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Understanding human nature and behaviour

  1. 1. Understanding Human Nature and Behavior
  2. 3. Assumptions of Human Behavior <ul><li>There are two proposition for understanding Human Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Human Behavior is function of the individual and the Environment. – Individual factor like skill , Efficiency, Experience, Health, Attitude, Perception , Leaning influences the willingness to do the work. The Environment like working condition, Reward Policy , interaction with peers, supervisor, subordinate also affect the behavior. </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>2. An individual Behavior has a cause and effect Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>– to understand behavior one has to understand the cause. According to this proposition a stimulus is responsible for causing individual behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, Behavior is function of enduring Qualities of personality </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is result of psychological concept like Belief, attitude </li></ul>
  5. 6. STIMULUS-ORGANISM-BEHAVIOR(SOB) <ul><li>The behavior process reveals that a person receive the stimuli or information through their sensory organs. Not all the information is processed. </li></ul><ul><li>The Organism (O) ie the person processing the information is dynamic and is interacting with the environment. Hence the stimuli is organized and understood through a perpetual process. </li></ul><ul><li>Then it is evaluated in relation to establish belief , Value and attitudes of Human Mind. The idea is transformed into action through physical response, which is the final output of the stimuli. This is call Behavior(B). </li></ul><ul><li>Sometime the Action is examined by the individual to see weather it suits the external environment. If it does not the action is revised. This is called Feedback </li></ul>
  7. 8. Similarity and Dissimilarity Continuum <ul><li>The process of Stimulus- Organism – Behavior tells us That individual respond differently to different stimuli. Therefore Knowledge of similarities and Dissimilarities enable a manager to understand acceptable and unacceptable behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference in ability </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological -Height , weight, color of skin & eye </li></ul><ul><li>Intellectual – problem solving, understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Personality Factor – perception , learning </li></ul><ul><li>Skill and Aptitude </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Experience </li></ul>
  8. 9. Similarity and Dissimilarity Continuum <ul><li>B. Difference in motives </li></ul><ul><li>Motives of Reward, achievement, esteem influence the performance </li></ul><ul><li>C. Difference in Individual Variables </li></ul><ul><li>Age, educational level, value system, Cultural Background </li></ul><ul><li>D. Difference in Situational Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Nature and type of Organization, type of Supervision, Training provided, reward, work group, physical condition of work environment and tools etc. </li></ul>
  9. 10. The Three Levels of Organizational Behavior Organizational Processes The Individual Group Processes
  10. 11. Individual as a part of an organization: <ul><li>We usually join an organization to satisfy our individual needs, whether they are social, emotional, Physical or monetary. </li></ul><ul><li>We depend heavily on organizations to fulfill our own as well as their purposes. </li></ul><ul><li>Help us to be more effective within those settings. </li></ul><ul><li>To reduce some of the frustrations by learning how to cope. </li></ul><ul><li>prevent some of the problems we face in the organization. </li></ul>
  11. 12. Rationality in Human Behavior <ul><li>According to Herbert Simon Individual action is said to be rational if the result of action is very close to realization of objective. </li></ul><ul><li>A decision is considered organizationally rational, if it is oriented towards organizational goal </li></ul><ul><li>Since an individual cannot be perfectly rational , Simon advocated the concept of bounded rationality or the theory of satisfying. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior does not always matched the demand of rationality. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Bounded Rationality <ul><li>Behavior is bounded or limited by number of factors. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavior is function of human mental process , which is difficult to visualize. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual pursue conflicting objective over a period of time. </li></ul><ul><li>Human mind has limited capacity to understand and process information. </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental factors limits individual action. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of perfect information is not possible. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Bounded Rationality <ul><li>Personal values, beliefs, perception, attitudes and learning differ from individual to individual. </li></ul><ul><li>Satisfaction is not measurable. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual goals are vague and dynamic over a period of time. </li></ul>

Editor's Notes

  • 5 The first level of Organizational Behavior (micro OB) studies the individual. It is the smallest level of organizational analysis and includes topics such as perception, personality, motivation, and learning. The second level of organizational behavior is the small group that is made up of individual employees (two people or more) within an organization. It includes issues of group size and composition, cohesion, trust, conflict management, team building, small-group decision making, and leadership. The third level of OB analysis (macro OB) involves larger groups, such as departments, and organizational processes. Topics include the design and structure of organizations, organizational culture and strategy, organizational power and politics, change, and organizational effectiveness. Most managers must understand their organizations at all three levels of analysis to meet the daily challenges they face.
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