Into the Great Wide Open


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Presentation on Open Education as the 2013 Tourism Educators Conference hosted at Royal Roads University in Victoria, BC.

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Into the Great Wide Open

  1. 1. Clint LalondeTEC, Victoria, BC,May 2013Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 licenseImage: Into the Great Wide Open by Maarten van Maanen used under Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike license
  2. 2. Photo: Governors Island Alliance Harbor Map by Jeff Ferzoco used under CC-BY-NC license
  3. 3. Day of the MOOC by Michael Branson Smith used under CC-BY-BC licenseO
  4. 4. Why OPEN?Photo: Fina Underwater by Dave Foster used under Creative Commons license
  5. 5. Open (free) Culture“social movement that promotes the freedom to distributeand modify creative works in the form of free content byusing the Internet and other forms of media.Free Culture Movement Wikipedia
  6. 6. “citizens have theright to access thedocuments andproceedings of thegovernment to allowfor effective publicoversight”Open Government Peace Tower by Ken Lewisused under CC-BY-NC-SA license
  7. 7. Open Data
  8. 8. Open Source Software
  9. 9.
  10. 10. Open Access Publishing“As a society, we are paying for science,and then we’re paying to read about it.”
  11. 11. Open Access PublishingThe Development of Open Access Journal Publishing from 1993 to 2009
  12. 12. Photo: Fina Underwater by Dave Foster used under Creative Commons license
  13. 13. Photo: Fina Underwater by Dave Foster used under Creative Commons licenseGood or Bad?
  14. 14. …“openness” has become a dangerously vagueterm, with lots of sex appeal but barely anyanalytical content.For many institutions, “open” has become thenew “green.” And in the same way thatcompanies will “greenwash” their initiatives byinvoking eco-friendly window dressing to hideless-palatable practices, there has alsoemerged a term to describe similar efforts toread “openness” into situations andenvironments where it doesn’t exist:“openwashing.”Evgeny Morozov March, 2013, New York Times
  15. 15. Open as Business Model
  16. 16. Anya Kamenetz,
  17. 17. “…openness is the sole means by whicheducation is effected. If a teacher is notsharing what he or she knows, there is noeducation happening.In fact, those educators who share themost thoroughly of themselves with thegreatest proportion of their students arethe ones we deem successful. Does everysingle student come out of a class inpossession of the knowledge and skills theteacher tried to share? In other words, isthe teacher a successful sharer? If so, thenthe teacher is a successful educator. Ifattempts at sharing fail, then the teacher isa poor educator.Education is sharing.Education is about being open.”Openness as Catalyst for an Educational Reformation, David Wiley, EDUCAUSE Review, vol. 45, no. 4 (July/August 2010): 14–20
  18. 18. The web - open by design
  19. 19. The amazing expansion of websites globally from 1994 to about 2000—was driven by open access and individuals learning by reading otherpeoples HTML code. The web growth over those six years is probablythe most significant distance learning program the world has everseen. One could say it was perhaps the first “massive open online”learning phenomenon, occurring nearly two decades before anyoneever heard of the idea of a MOOC (massive open online course).Open Educational Resources as Learning Materials: Prospects & Strategies for Libraries, Research Libraries Issues, Sept 2012
  20. 20. “OER are teaching, learning, and researchresources that reside in the public domain or havebeen released under an intellectual property licensethat permits their free use and re-purposing byothers.”William & Flora Hewlett Foundation
  21. 21. “Open Educational Resources (OERs) are any typeof educational materials that are in the publicdomain or introduced with an open license. Thenature of these open materials means that anyonecan legally and freely copy, use, adapt and re-sharethem.”UNESCO
  22. 22. • Educational resources(text, images, simulations, multimedia, textbooks)• Accessible by anyone (usually via internet)• Free• Can be modified & adapted
  23. 23. Image from Copyright in Education & Internet in South African Law under Creative Commons Attribution 2.5 South Africa license
  24. 24.
  25. 25. “A textbook licensed under an opencopyright license, and made available onlineto be freely used by students, teachers andmembers of the public.They are available as low-cost printedversions, should students opt for these.”BCcampus
  26. 26. • Students spend $1200/yr on textbooks• 4x rate of inflation over past 20 years• 70% students have not purchased textbookfor a course because of price
  27. 27. What students think of textbooks“The price of textbooks has influenced my decision to take classes. When the same class is offered bythree different instructors, I check which book is the cheapest, and even though the professor mightnot be good, I’m forced to take that class because the textbook is the cheapest.”“For my ‘Intro to Stats’ class, the usual cost of the textbook is like $120. But then I got a copy fromIndia for like $29. And it’s the exact same copy.”“I was in lab one day and the guy sitting next to me had the PDF version of the book opened on hiscomputer. And I was like, Oh, can I have a copy? And he sent it over to me.”“I have a friend who actually didn’t spend any money last year for books because he went to thelibrary at the beginning of the quarter, borrowed books, scanned everything, and had the PDF file.”“My most expensive class was clinical psych, because she writes the textbook herself, and it has a newedition every semester or something ridiculous. So it was like almost $200. And the thing is that youcan’t use the previous edition, because she changes it herself because she knows the textbooks sellwell. It’s like so manipulative.”Students Get Savvier about Textbook Buying,The Chronicle of Higher Education, January 2013
  28. 28. Visual notes of John Yap announcement, Giulia Forsythe under Creative Commons attribution share-alike licenseGoal: 40 free and opentextbooks available forthe highest enrolled 1st &2nd year post-secondarysubjects in BC.
  29. 29. Source: OpenStax College 2012160 school adoptions$2.3 million savings
  30. 30. Utah Open Textbook Project1 year pilot10 high school science teachers adapt CK12textbooks2000 studentsCost US $4.99/book printed & delivered (US $80)Result: 5.9% gain in standardized test scores
  31. 31. Internet Map World City to City connections by Chris Harrison
  32. 32. Working on the open web• Real. Authentic. It Matters.• Make connections possible• Larger community• Experts in field
  33. 33.
  34. 34.
  35. 35. “Jonathan Worths classes live on blogs and onTwitter (hashtag #phonar), and are proving apopular resource amongst photographyenthusiasts and professionals alike.”“Worth can see comments from students bothin the room and online via Twitter or Facebookin real time, as well as allowing others to dropin, or suggest links to relevant material. Its afluid learning experience”
  36. 36. “Through my work with #phonar I have learnt the world is filled withlots of different people and we all think and learn differently. ““The skills I have learned and developed from the open classes havegiven me the confidence in my work to distribute it and enter it intonational and international competitions. “
  37. 37. Network Mentors
  38. 38. Help with a Bow Drill
  39. 39. Open Registration+Open Educational Resources+Open Learning=
  40. 40. Open Registration+Open Educational Resources+Open Learning= Photo: THE MOOC! The movie by Gulia Forsythe used under CC-BY-NC license
  41. 41. cMOOC
  42. 42. xMOOC
  43. 43. cMOOC xMOOCOpen Access (Participation)InstructivistAutonomous (peer grading)Instructor as expert (Sage on Stage)Proprietary resourcesClosed restricted platformLearner does not have accessOpen Access (Participation)Connectivist/Social ConstructivistLearning CommunityInstructor as active participantOpen Educational ResourcesOpen platforms (the web)Learner has access
  44. 44. “All content or other materials available on theSites, including but not limited tocode, images, text, layouts, arrangements, displays,illustrations, audio and video clips, HTML files andother content are the property of Coursera and/orits affiliates or licensors and are protected bycopyright, patent and/or other proprietaryintellectual property rights under the United Statesand foreign laws”But is this open? Coursera content….
  45. 45. But is this open? Student content….“With respect to User Content you submit or otherwisemake available in connection with your use of theSite, and subject to the Privacy Policy, you grant Courseraand the Participating Institutions a fullytransferable, worldwide, perpetual, royalty-free and non-exclusive license touse, distribute, sublicense, reproduce, modify, adapt, publicly perform and publicly display such User Content.”
  46. 46. “You may not take any Online Course offered byCoursera or use any Statement of Accomplishment aspart of any tuition-based or for-credit certification orprogram for any college, university, or other academicinstitution without the express written permission fromCoursera. Such use of an Online Course or Statement ofAccomplishment is a violation of these Terms of Use”
  47. 47. Take the obsession with massive openonline courses. In what sense are theyopen? Well, they are available online forfree. But to celebrate this as a triumph ofopenness is premature. A more ambitiousopenness agenda would not just expandaccess to courses but also give users theability to reuse, remix and repurpose theircontent. I could take somebody’s lecturenotes, add a few paragraphs anddistribute them further as part of my owncourse. This is not what most MOOCscurrently offer: their terms of use oftenban such repurposing.Evgeny Morozov March, 2013, New York Times
  48. 48. Thank YouSlides at Clintlalonde.netReleased under Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 license