Grammar Book <br />Cesar Root <br />
Table of contents <br />1. Conditional tense and irregulars <br />2. Perfect tenses <br />3. Present perfect<br />4. Past ...
Conditional <br />Regulars: expresses          probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture  <br />Would, should, could ...
Present perfect <br />Combining “has” or “have” along with the past participle. <br />Haber + verb <br />Haber:  he <br />...
Past perfect tense <br />Imperfect tense of haber + past participle <br />Haber:         -había<br />                     ...
Future perfect tense <br />Future tense “haber” + past participle <br />Describes what will happen in the future before th...
Perfect subjunctive <br />Indicates the action as completed <br />Used when the subjunctive is in the  present, future, or...
Tan vs. Tanto<br />Forms comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverb<br />Tan +adjective/adverb + como<br /><ul><li...
Tanto + noun + como</li></li></ul><li>Impersonal se <br />Used to describe a unidentified person <br />Only intransitive o...
Saber vs. conocer<br />Expresses “to know” <br />Saber: to know facts, information, or how to do something <br />Conocer: ...
Informal affirmitive commands <br />Formed identically to the present indicative usted form <br />Irregular TV dishes: <br...
Informal negative commands <br />Use the tu form of the present subjunctive <br />opposite ending<br />Example: cantar-> n...
Informal irregular commands <br />TV dishes:  <br />Decir: di<br />Hacer: ha <br />Ir: ve<br />Poner: pon<br />Salir: sal<...
Formal affirmative commands <br />Start with the yo form of present indicative <br />Drop the –o <br />Add opposite ending...
Formal negative commands <br />Start with yo form of present indicative <br />Drop the –o <br />Add oppisite ending <br />...
Formal irregular commands <br />Only occurs with affirmative tú commands <br />Dar <br />Ud: dé<br />Uds: den <br />Estar<...
DOP and IOP placement <br />Place in front of conjugated verb when only 1 verb<br />Place in front of conjugated verb when...
Nosotros commands <br />Regular: <br />Use nosotros in present tense <br />Negative command is formed by putting “no” befo...
Subjunctive <br />Expresses will and influence, emotion, doubt/disbelief/denial, indefinitness/nonexistance. <br />Form by...
Subjunctive irregulars <br />-ar and –er don’t change in the nosotros while –ir does <br />
Impersonal expressions for subjunctive <br />Es importanteque<br />Es adioque<br />Es logicoque<br />Es mejorque<br />Es m...
Expressions of emotion for subjunctive <br />Alegrarse de que: to be happy that <br />Es buenoque: its good that <br />Es ...
Conjunctions of time for the subjunctive <br />Take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is habitual o...
Demonstrative adjectives <br />Used when the object is more than just a short distance away <br />Usually precede the noun...
Demonstrative pronouns <br />Same as the demonstrative adjectives but always have a accent mark over the first letter <br ...
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Grammar book 2

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Grammar book 2

  1. 1. Grammar Book <br />Cesar Root <br />
  2. 2. Table of contents <br />1. Conditional tense and irregulars <br />2. Perfect tenses <br />3. Present perfect<br />4. Past perfect <br />5. Present perfect irregulars <br />6. Subjunctive perfect <br />7. Tan y tanto<br />8.Impersonal se <br />9. Saber y conocer<br />10. Los mandatos<br />11. Informal commands <br />12. Formal commands<br />13.Irregular commands <br />14. DOP and IOP placement <br />15. Nosotros commands <br />16. Nosotros commands with mono verbs <br />17. Subjunctive and irregulars <br />18. Subjunctive trigger phrases <br />Impersonal expressions <br />Expressions of emotions <br />Conjunctions of time <br />19. Demonstrative adjectives <br />20. Demonstrative pronouns <br />
  3. 3. Conditional <br />Regulars: expresses probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture <br />Would, should, could <br />Conjugate: -ía<br /> -ías<br /> -ía<br /> -íamos<br /> -ían<br />Irregulars <br />
  4. 4. Present perfect <br />Combining “has” or “have” along with the past participle. <br />Haber + verb <br />Haber: he <br /> has <br /> ha <br />hemos<br />habéis<br />han<br />
  5. 5. Past perfect tense <br />Imperfect tense of haber + past participle <br />Haber: -había<br /> -habías<br /> -había<br /> -habíamos<br /> -habían<br />
  6. 6. Future perfect tense <br />Future tense “haber” + past participle <br />Describes what will happen in the future before the action takes place. <br />Habré<br />Habrás<br />Habrá<br />Habremos<br />Habrán<br />
  7. 7. Perfect subjunctive <br />Indicates the action as completed <br />Used when the subjunctive is in the present, future, or present perfect <br />Haber: <br />Haya<br />Hayas<br />Haya<br />Hayamos<br />Hayan<br />
  8. 8. Tan vs. Tanto<br />Forms comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverb<br />Tan +adjective/adverb + como<br /><ul><li>Form comparisons of equality using nouns
  9. 9. Tanto + noun + como</li></li></ul><li>Impersonal se <br />Used to describe a unidentified person <br />Only intransitive objectless transitive verbs <br />Always singular <br />
  10. 10. Saber vs. conocer<br />Expresses “to know” <br />Saber: to know facts, information, or how to do something <br />Conocer: to know people, places, or things. <br />
  11. 11. Informal affirmitive commands <br />Formed identically to the present indicative usted form <br />Irregular TV dishes: <br />Decir: di<br />Hacer: ha <br />Ir: ve<br />Poner: pon<br />Salir: sal<br />Ser: sé<br />Tener: ten <br />Venir: ven<br />Example: <br />Hablar= Drop the –ar, add –a = habla<br />
  12. 12. Informal negative commands <br />Use the tu form of the present subjunctive <br />opposite ending<br />Example: cantar-> no cantes<br />
  13. 13. Informal irregular commands <br />TV dishes: <br />Decir: di<br />Hacer: ha <br />Ir: ve<br />Poner: pon<br />Salir: sal<br />Ser: sé<br />Tener: ten <br />Venir: ven<br />
  14. 14. Formal affirmative commands <br />Start with the yo form of present indicative <br />Drop the –o <br />Add opposite ending <br />Example: hablar-> hable<br />
  15. 15. Formal negative commands <br />Start with yo form of present indicative <br />Drop the –o <br />Add oppisite ending <br />Add no before the verb <br />Example: hablar-> no hable<br />
  16. 16. Formal irregular commands <br />Only occurs with affirmative tú commands <br />Dar <br />Ud: dé<br />Uds: den <br />Estar<br />Ud: esté<br />Uds: estén<br />Ir<br />Ud: vaya<br />Uds: vayan<br />Ser <br />Ud: sea <br />uds: sean<br />Saber <br />Ud: sepa<br />Uds: sepan<br />
  17. 17. DOP and IOP placement <br />Place in front of conjugated verb when only 1 verb<br />Place in front of conjugated verb when 2 verbs <br />Can be attached to the end of an infinitive, present participle, or affirmative commands <br />
  18. 18. Nosotros commands <br />Regular: <br />Use nosotros in present tense <br />Negative command is formed by putting “no” before the verb <br />Irregular/mono verbs: <br />With affirmitive commands, the “s” at the end of the verb form is dropped before adding “nos” <br />Example: sentemos + nos = sentémonos<br />
  19. 19. Subjunctive <br />Expresses will and influence, emotion, doubt/disbelief/denial, indefinitness/nonexistance. <br />Form by taking the main clause + connector + subordinate clause <br />
  20. 20. Subjunctive irregulars <br />-ar and –er don’t change in the nosotros while –ir does <br />
  21. 21. Impersonal expressions for subjunctive <br />Es importanteque<br />Es adioque<br />Es logicoque<br />Es mejorque<br />Es maloque<br />
  22. 22. Expressions of emotion for subjunctive <br />Alegrarse de que: to be happy that <br />Es buenoque: its good that <br />Es convenienteque: its convenient that <br />Es difícilque: its hard that <br />Es extrañoque: its strange that <br />Es triesteque: its sad that <br />Estartriesteque: to be sad that <br />Sentirque: to be sorry that <br />Sorprenderseque: to be surprised that<br />
  23. 23. Conjunctions of time for the subjunctive <br />Take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is habitual or in the past <br />The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future. <br />Examples: <br />cuando: when <br />En cuanto: as soon as <br />Hastaque: until <br />Tan pronto como: as soon as <br />Despues de que: after <br />Asíque: as soon as <br />
  24. 24. Demonstrative adjectives <br />Used when the object is more than just a short distance away <br />Usually precede the noun <br />Examples: <br />este – this <br />ese – that <br />estos – these<br />esos – those <br />
  25. 25. Demonstrative pronouns <br />Same as the demonstrative adjectives but always have a accent mark over the first letter <br />Examples: <br />éste – this <br />ése – that <br />éstos – these<br />ésos – those <br />

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