarchies of what?
    8. 8. BeliefsMeanings Actions Style
    9. 9. Categories: Elements of StyleBeliefs  What is …?Meanings  The role signifies …?Actions  Caregiving gets done by …?
    10. 10. Action: Taking Care of SelfLooking at data as a whole, caregivers take care of self by Reducing demands of role Doing something important Getting healthy Staying connected
    11. 11. Taking Care of Self No Has strategies strategies Does not Does not Meets meet meet needs needs needs
    12. 12. Three groupsCompare and contrast throughaxial coding Causes Consequences Context Conditions
    13. 13. Example: Exercise andConditions No exercise CR not Help OK alone CR OKExercise alone
    14. 14. Example: Exercise andConsequences
    15. 15. Four Caregiving StylesFacilitating Directing Balancing Advocating
    16. 16. Caregiver Priorities Facilitating Directing Emotional Physical health, health of identity of CR CR Balancing Advocating Maintaining Managing the status others to quo support CR
    17. 17. Caregiver Strategies Facilitating Directing Anything that Verbal involves self Balancing Environmental Advocating controls, Vigilance and supervision, advocacy repetitive activities
    18. 18. Caregiver Interactions Directing Facilitating Limited or Cooperative none Advocating Balancing Range with Parallel purpose of assessment
    19. 19. Caregiver Needs Facilitating Directing Recognizes Recognizes but needs doesn’t limited to address work own needs Balancing Advocating Has help Has help and meets and meets own needs own needs
    20. 20. Caregiver Emotions Facilitating Directing Worries Frustrated about ability and to provide stressed best care Balancing Advocating Generally Generally satisfied satisfied with care with care provision provision
    21. 21. Conclusion• Caregivers may - demonstrate a mix of styles - change over time; circumstances• Understanding priorities of caregiver regarding self and care recipient is key
    22. 22. Caveats• Styles are a guide, not a prescription• Theory - Requires further testing
    23. 23. ReferenceCorcoran, M.A. (2011). Caregiving Styles: ACognitive and Behavioral Typology AssociatedWith Dementia Family Caregiving. TheGerontologist 51, 4, 463-472.doi:10.1093/geront/gnr002
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