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Grammar book sem 2


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Grammar book sem 2

  1. 1. Camila White<br />Español 3 Honores<br />3erPeriodo<br />9 Diciembre 2010<br />Grammar Book<br />
  2. 2. Tabla de Contenidos:Semester 2<br />Conditional Tense and Irregulars<br />Perfect Tenses<br />Present Perfect<br />Past Perfect<br />Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Subjunctive Perfect<br />Tan y Tanto<br />Impersonal “Se”<br />Saber vs. Conocer<br />Los Mandatos<br />Informal Commands<br />12. Formal Commands<br />Irregular Commands<br />DOP and IOP Placement<br />Nosotros Commands<br />Nosotros Commands with MONO verbs<br />Subjunctive and Irregulars<br />Subjunctive Trigger Phrases<br />Impersonal Expressions<br />Expressions of Emotions<br />Conjunctions of Time<br />Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Demonstrative Pronouns<br />
  3. 3. The Conditional<br />Regulars<br />Used to express probability, possibility, wonder or conjecture<br />Translated as would, could, must have or probably<br />To conjugate regular –ar, -er, -ir verbs:<br />-ía<br />-ías<br />Ía<br />Íamos<br />ían<br />Irregulars<br /><ul><li>Caber: Cabr
  4. 4. Haber: Habr
  5. 5. Poner: Pondr
  6. 6. Salir: Saldr
  7. 7. Decir: Dir
  8. 8. Hacer: Har
  9. 9. Poder: Podr
  10. 10. Querer: Querr
  11. 11. Saber: Sabr
  12. 12. Tener: Tendr
  13. 13. Valer: Valdr
  14. 14. Venir: Vendr</li></li></ul><li>Perfect Tenses…<br />
  15. 15. Present Perfect <br />The present perfect is formed by using the present tense of the verb “haber” with the present participle<br />Conjugating “HABER”<br />-he<br />-has<br />-ha<br />-hemos<br />-habéis<br />-han<br />Examples<br />-He Comido (I have eaten).<br />-Has comido (You have eaten).<br />-Ha comido (He/She has eaten).<br />-Hemoscomido (We have eaten).<br /><ul><li>Habéiscomido (You-all have eaten).
  16. 16. Han comido (They have eaten).</li></li></ul><li>Past Perfect<br /><ul><li>The pastperfect is formed by using the past tense of the verb “haber” (had) with the present participle</li></ul>Examples<br /><ul><li>Habíavivido (I had lived.)
  17. 17. Habíasvivido (You had lived.)
  18. 18. Habíavivido (He/She/Formal you had lived.)
  19. 19. Habíamosvivido (We had lived.)
  20. 20. Habíaisvivido (You-all had lived.)
  21. 21. Habíanvivido (They had lived)</li></ul>Conjugating “HABER”<br />-Había<br /><ul><li>Habías
  22. 22. Había
  23. 23. Habíamos
  24. 24. Habíais
  25. 25. Habían</li></li></ul><li>Present Perfect Irregulars<br />Abrir (Open): Abierto<br />Cubrir (Cover): Cubierto<br />Escribir (Write): Escrito<br />Morir (Die): Muerto<br />Poner (Put): Puesto<br />Solver (Solve): Suelto<br />Romper (Break): Roto<br />Volver (Return): Vuelto<br />Satisfacer (Satisfy): Satisfecho<br />Decir (Say/Tell): Dicho<br />Hacer (Do/Make): Hecho<br />Ver (See): Visto<br />
  26. 26. Subjunctive Perfect<br /><ul><li>The subjunctive perfect is formed by using the present subjunctive of the verb “haber” (had) with the present participle</li></ul>Conjugating “HABER”<br />-haya<br />-hayas<br />-haya<br />-hayamos<br />-hayáis<br />-hayan<br />
  27. 27. Tan y Tanto<br />TAN:<br />Used to form the comparisons of equality using adjectives or adverbs<br />Form:<br />TAN + adjective/adverb + como= Comparison of Equality with adjectives or adverbs<br />TANTO:<br />Used to form comparisons of equality using nouns<br />Form:<br />TANTO(-a, -os, -as) + noun + como=<br />Comparison of Equality with nouns<br />
  28. 28. Impersonal “Se”<br /><ul><li>The impersonal “se” is the English equivalent of “one”/ “people”.
  29. 29. The Impersonal “se” refers to an unidentified person.
  30. 30. It only uses “objectless” verbs.</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Se entraporaquí (One goes this way).
  31. 31. Se estámejoraquí (One is better off here).</li></li></ul><li>Saber vs. Conocer<br />SABER:<br /><ul><li>Used to express knowledge or ignorance of a fact or information about something.</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Juan sabedondeestáMaría. (Juan knows where Maria is.)
  32. 32. Yo no sétunúmero de teléfono. (I don’t know your telephone number.)</li></ul>CONOCER:<br /><ul><li>Used to say that one is or is not acquainted with a person, a place, or an object</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>Yo no conozco a María. (I don’t know Maria.)
  33. 33. Alberto y Alfredo conocen Madrid. (Alberto and Alfredo know Madrid.)</li></li></ul><li>Los Mandatos…<br />
  34. 34. Informal Affirmative Commands<br />The affirmative informal commands are formed the same way as the present indicative usted form<br />Irregular Verbs= TVDISHES<br />-decir= Di<br />-hacer= Ha<br />-ir= Ve<br />-poner= Pon<br />-salir= Sal<br />-ser= Sé<br />-tener= Ten<br />-venir= Ven<br />Examples:<br />-hablar— ar + a = habla<br />-comer – er + e = come<br />-escribir – ir + e = escribe<br />
  35. 35. Informal Negative Commands<br />The negative informal commands use the tu form of the present subjunctive.<br />Examples:<br />-No cuentestusbeneficios (Don’t count your blessings).<br />-No hablesmás lentamente (Don’t speak more slowly).<br />
  36. 36. Informal Irregular Commands<br />TVDISHES<br />-decir= Di<br />-hacer= Ha<br />-ir= Ve<br />-poner= Pon<br />-salir= Sal<br />-ser= Sé<br />-tener= Ten<br />-venir= Ven<br />
  37. 37. Formal Affirmative Commands<br />To form the formal affirmative command:<br />Start with the YO form of the present indicative.<br />Drop the –O ending.<br />Add the opposite ending<br />Examples:<br />-Usted: HableUd. Más lentamente (Speak more slowly).<br />-Usted: Coma Ud. La cena (Eat the dinner).<br />-Ustedes: EscribanUds. La carta (Write the letter).<br />
  38. 38. Formal Negative Commands<br /><ul><li>To form the formal negative command:
  39. 39. Start with the YO form of the present indicative.
  40. 40. Drop the –O ending.
  41. 41. Add the opposite ending
  42. 42. This is the same as the affirmative, except add “no” at the beginning.</li></ul>Examples:<br /><ul><li>No hableusted. (Don’t speak.)
  43. 43. No coma usted. (Don’t eat.)
  44. 44. No hablenustedes. ([They] Don’t Speak.)</li></li></ul><li>Formal Irregular Commands<br />-Dar: <br />Usted: Dé<br />Ustedes: Den<br />-Estar:<br />Usted: Esté<br />Ustedes: Estén<br />-Ir:<br />Usted: Vaya<br />Ustedes: Vayan<br />-Ser:<br />Usted: Sea<br />Ustedes: Sean<br />-Saber:<br />Usted: Sepa<br />Ustedes: Sepan<br />
  45. 45. DOP and IOP Placement<br /><ul><li>Place the DOP or IOP directly in front of the conjugated verb when you only have one verb
  46. 46. Ex: Yolo robo.
  47. 47. When there are compound verbs, you put the DOP or IOP in front of the conjugated verb
  48. 48. Ex: Yolo voya robar.
  49. 49. You can also attach the DOP or IOP to the end of an infinitive or present participle
  50. 50. Ex: Yovoy a robarlo. (infinitive)
  51. 51. Ex: Yoestoyrobándolo. (present partciple)
  52. 52. DOPs and IOPs can also be attached to affirmative commands
  53. 53. Ex: Róbalo</li></li></ul><li>“Nosotros” Commands<br />Regular Verbs<br />Irregular Verbs/ “MONO” Verbs<br />To form: use nosotros form of the present tense<br />Examples:<br />-Comamosallí (Let’s eat here).<br />-Contemos el dinero (Let’s count the money).<br />*Negative command is formed by placing the word no before the same verb form<br />-No comamosallí (Let’s not eat here).<br />Ir(se) and Nosotros Commands:<br />-Vamosahora (Let’s go now).<br />-No vayamos a la tienda (Let’s not go to the store).<br />A written accent is often needed when pronouns are added. With affirmative commands, the final “s” of the verb form is dropped before adding the pronouns “nos” or “se”<br />-Sentemos + nos = Sentémonos.<br />-Escribamos + se + la = Escribámosela<br />
  54. 54. Subjunctive<br />main clause<br />connector<br />(que)<br />subordinate clause<br />Subjunctive<br />The Subjunctive Expresses….<br />How to Define the Subjunctive<br />
  55. 55. Subjunctive Irregulars<br />
  56. 56. Impersonal Expressions for the Subjunctive<br />
  57. 57. Expressions of Emotion for the Subjunctive<br /><ul><li>Indicate fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, or other sentiments or biases.</li></ul>Examples of Expressions of Emotion:<br /><ul><li>Alegrarse de que: to be happy that
  58. 58. Es buenoque: it’s good that
  59. 59. Es convenienteque: it’s convenient that
  60. 60. Es difícilque: It’s hard
  61. 61. Es extrañoque: It’s strange that
  62. 62. Es tristeque: It’s sad that
  63. 63. Estartristeque: to be sad that
  64. 64. Sentirque: to regret, be sorry that
  65. 65. Sorprenderseque: to be surprised that</li></li></ul><li>Conjunctions of Time for the Subjunctive<br /><ul><li>To form the conjunctions of time, take the indicative when the action in the subordinate clause is either habitual or in the past. The subjunctive is used when the main clause is a command or in the future.</li></ul>Examples of Conjunctions of Time:<br /><ul><li>Asíque: as soon as
  66. 66. Cuando: when
  67. 67. Despues de que: after
  68. 68. En cuanto: as soon as
  69. 69. Hastaque: until
  70. 70. Luegoque: as soon as
  71. 71. Tan pronto como: as soon as</li></li></ul><li>Demonstrative Adjectives<br />Adjectives that are meant to point something out<br />Examples in english: this, that, these, those<br />Singular demonstrative adjectives (masculine):<br />Este (this)<br />Ese (that)<br />Aquel (that)<br />Plural demonstrative adjectives (masculine):<br />Estos (these)<br />Esos (those)<br />Aquellos (those)<br />Singular demonstrative adjectives (feminine):<br />Esta (this)<br />Esa (that)<br />Aquella (that)<br />Plural demonstrative adjectives (feminine):<br />Estas (these)<br />Esas (those)<br />Aquellas (those)<br />
  72. 72. Demonstrative Pronouns<br />Words that replace nouns in a sentence.<br />Examples of demonstrative pronouns in english: this, that, those, these<br />Singular demonstrative pronouns (masculine):<br />Éste (this)<br />Ése (that)<br />Aquél (that)<br />Plural demonstrative pronouns (masculine):<br />Éstos (these)<br />Ésos (those)<br />Aquéllos (those)<br />Singular demonstrative pronouns (feminine):<br />Ésta (this)<br />Ésa (that)<br />Aquélla (that)<br />Plural demonstrative pronouns (feminine):<br />Éstas (these)<br />Ésas (those)<br />Aquéllas (those)<br />Gender Neutral demonstrative pronouns:<br />Esto<br />Eso<br />Aquello<br />