Lucas read grammar book

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Lucas read grammar book

  1. 1. 2 nd Semester Grammar Book Lucas Read
  2. 2. Table of Contents 3: Conditional 4: Irregulars 5: Present 6: Present perfect irregulars 7: Past 8: Subjunctive perfect 9: Tanto y Tan 10: Impersonal ‘se’ 11: Saber vs. Conocer 12: Informal Commands 13: Formal Commands 14: Nosotros commands 15: Subjunctive 16: Irregulars 17: Trigger phrases 18: Demonstrative Adjectives
  3. 3. Conditional <ul><li>Used to express wonder, probability, conjecture, or possibility </li></ul><ul><li>Use when you use would: I would go </li></ul><ul><li>Infinitive + = Conditional </li></ul><ul><li>Same irregulars as the future </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used to make polite requests – Me gustaría </li></ul>ía ías ía ían íais ía
  4. 4. Irregulars <ul><li>Caber Cabr </li></ul><ul><li>Poner Pondr </li></ul><ul><li>Decir Dir </li></ul><ul><li>Haber Habr </li></ul><ul><li>Salir Saldr </li></ul><ul><li>Hacer Har </li></ul><ul><li>Poder Podr </li></ul><ul><li>Tener Tendr </li></ul><ul><li>Querer Querr </li></ul><ul><li>Valer Valdr </li></ul><ul><li>Saber Sabr </li></ul><ul><li>Venir Vendr </li></ul>
  5. 5. Present Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect is a compound tense formed with the verb haber and the past participle of the other verb. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AR- ado </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ER- ido </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IR- ido </li></ul></ul><ul><li>True in past and still true in the present. </li></ul><ul><li>Action was completed recently </li></ul><ul><li>To tell what you have done or have not done. </li></ul>han ha Habeís Has Hemos He
  6. 6. Irregulars Abrir - abierto Cubrir - cubierto Decir - dicho Escribir - escrito Hacer - hecho Morir - murto Pooner - puesto Resolver - resuelto Romper - roto Ver - visto Volver - vuelto Ir - ido
  7. 7. Past Perfect <ul><li>había habías había habíamos + Verb = Past perfect habíais habían </li></ul><ul><li>Use when you had/have done something in the past </li></ul><ul><li>Remove (er, ir) and add ido </li></ul><ul><li>Remove (ar) and add ado </li></ul>
  8. 8. Subjunctive Perfect <ul><li>The present perfect subjunctive is used in the same clauses as the present subjunctive, and is normally used to indicate a completed action with verbs in the present or future tense. </li></ul><ul><li>Use the present subjunctive conjugation of the verb haber + your past participle </li></ul><ul><li>Haya </li></ul><ul><li>Hayas </li></ul><ul><li>Haya </li></ul><ul><li>Hayamos + Participle </li></ul><ul><li>Hayan </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tanto y Tan <ul><li>Tan… como (as…as) </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto… como (as much/as many… as) </li></ul><ul><li>Tan is used with adjectives and adverbs </li></ul><ul><li>Tanto is used with nouns and verbs </li></ul><ul><li>El es tan alto como yo. </li></ul><ul><li>Ella tiene tanto amigos como yo. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Impersonal Se <ul><li>Se prohibe fumar </li></ul><ul><li>Se prohbio fumar. </li></ul><ul><li>Use se to state when something is done in general (Smoking is prohibited.) </li></ul><ul><li>When using 'se' the verb is always in the 3 rd person. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be used in ALL tenses. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Saber v Conocer <ul><li>Conocer is used for knowledge of people, places, or literary works. </li></ul><ul><li>¿Conoces a Taylor Swift? </li></ul><ul><li>Saber is used when you need to state facts </li></ul><ul><li>Yo sabo que Senora Linares es la mejor maestra en el mundo </li></ul>
  12. 12. Informal Commands <ul><li>Affirmative: Conjugate to the usted form </li></ul><ul><li>Negative: Drop ending add opposite ending and 's' </li></ul><ul><li>+ Habla, Come, Escribe </li></ul><ul><li>- No Hables, No Comas, No Escribas </li></ul><ul><li>-- Comelo, No lo comas </li></ul><ul><li>--Di haz ve sé sal ten ven pon * add infinitive to end: venlo, tenla </li></ul>
  13. 13. Formal Commands Affirmative: Yo form, opposite ending Negative: Yo form opposite ending if plural, add 'n' Affirmative: Hablen, compre, escriba Negative: No Hable, No compren, No escriba – Hablelo, No la compren – Dé, esté, vaya, sea,sepa, tenga, venga, ponga
  14. 14. Nosotros Commands <ul><li>Simply add the opposite ending of the nosotros conjugation... </li></ul><ul><li>Hablamos-> Hablemos </li></ul><ul><li>Mono Verbs- When making the verb reflexive for nos you drop the s Hablemo s nos->Hablemonos </li></ul>
  15. 15. Subjunctive <ul><li>Represents attitudes, uncertain, will, hypothetical, influence, emotion, or doubt. </li></ul><ul><li>Put in ‘yo’ form, change to the opposite ending </li></ul><ul><li>Que- connects to subjunctive </li></ul><ul><li>When there is no change in subject from clause to clause, use the infinitive </li></ul>
  16. 16. Irregulars <ul><li>Car, Gar, Zar- formed same way as always </li></ul><ul><li>Conducir, decir, oir- conduzca, diga, oiga </li></ul><ul><li>Dar-> dé, des, den, demos </li></ul><ul><li>Hay-> haya, hayas, hayan, hayamos </li></ul>
  17. 17. Trigger Phrases <ul><li>Impersonal expressions- es bueno que, es malo que, es necesario que, etc. Express order, need, piece of advice, or desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Expressions of emotion- alegrarse de que, esperar que, sentir que, temer que, etc. Shows fear, happiness, anger, regret, surprise, joy, pity </li></ul><ul><li>Conjunctions of time- use the subjunctive after them after the subordinate clause is habitual or in the past. Asi que, caundo, despues de que, en cuanto, hasta que, luego que, tan pronto como. </li></ul>
  18. 18. Demonstrative Adjectives este (this) esta ese (that) esa aquel (that over there) aquella estos (these) estas esos (those) esas aquellos (those over there) aquellas MALE FEMALE

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