Unit 4


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Unit 4

  1. 1. Unit 4: Personality By: Md. Riyaj Shah
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Personality traditionally refers to how people influence others through their external appearances and actions. </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is an individual difference that lends consistency to a person’s behavior. Personality is defined as a relatively set of characteristics that influence an individual’s behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Basically it is the sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  3. 3. Definition <ul><li>Gordon Allport gave the most frequently used definition of personality nearly 70 years ago. He said personality is” the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychological systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment.” </li></ul><ul><li>According to Gluck, “ Personality is a pattern of stable states and characteristics of a person that influences his or her behavior towards goal achievement. Each person has unique ways of protecting these states. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  4. 4. Major Determinants of Personality <ul><li>Biological </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural </li></ul><ul><li>Family </li></ul><ul><li>Social </li></ul><ul><li>Situational </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  5. 5. Contd… <ul><li>Biological is again subdivided as: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Heredity </li></ul><ul><li>2. Brain </li></ul><ul><li>3. Biofeedback </li></ul><ul><li>4. Physical features </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  6. 6. Theories of Personality <ul><li>Intrapsychic Theory </li></ul><ul><li>Type Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Trait Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Self Theory, and </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning Theory </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  7. 7. Intrapsychic Theory <ul><li>Based on the work of Sigmund Freud, this theory emphasizes the unconscious determinants of behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>Freud saw personality as the interaction between three elements of personality: the id, ego, and superego. </li></ul><ul><li>The Components of Personality : </li></ul><ul><li>1. Id: The id is the only part of the personality that is present at birth. It is inherited, primitive, inaccessible and completely unconscious. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Ego: The ego is the logical, rational, realistic part of the personality. The ego evolves from the id and draws its energy from the id. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Superego: It has two parts- the conscience and the ego ideal. When the child is age 5 or 6 the superego- the moral component of the personality- is formed. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  8. 8. Type Theories Endomorphy <ul><li>Body Type </li></ul><ul><li>Softness and spherical appearance; highly developed abdominal area; underdevelopment of bone, muscle, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Behavioral Temperament </li></ul><ul><li>The endomorphic type of individual usually has a love for comfort, eats heavily, likes to be around people and desires affection. He is even tempered, shows a relaxed posture, reads showily, and is tolerant of others, and easy to get along with others. He prefers to be led than to lead. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  9. 9. Mesomorphy <ul><li>Hard and rectangular physique with a predominance of bone and muscle; strong, tough and injury-resistant body; well equipped for strenuous physical demands. </li></ul><ul><li>The mesomorphic individual likes physical adventure and risk taking. He needs muscular and vigorous physical activity. He is aggressive and insensitive towards others. He tends to be noisy and courageous; he desires action, power and domination. He is athletic and seeks outdoor activity. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  10. 10. Ectomorphy <ul><li>Linear and fragile; flat chest and delicate body; usually thin and light muscled . </li></ul><ul><li>He displays restraint , inhibition, and desire for concealment. He tends to be distrustful of people. He works well in closed areas. He reacts quickly, sleeps poorly, and prefers solitude when his mind is troubled. Also, he prefers not to attract attention to himself. Typically, he is anxious, ambitious and dedicated. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  11. 11. Carl Jung’s Extrovert- introvert theory <ul><li>Carl Jung proposed his own two- part theory of personality. These two types are: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Extrovert: They are optimistic, outgoing, gregarious and sociable. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Introverts: By contrast introverts are more inward directed people. </li></ul><ul><li>Jung’s theory lies the explanation that the personality has four dimensions: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Thinking: It includes logical reasoning ( rational, analytic) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Feeling: It refers to the interpretation of a thing or event on a subjective scale (emotional, effect) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Sensation: It deals with perception of things in a general sense ( factual and concrete) </li></ul><ul><li>4. Intuition: It is based on unconscious inner perception of the potentialities of events or things ( associative) </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  12. 12. Trait Theories <ul><li>Trait theories are attempts to explain personality and differences between people in terms of their personal characteristics. </li></ul><ul><li>Gordon Allport’s Personality Traits: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Common Traits: Common traits are those we share or hold in common with most others in our culture. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Individual Traits: According to Allport there are three individual traits: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Cardinal Traits: A cardinal trait is so pervasive and outstanding in a life that almost every act seems traceable to its influence. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Central Traits: These traits are those that we would mention in writing a careful letter of recommendation. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Secondary Traits: These are less obvious, less consistent and not as critical in defining our personality as the cardinal and central traits. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  13. 13. Raymond Cattell’s 16 Personality Factors <ul><li>Cattell identified two types of traits: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Surface Traits: Cattell called observable qualities of a person like honest, helpful, kind, genderous etc. as surface traits. </li></ul><ul><li>2.Source Traits: These traits make up the most basic personality structure and, according to Cattell, actually cause behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Cattell found 23 source traits in normal individuals, 16 of which he studied in great detail. </li></ul><ul><li>The Cattell’s personality profile can be used to provide a better understanding of a single individual or to compare an individual’s personality profile with that of others. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  14. 14. Self Theory <ul><li>Carl Rogers is most closely associated with his approach of self theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Rogers and his associates have developed this personality theory that places emphasis on the individual as an initiating, creating, influential determinant of behaviour within the environmental framework. </li></ul><ul><li>Conditions of Worth: Conditions of worth force us to live and act according to someone else’s value rather than our own. </li></ul><ul><li>Unconditional Positive Regard : Unconditional positive regard is designed to reduce threat, eliminate conditions of worth, and bring the person back in tune with his true self. </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  15. 15. Social Learning Theory <ul><li>Personality Characteristics in Organizations: Managers should learn as much as possible about personality in order to understand their employees. The most important characteristics are explained as under: </li></ul><ul><li>1. Locus of Control </li></ul><ul><li>2. Machiavellianism </li></ul><ul><li>3. Self-esteem </li></ul><ul><li>4. Self-efficacy </li></ul><ul><li>5. Self-monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>6. Positive/ Negative Affect </li></ul><ul><li>7. Risk Taking </li></ul><ul><li>8. Type A personality </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour
  16. 16. <ul><li>Thank You </li></ul>March 26, 2011 DSB : Workshop on Organizational Behaviour