HBO Handout Chapter 4 (Perception, Attribution and Emotions)


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BA-MM 201 that's our handout in Human Behavior in Organization subject (from Sir Joey Espiritu). Just download it. thanks!

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HBO Handout Chapter 4 (Perception, Attribution and Emotions)

  2. 2. PERCEPTION <ul><li>The cognitive process people use to make sense out of the environment by selecting , organizing and interpreting information. </li></ul><ul><li>PERCEPTION PROCESS </li></ul><ul><li>Observing information via the senses </li></ul><ul><li>Screening the information and selecting what to process </li></ul><ul><li>Organizing the selected data into patterns for interpretation and response. </li></ul>
  3. 3. PERCEPTUAL SELECTIVITY <ul><li>The process by which individuals screen and select the various stimuli that vie for their attention. </li></ul><ul><li>Important points: PRIMACY AND RECENCY </li></ul><ul><li>* Managers can use an understanding of perceptual selectivity to obtain clues about why one person sees things differently from others and they can apply the principles to their own communications and actions, especially when they want to attract or focus attention </li></ul>
  4. 4. PERCEPTUAL DISTORTIONS <ul><li>Errors in perceptual judgment that arise from inaccuracies in any part of the perceptual process. </li></ul><ul><li>TYPES OF ERRORS: </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotyping- the tendency to assign an individual to a group or broad category and then attribute generalizations about the group to the individual. Ex. Women are emotional </li></ul><ul><li>Halo Effect-an overall impression of a person or situation based on one characteristic, either favorable or unfavorable. Ex. Worker –perfect attendance must not be the basis of good performance </li></ul><ul><li>Projection or similar-to-me errors-the tendency to see one’s own personal traits in other people </li></ul><ul><li>Perceptual defense-the tendency of perceivers to protect themselves by disregarding ideas, objects or people that are threatening to them. Develop blind spots </li></ul>
  5. 5. continuation <ul><li>5. Situational factors- the press of time literally will force the manager to overlook some details, to rush certain activities and to ignore certain stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>6. Need and Perception- if a need is not filled up, it can affect the perception of an individual </li></ul>
  6. 6. ATTRIBUTIONS <ul><li>Judgments about what caused a person’s behavior- either characteristics of the person or of the situation. </li></ul><ul><li>*Internal Attributions </li></ul><ul><li>- characteristics of the person led to </li></ul><ul><li>the behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>*External Attributions </li></ul><ul><li>-something about the situation caused the person’s behavior. </li></ul>
  7. 7. The attribution process <ul><li>Event </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. I received a raise </li></ul><ul><li>2. Analysis of what caused the event </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. I received the raise because I am a hard worker </li></ul><ul><li>3. Reinforcement or modification of previous assumptions of causality </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Hard work leads to rewards in this organization </li></ul><ul><li>4. Choices regarding future behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Ex. Since I value these rewards, I will continue to work hard in the future </li></ul>
  8. 8. FACTORS INFLUENCING WHETHER ATTRIBUTIONS ARE INTERNAL OR EXTERNAL: <ul><li>Distinctiveness </li></ul><ul><li>- whether the behavior is unusual for that person. </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency </li></ul><ul><li>- whether the person being observed has a history of behaving in the same way. </li></ul><ul><li>Consensus </li></ul><ul><li>- whether other people tend to respond to similar situations in the same way. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Factors influencing whether attributions are internal or external <ul><li>Does the person behave in this way in other situation? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes- low distinctiveness- internal attribution </li></ul><ul><li>No- high distinctiveness- external attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Does the person have a history of behaving this way at other times? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes- high consistency- internal attribution </li></ul><ul><li>No- low consistency- external attribution </li></ul><ul><li>Does other people behave in this way in similar situations? </li></ul><ul><li>Yes- high consensus- external attribution </li></ul><ul><li>No- low consensus- internal attribution </li></ul>
  10. 10. BIASES THAT APPLLY WHEN MAKING ATTRIBUTIONS: <ul><li>FUNDAMENTAL ATTRIBUTION ERROR </li></ul><ul><li>- the tendency to underestimate the influence of external factors on another’s behavior and to overestimate the influence of internal factors. </li></ul><ul><li>SELF-SERVING BIAS </li></ul><ul><li>- the tendency to overestimate the contribution of internal factors to one’s successes and the contribution of external factors to one’s failures </li></ul>
  11. 11. Impression Management <ul><li>The attempt to influence others’ perceptions of oneself. </li></ul><ul><li>Managers manage impressions of themselves by how they talk, their overall style, their office location and furniture, and even by the individuals they select as employees. </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the person to communicate a desired identity </li></ul>
  12. 12. Five Impression Management tactics: <ul><li>1. Ingratiation- they seek to be viewed positively by flattering others or offering to do favors for them. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Self- promotion- They tout their abilities and competence. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Exemplification- they seek to be viewed as dedicated by going above and beyond the call </li></ul><ul><li>4. Supplication- they seek to be viewed as needing help because of limitations. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Intimidation- they seek to be viewed as powerful and threatening </li></ul>
  13. 13. Emotions <ul><li>A state of physiological arousal and changes in facial expressions, gestures, positive and subjective feelings. </li></ul><ul><li>The root of the word emotion means “to move” </li></ul><ul><li>8 primary emotions: fear, surprise, sadness, joy, disgust, anger, anticipation, and acceptance </li></ul><ul><li>Additional : aggression, love, remorse, contempt, optimism and disappointment </li></ul>
  14. 14. Emotion <ul><li>Mood- is the mildest forms of emotions </li></ul><ul><li>- is a low-intensity, long-lasting emotional state </li></ul><ul><li>Kinesics- is the study of communication through body movement, posture, gestures, and facial expressions. </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional labor- may involve enhancing, faking, or suppressing emotions to modify the emotional expressions. </li></ul>
  15. 15. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (EQ) <ul><li>The handling of relationships and interactions with others </li></ul><ul><li>FOUR BASIC COMPONENTS: </li></ul><ul><li>Self-awareness </li></ul><ul><li>-being aware of what you are feeling </li></ul><ul><li>Self-management </li></ul><ul><li>- the ability to control disruptive or harmful emotions and balance one’s moods so that worry, anxiety, fear, or anger do not cloud thinking and get in the way of what needs to be done. </li></ul>
  16. 16. EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (CONTINUATION) <ul><li>Social awareness </li></ul><ul><li>-the ability to understand others and practice empathy, which means being able to put yourself in someone else’s shoes, to recognize what others are feeling without them needing to tell you. </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship awareness </li></ul><ul><li>- the ability to connect to others, build positive relationships, respond to the emotions of others, and influence others. </li></ul>