Resource	
  Notebook	
  
The	
  Exceptional	
  Child	
  in	
  the	
  School	
  
	
  
Created	
  by	
  Cie...
  1	
  
Table	
  of	
  Content	
  	
  
I.	
   Definitions	
  ................................................................
  2	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Definitions	
  	
  
	
  
	
   	
  
  3	
  
Who	
  are	
  Exceptional	
  Children?	
  
	
  
Ø Exceptional	
  children	
  are	
  those	
  whose	
  physical	
 ...
  4	
  
	
  
Why	
  Are	
  Laws	
  Governing	
  the	
  Education	
  of	
  Exceptional	
  Children	
  Necessary?	
  
	
  
Ø...
  5	
  
Ø Zero	
  Reject	
  
Schools	
  must	
  educate	
  all	
  children	
  with	
  disabilities.	
  This	
  principle	...
  6	
  
What	
  is	
  Special	
  Education?	
  	
  
	
  
Ø Special	
  education	
  consists	
  of	
  purposeful	
  interv...
  7	
  
§ Other	
  individuals	
  who	
  have	
  a	
  knowledge	
  or	
  special	
  expertise	
  regarding	
  the	
  chil...
  8	
  
References	
  
Heward,	
  W.	
  (2013).	
  Exceptional	
  children	
  an	
  introduction	
  to	
  special	
  educa...
  9	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Strategies	
  
	
  
	
   	
  
  10	
  
Learning	
  Disabilities,	
  Learning	
  Differences,	
  and	
  ADHD	
  
	
  
	
  
Definitions	
  
Ø Learning	
 ...
  11	
  
checkers,	
  software	
  with	
  highlighting	
  capabilities,	
  and	
  word	
  prediction	
  software.	
  	
  
...
  12	
  
§ Encourage	
  cooperative	
  learning	
  tasks	
  with	
  other	
  students	
  
	
  
§ Provide	
  small	
  gro...
  13	
  
Mood	
  
§ Provide	
  reassurance	
  and	
  encouragement	
  
	
  
§ Frequently	
  compliment	
  positive	
  be...
  14	
  
§ If	
  math	
  is	
  weak:	
  allow	
  use	
  of	
  calculator;	
  use	
  graph	
  paper	
  to	
  space	
  numb...
  15	
  
penalize	
  sloppiness	
  
	
  
§ Allow	
  student	
  to	
  have	
  extra	
  set	
  of	
  books	
  at	
  home	
 ...
  16	
  
§ Seat	
  student	
  near	
  teacher	
  
	
  
§ Set	
  up	
  behavior	
  contract	
  
	
  
§ Implement	
  clas...
  17	
  
References	
  
Bryant,	
  D.,	
  &	
  Bryant,	
  B.	
  (2008).	
  Introduction	
  to	
  the	
  special	
  series:...
  18	
  
Autism	
  Spectrum	
  Disorders	
  
	
  
	
  
Definition	
  
Ø Autistic	
  Disorder	
  
A	
  pervasive	
  develo...
  19	
  
Organization	
  of	
  the	
  School	
  Day
§ Have	
  a	
  visual	
  organizer	
  of	
  the	
  day.	
  Visual	
  ...
  20	
  
§ During	
  class	
  discussions,	
  consider	
  using	
  an	
  object	
  such	
  as	
  a	
  ball	
  or	
  stick...
  21	
  
§ It	
  is	
  essential	
  for	
  the	
  classroom	
  teacher	
  to	
  have	
  regular	
  communication	
  with	...
  22	
  
References	
  
Bennie,	
  M.	
  (207).	
  Creating	
  a	
  successful	
  school	
  day	
  for	
  students	
  with...
  23	
  
Emotional	
  Issues	
  and/or	
  Behavioral	
  Difficulties	
  	
  
	
  
Definitions	
  
Ø Emotional	
  Disturba...
  24	
  
cut	
  out	
  magazine	
  pictures	
  that	
  demonstrate	
  the	
  feeling.	
  Talk	
  about	
  how	
  each	
  s...
  25	
  
	
  
§ Expand	
  positive	
  learning	
  opportunities	
  and	
  results	
  
	
  
§ Collaborate	
  actively	
  ...
  26	
  
References	
  
Bobrow,	
  A.	
  (2002).	
  Problem	
  behaviors	
  in	
  the	
  classroom:	
  What	
  they	
  mea...
  27	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
	
  
Parent	
  Resources	
  	
  
	
  
	
   	
  
  28	
  
	
  
Local	
  Agencies	
  in	
  Sacramento,	
  California	
  
	
  
Definitions	
  Applied	
  Behavior	
  Consulta...
  29	
  
Protection	
  &	
  Advocacy,	
  Inc.	
  
Ø Address:	
  100	
  Howe	
  Avenue,	
  Suite	
  185N	
  	
  Sacramento...
  30	
  
	
  
Prevention	
  &	
  Children	
  Services	
  Branch	
  (Birth	
  through	
  2)	
  
Ø Address:	
  Department	
...
  31	
  
	
  
State	
  Agencies	
  in	
  California	
  	
  
	
  
Northern	
  California	
  Coalition	
  for	
  Parent	
  T...
  32	
  
independently	
  and	
  to	
  actively	
  participate	
  in	
  their	
  communities.	
  Through	
  advocacy,	
  
...
  33	
  
Rowell	
  Family	
  Empowerment	
  of	
  Northern	
  California,	
  Inc.	
  962	
  
Ø Address:	
  Maraglia	
  St...
  34	
  
particular	
  part	
  of	
  the	
  agency	
  provides	
  training	
  and	
  information	
  for	
  parents	
  with...
  35	
  
Web	
  Resources	
  	
  
	
  
Teaching	
  Students	
  with	
  Severe	
  Emotional	
  and	
  Behavioral	
  
Disord...
  36	
  
IDEA	
  Parent	
  Guide	
  	
  
Ø Web	
  Address:	
  
http://www.pacer.org/legislation/idea/pdf/idea2004parentgu...
  37	
  
families,	
  and	
  articles	
  authored	
  by	
  parents	
  and	
  experts	
  in	
  the	
  field	
  of	
  blindn...
  38	
  
Journal	
  Articles	
  	
  
	
  
Single	
  Mothers	
  of	
  Children	
  with	
  Developmental	
  Disabilities:	
 ...
  39	
  
	
  
Aging	
  Women	
  and	
  their	
  Children	
  with	
  Chronic	
  Disabilities:	
  Perceptions	
  of	
  Sibli...
  40	
  
Adopting	
  Children	
  with	
  Developmental	
  Disabilities:	
  A	
  Long-­‐Term	
  Perspective	
  
Ø Author:	...
  41	
  
Mothers	
  of	
  Children	
  with	
  Developmental	
  Disabilities:	
  Who	
  shares	
  the	
  burden?	
  
Ø Aut...
  42	
  
References	
  
Glidden,	
  L.	
  (2000).	
  Adopting	
  children	
  with	
  developmental	
  disabilities:	
  A	
...
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Resource Notebook
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Resource Notebook

720 views

Published on

Published in: Education, Health & Medicine
0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
720
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
9
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
4
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

Resource Notebook

  1. 1.         Resource  Notebook   The  Exceptional  Child  in  the  School     Created  by  Cierra  Aubuchon   The  Citadel  Graduate  College      
  2. 2.   1   Table  of  Content     I.   Definitions  .......................................................................................................................................  2   A.   Who  are  the  Exceptional  Children?  ..................................................................................................  3   1.   Why  Do  We  Label  and  Classify  Exceptional  Children?  ..................................................................  3   B.   Why  Are  Laws  Governing  the  Education  of  Exceptional  Children  Necessary?  .................................  4   1.   The  Individuals  with  Disabilities  Education  Act  ..........................................................................  4-­‐5   C.   What  is  Special  Education?  ...............................................................................................................  6   2.   The  Process  of  Education  Special  Education  .................................................................................  6   2.   Individualized  Education  Program  .............................................................................................  6-­‐7   D.   References  ........................................................................................................................................  8   II.   Strategies  ..........................................................................................................................................  9   A.   Learning  Disabilities,  Learning  Differences,  and  ADHD  ..................................................................  10   1.   Definations  ..................................................................................................................................  10   2.   Accomdations  for  Students  with  Learning  Disabilities  ...........................................................  10-­‐11   3.   Strategies  for  Students  with  Learning  Disabilities  ......................................................................  11   4.   Accomdations  &  Strategies  for  Students  with  ADHD  .............................................................  11-­‐16   5.   References  ..................................................................................................................................  17   B.   Autism  Spectrum  Disorders  ............................................................................................................  18   1.   Defination  ...................................................................................................................................  18   2.   Accomdations  &  Strategies  for  Students  with  Autism  Spectrum  Disorders  ...........................  18-­‐20   3.   References  ..................................................................................................................................  21   C.   Emotional  Issues  and/or  Behavioral  Issues  Definition  ...................................................................  23   1.   Defination  ...................................................................................................................................  23   2.   Accomdation  &  Strategies  for  Students  with  Emotional  Issues  and/or  Behavioral  Issues  .....  23-­‐25   3.   References  ..................................................................................................................................  26   III.  Parent  Resources  .........................................................................................................................  27   A.   Local  Agencies  ...........................................................................................................................  28-­‐30   B.   State  Agencies  ...........................................................................................................................  31-­‐34   D.   Web  Resources  .........................................................................................................................  35-­‐37   E.   Journal  Titles  and/or  Journal  Articles  ........................................................................................  38-­‐41   1.   References  ..................................................................................................................................  42   F.   Book  Titles  .................................................................................................................................  43-­‐47   1.   References  ..................................................................................................................................  48   IV.  Law  ...................................................................................................................................................  49   A.   IDEA  2004  ..................................................................................................................................  50-­‐51   B.   ADA  ............................................................................................................................................  50-­‐51   C.   Section  504  of  the  Rehabilitation  Act  ........................................................................................  50-­‐51   D.   California  Mandates  Related  to  Special  Education  ........................................................................  52   1.   References  ..................................................................................................................................  53  
  3. 3.   2               Definitions          
  4. 4.   3   Who  are  Exceptional  Children?     Ø Exceptional  children  are  those  whose  physical  attributes  and/or  learning  abilities  differ   form  the  norm,  either  above  or  below,  to  such  an  extent  that  an  individualized  program   of  special  education  is  necessary.       Ø Impairment  refers  to  the  reduced  function  or  loss  or  a  particular  body  part  or  organ.       Ø Handicap  refers  to  the  problems  a  person  with  disability  encounters  when  interaction   with  their  environment.       Ø A  Disability  exists  when  an  impairment  limits  a  person’s  ability  to  perform  certain  tasks   in  the  same  way  as  most  people  do.       Ø A  child  who  is  at  risk  is  not  currently  identified  as  having  a  disability  but  is  considered  to   have  a  greater-­‐than-­‐usual  chance  of  developing  one  if  intervention  is  not  provided.       Why  Do  We  Label  and  Classify  Exceptional  Children?   Ø Some  believe  that  disability  labels  have  negative  effects  on  children  and  on  other   perceptions  of  them  and  can  lead  to  exclusion;  others  believe  that  labeling  is  a   necessary  first  step  to  providing  needed  intervention  and  is  important  for  comparing   and  communication  about  research  findings.       Ø Alternative  approaches  to  classifying  exceptional  children  that  do  not  rely  on  disability   labels  have  been  proposed.  i.e.,  classifying  students  by  the  curriculum  and  skill  areas   they  are  learning.       Ø In  curriculum-­‐based  assessment,  students  are  assessed  and  classified  relative  to  the   degree  to  which  they  are  learning  specific  curriculum  content.          
  5. 5.   4     Why  Are  Laws  Governing  the  Education  of  Exceptional  Children  Necessary?     Ø Before  the  1970s,  many  states  had  laws  permitting  public  schools  to  deny  enrollment  to   children  with  disabilities.  When  local  public  schools  began  to  accept  a  measure  of   responsibility  for  education  certain  exceptional  students,  a  philosophy  of  segregation   prevailed.       Ø Special  education  was  strongly  influenced  by  the  case  of  Brown  vs.  Board  of  Education   in  1954,  in  which  the  U.S.  Supreme  Court  declared  that  education  must  be  made   available  to  all  children  on  equal  terms.       Ø In  the  class-­‐action  lawsuit  PARC  (1972),  the  Court  ruled  that  all  children  with  mental   retardation  were  entitled  to  a  free,  appropriate  public  education  and  that  placements  in   regular  classrooms  and  regular  public  schools  were  preferable  to  segregated  settings.       Ø All  children  with  disabilities  are  now  recognized  to  have  the  right  to  equal  protection   under  the  law,  which  has  been  interrupted  to  mean  the  right  to  a  free  public  education   in  the  least  restrictive  environment.       Ø All  children  with  disabilities  and  their  parents  have  the  right  to  due  process  under  the   law,  which  includes  the  rights  to  be  notified  of  any  decision  affecting  the  child’s   educational  placement,  to  have  a  hearing  and  present  a  defense,  to  see  a  written   decision,  and  to  appeal  and  decision.     Ø Court  decisions  have  also  established  the  rights  of  children  with  disabilities  to  fair   assessment  in  their  native  language  and  to  education  at  public  expense,  regardless  of   the  school  district’s  financial  constraints.       The  Individuals  with  Disabilities  Education  Act   The  passage  of  IDEA  by  Congress  in  1975  marked  the  culmination  of  the  efforts  if  many   educators,  parents,  and  legislators  to  bring  together  in  one  comprehensive  bill  this  country’s   laws  regarding  the  education  of  children  with  disabilities.  The  law  encompasses  these  major   principals:      
  6. 6.   5   Ø Zero  Reject   Schools  must  educate  all  children  with  disabilities.  This  principle  applies  regardless  of   the  nature  or  severity  of  the  disability.       Ø Free,  Appropriate  Public  Education     All  children  with  disabilities  shall  receive  free,  appropriate  public  education  at  public   expense.  An  individuated  education  program  (IEP)  must  be  developed  and  implemented   for  each  student  with  a  disability.       Ø Least  Restrictive  Environment   Students  with  disabilities  must  be  educated  with  children  without  disabilities  to  the   maximum  extent  appropriate,  and  they  should  be  removed  to  separate  classes  or   schools  only  when  the  nature  or  severity  of  their  disabilities  is  such  that  they  cannot   received  an  appropriate  education  in  the  general  education  classroom.       Ø Due  Process  Safeguards   Schools  must  provide  due  process  safeguards  to  protect  the  rights  of  children  with   disabilities  and  their  parents.          
  7. 7.   6   What  is  Special  Education?       Ø Special  education  consists  of  purposeful  intervention  efforts  at  3  levels:  preventive,   remedial,  and  compensatory.     Ø Special  Education  is  individually  planned,  specialized,  intensive,  goal-­‐directed   instruction.  When  practiced  most  effectively  and  ethically,  special  education  uses   research-­‐based  teaching  methods  and  is  guided  by  direct  and  frequent  measure  of   student  performance.       The  Process  of  Special  Education   Ø IDEA  mandates  a  particular  sequence  of  events  that  schools  must  follow  in  identifying   and  educating  children  with  disabilities.     Ø Pre-­‐referral  intervention  is  an  informal,  problem-­‐solving  process  used  by  many  schools   to  provide  immediate  instructional  and/or  behavior  management  assistance  to  the  child   and  teacher  and  reduce  the  chances  of  identifying  a  child  for  special  education  who   might  not  be  disabled.       Ø All  children  suspected  of  having  a  disability  must  receive  a  nondiscriminatory  multi-­‐ factored  evaluation  (MFE)  to  for  determining  eligibility  for  special  education  and  to   provide  information  about  the  child’s  educational  needs  and  how  to  meet  them.     Ø An  individualized  education  problem  (IEP)  must  be  planned  and  provided  for  each  child   with  a  disability  that  is  adversely  affecting  their  educational  performance.       Individualized  Education  Program   Ø An  IEP  planning  team  must  include   § The  parents  or  guardians  of  the  child   § 1  regular  education  teacher  of  the  child   § 1  special  education  teacher   § A  representative  of  the  local  education  agency   § An  individual  who  can  interpret  the  instructional  implications  of  evaluation   results    
  8. 8.   7   § Other  individuals  who  have  a  knowledge  or  special  expertise  regarding  the  child,   including  related-­‐service  personnel  as  appropriate   § The  student,  if  appropriate                                                                              
  9. 9.   8   References   Heward,  W.  (2013).  Exceptional  children  an  introduction  to  special  education.  (10th  ed.).  Upper   saddle  river,  nj:  Pearson  Education,  Inc.                        
  10. 10.   9           Strategies        
  11. 11.   10   Learning  Disabilities,  Learning  Differences,  and  ADHD       Definitions   Ø Learning  Disabilities     A  general  term  that  refers  to  a  heterogeneous  group  of  disorders  manifested  by   significant  difficulties  in  the  acquisition  and  use  of  listening,  speaking,  reading,  writing,   reasoning,  or  mathematical  abilities.       Ø ADHD,  Attention  Deficit  Disorder     A  diagnostic  category  of  the  American  Psychiatric  Association  for  a  condition  in  which  a   child  exhibits  developmentally  inappropriate  inattention,  impulsivity,  and  hyperactivity.       Accommodations  for  Students  with  Learning  Disabilities     § Note  takers.       § Audiotaped  or  videotaped  class  sessions.       § Extended  exam  time  and  a  quiet  testing  location.       § Visual,  aural,  and  tactile  demonstrations  incorporated  into  instruction.       § Concise  course  and  lecture  outlines.       § Books  on  tape.       § Alternative  evaluation  methods  (e.g.,  portfolio,  oral  or  video  presentations).       § Providing  projects  or  detailed  instructions  on  audiotapes  or  print  copies.       § Reinforcing  directions  verbally.       § Breaking  large  amounts  of  information  or  instructions  into  smaller  segments.     § Computers  can  be  adapted  to  assist  students  with  learning  disabilities.  A  student  with   learning  disabilities  might  find  these  accommodations  useful:   • Computers  equipped  with  speech  output,  which  highlights  and  reads  (via  screen   reading  software  and  a  speech  synthesizer)  text  on  the  computer  screen.     • Word  processing  software  that  includes  electronic  spelling  and  grammar  
  12. 12.   11   checkers,  software  with  highlighting  capabilities,  and  word  prediction  software.     • Software  to  enlarge  screen  images.     § For  math  and  science  classes,  examples  of  specific  accommodations  that  are  useful  for   students  with  learning  disabilities  include:   • The  use  of  scratch  paper  to  work  out  math  problems  during  exams.     • Talking  calculators.     • Fractional,  decimal,  and  statistical  scientific  calculators.     • Computer  Assisted  Instruction  (CAI)  software  for  math.     • Computer  Assisted  Design  (CAD)  software  for  engineering.     • Large  display  screens  for  calculators  and  adding  machines.     Strategies  for  Students  with  Learning  Disabilities       § Brake  learning  into  small  steps     § Administrate  probes     § Supplied  regular  quality  feedback     § Used  diagrams,  graphics  and  pictures  to  augment  what  they  were  saying  in  words     § Provided  ample  independent,  well-­‐designed,  intensive  practice     § Modeled  instructional  practices  that  they  wanted  students  to  follow     § Provided  prompts  of  strategies  to  use;  and  engaged  students  in  process  type  question   like  “How  is  that  strategy  working?  Where  else  might  you  apply  it?”     Accommodations  &  Strategies  for  Students  with  ADHD     Socialization     § Praise  appropriate  behavior     § Monitor  social  interactions   §   § Set  up  social  behavior  goals  with  student  and  implement  a  reward  program.   §   § Prompt  appropriate  social  behavior  either  verbally  or  with  private  signal    
  13. 13.   12   § Encourage  cooperative  learning  tasks  with  other  students     § Provide  small  group  social  skills  training   §   § Praise  student  frequently     § Assign  special  responsibilities  to  student  in  presence  of  peer  group  so  others  observe   student  in  a  positive  light.     Inattention   §  Seat  student  in  quiet  area     § Seat  student  near  good  role  model     § Seat  student  near  "study  buddy"     § Increase  distance  between  desks     § Allow  extra  time  to  complete  assigned  work     § Shorten  assignments  or  work  periods  to  coincide  with  span  of  attention;  use  timer     § Break  long  assignments  into  smaller  parts  so  student  can  see  end  to  work     § Assist  student  in  setting  short  term  goals     § Give  assignments  one  at  a  time  to  avoid  work  overload     § Require  fewer  correct  responses  for  grade     § Reduce  amount  of  homework     § Instruct  student  in  self-­‐monitoring  using  cueing     § Pair  written  instructions  with  oral  instructions     § Provide  peer  assistance  in  note  taking     § Give  clear,  concise  instructions     § Seek  to  involve  student  in  lesson  presentation     § Cue  student  to  stay  on  task,  i.e.  private  signal  
  14. 14.   13   Mood   § Provide  reassurance  and  encouragement     § Frequently  compliment  positive  behavior  and  work  product     § Speak  softly  in  non-­‐threatening  manner  if  student  shows  nervousness     § Review  instructions  when  giving  new  assignments  to  make  sure  student  comprehends   directions   § Look  for  opportunities  for  student  to  display  leadership  role  in  class     § Conference  frequently  with  parents  to  learn  about  student's  interests  and  achievements   outside  of  school     § Send  positive  notes  home     § Make  time  to  talk  alone  with  student     § Encourage  social  interactions  with  classmates  if  student  is  withdrawn  or  excessively  shy     § Reinforce  frequently  when  signs  of  frustration  are  noticed     § Look  for  signs  of  stress  build  up  and  provide  encouragement  or  reduced  work  load  to   alleviate  pressure  and  avoid  temper  outburst     § Spend  more  time  talking  to  students  who  seem  pent  up  or  display  anger  easily     § Provide  brief  training  in  anger  control:  encourage  student  to  walk  away;  use  calming   strategies;  tell  nearby  adult  if  getting  angry   Academic  Skills     § If  reading  is  weak:  provide  additional  reading  time;  use  "previewing"  strategies;  select   text  with  less  on  a  page;  shorten  amount  of  required  reading;  avoid  oral  reading     § If  oral  expression  is  weak:  accept  all  oral  responses;  substitute  display  for  oral  report;   encourage  student  to  tell  about  new  ideas  or  experiences;  pick  topics  easy  for  student   to  talk  about     § If  written  language  is  weak:  accept  non-­‐written  forms  for  reports  (i.e.  displays,  oral,   projects);  accept  use  of  typewriter,  word  processor,  tape  recorder;  do  not  assign  large   quantity  of  written  work;  test  with  multiple  choice  or  fill-­‐in  questions    
  15. 15.   14   § If  math  is  weak:  allow  use  of  calculator;  use  graph  paper  to  space  numbers;  provide   additional  math  time;  provide  immediate  correctness  feedback  and  instruction  via   modeling  of  the  correct  computational  procedure   Impulsiveness     § Ignore  minor,  inappropriate  behavior     § Increase  immediacy  of  rewards  and  consequences     § Use  time-­‐out  procedure  for  misbehavior     § Supervise  closely  during  transition  times     § Use  "prudent"  reprimands  for  misbehavior  (i.e.  avoid  lecturing  or  criticism)   § Attend  to  positive  behavior  with  compliments  etc.     § Acknowledge  positive  behavior  of  nearby  students     § Seat  student  near  role  model  or  near  teacher     § Set  up  behavior  contract     § Instruct  student  in  self  monitoring  of  behavior,  i.e.  hand  raising,  calling  out     § Call  on  only  when  hand  is  raised  in  appropriate  manner     § Praise  when  hand  raised  to  answer  question   Organization  &  Planning   § Ask  for  parental  help  in  encouraging  organization     § Provide  organization  rules     § Encourage  student  to  have  notebook  with  dividers  and  folders  for  work     § Provide  student  with  homework  assignment  book     § Supervise  writing  down  of  homework  assignments     § Send  daily/weekly  progress  reports  home     § Regularly  check  desk  and  notebook  for  neatness,  encourage  neatness  rather  than  
  16. 16.   15   penalize  sloppiness     § Allow  student  to  have  extra  set  of  books  at  home     § Give  assignments  one  at  a  time     § Assist  student  in  setting  short  term  goals     § Do  not  penalize  for  poor  handwriting  if  visual-­‐motor  defects  are  present     § Encourage  learning  of  keyboarding  skills     § Allow  student  to  tape  record  assignments  or  homework   Motor  Activity     § Allow  student  to  stand  at  times  while  working     § Provide  opportunity  for  "seat  breaks"  i.e.run  errands,  etc.     § Provide  short  break  between  assignments     § Supervise  closely  during  transition  times     § Remind  student  to  check  over  work  product  if  performance  is  rushed  and  careless     § Give  extra  time  to  complete  tasks  (especially  for  students  with  slow  motor  tempo)   Compliance   § Praise  compliant  behavior     § Provide  immediate  feedback     § Ignore  minor  misbehavior     § Use  teacher  attention  to  reinforce  positive  behavior     § Use  "prudent"  reprimands  for  misbehavior  (i.e.  avoid  lecturing  or  criticism)     § Acknowledge  positive  behavior  of  nearby  student     § Supervise  student  closely  during  transition  times    
  17. 17.   16   § Seat  student  near  teacher     § Set  up  behavior  contract     § Implement  classroom  behavior  management  system     § Instruct  student  in  self-­‐monitoring  of  behavior        
  18. 18.   17   References   Bryant,  D.,  &  Bryant,  B.  (2008).  Introduction  to  the  special  series:  Mathematics  and  learning     disabilities.  Learning  Disability  Quarterly,  31(1),  3-­‐11  .  Retrieved  from     http://www.jstor.org/stable/30035521   Heward,  W.  (2013).  Exceptional  children  an  introduction  to  special  education.  (10th  ed.).  Upper   saddle  river,  nj:  Pearson  Education,  Inc.   Learning  Disabilities  Association  of  America.  (2011).  Successful  strategies  for  teaching  students     with  learning  disabilities.  Retrieved  from     http://www.ldanatl.org/aboutld/teachers/understanding/strategies.asp   Parker,  H.  (2012).  Adapt:  Accommodations  for  students  with  adhd  .  Retrieved  from       http://www.naceonline.com/article-­‐accommodations-­‐for-­‐adhd.php   Sireci,  S.,  Scarpati,  S.,  &  Le,  S.  (2005).  Test  accommodations  for  students  with  disabilities:  An     analysis  of  the  interaction  hypothesis.  Review  of  Educational  Research,  75(4),  457-­‐490.     Retrieved  from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3516104   University  of  Washington.  (2004).  Learning  disabilities.  Retrieved  from   http://www.washington.edu/doit/Faculty/Strategies/Disability/LD/        
  19. 19.   18   Autism  Spectrum  Disorders       Definition   Ø Autistic  Disorder   A  pervasive  developmental  disorder  marked  by  three  defining  features  with  onset   before  age  3:  (a)  impairment  of  social  interaction;  (b)  impairment  of  communication;   and  (c)  restricted,  repetitive,  and  stereotypic  patterns  of  behavior,  interests,  and   activities.       Accommodations  &  Strategies  for  Students  with  Autism  Spectrum  Disorders   Physical  Space § The  location  of  a  desk  should  be  based  on  a  student’s  sensory  sensitivities.  Consider   placing  a  desk  away  from  a  door  or  a  high  movement  area  such  as  the  art  centre  to   minimize  distractions       § The  student  might  prefer  to  face  a  wall  or  window  so  they  don’t  notice  other  students   as  much.         § Have  a  quiet  place  of  retreat—a  study  carrel,  bean  bag  chair  in  a  corner  of  the  room,  or   a  table  in  the  library  when  things  get  too  chaotic  in  the  classroom.  Have  a  code  for  the   child  to  tell  you  when  they  are  on  overload  without  having  to  draw  attention  to  himself.   This  could  be  placing  an  object  like  a  red  ruler  on  the  right  hand  corner  of  their  desk  to   signify  overload  and  a  break  is  needed.         § If  the  moving  of  chairs  is  very  noisy,  consider  putting  old  tennis  balls  on  the  chair  legs  to   minimize  noise.       § Allow  the  student  to  enter  the  school  early  or  leave  early  to  avoided  crowded  hallways.  I   discovered  my  7-­‐year-­‐old  daughter  with  ASD  put  the  “gone  to  the  bathroom”  disc  on   her  desk  as  recess  was  ending  and  stood  in  a  bathroom  stall  until  the  hallways  cleared.     § Place  a  basket  underneath  the  student’s  desk  and  have  them  place  what  they  need  in   there  for  small  blocks  of  time.  Trying  to  find  items  in  an  overcrowded  desk  can  be   frustrating.    
  20. 20.   19   Organization  of  the  School  Day § Have  a  visual  organizer  of  the  day.  Visual  aids  and  ideas  for  use  of  visuals  can  be  found   on  www.do2learn.com  or  use  Boardmaker®  software  to  create  your  own  visuals  if  your   school  has  a  copy.     § Visuals  can  also  be  photos.  Some  students  find  photos  of  real  people  and  places  they   know  more  meaningful  than  picture  symbols.         § Some  students  will  want  to  know  the  schedule  for  the  whole  day,  others  may  only  be   able  to  cope  with  seeing  part  of  the  day  at  a  time,  and  some  will  need  to  see  one  activity   at  a  time  with  a  breakdown  of  the  parts.  Get  to  know  your  students’  preferences.   Knowing  the  entire  daily  schedule  at  once  may  be  overwhelming  for  some  students  and   cause  anxiety.  For  others  it  will  alleviate  anxiety.     § Put  the  daily  schedule  on  a  Velcro  strip  and  remove  activities  as  they  are  completed  into   a  pocket  marked  “finished.”  Students  with  autism  like  to  know  there  is  a  beginning  and   an  end  to  activities.     § For  the  older  student,  tape  the  schedule  inside  a  binder.         § Warn  well  in  advance  about  changes  to  the  daily  schedule  such  as  a  guest  speaker  or  an   assembly.         § Only  post  necessary  information  around  the  classroom  (i.e.,  calendar,  classroom   expectations,  schedule  of  the  day)  to  avoid  confusion  and  overload.         § Consider  color  coding  shelves  for  topics  (Red  =  Language  Arts,  Green  =  Social  Studies)   and  have  the  student’s  binder  color  correspond  to  these  topics.       § Consider  using  a  Time  Timer  for  an  activity  if  the  student  needs  visual  support  for   timing.  If  you  want  to  control  the  units  of  time,  put  Velcro  on  the  back  of  a  poker  chip,   use  a  horizontal  strip,  and  then  place  the  poker  chips  on  the  strip  as  sections  of  time  go   by.  At  the  end  of  the  strip,  there  can  be  a  reward  such  as  10  minutes  of  computer  time.   Curriculum  Instruction § Keep  your  teaching  visually  interesting.  Use  diagrams  or  models,  write  on  the   blackboard.       §  Avoid  using  figurative  speech  and  idiomatic  language  when  instructing.  Most  students   with  ASD  won’t  understand  this  language  and  neither  will  English  as  a  Second  Language   students.        
  21. 21.   20   § During  class  discussions,  consider  using  an  object  such  as  a  ball  or  stick  that  is  passed   around  the  classroom  to  signify  it  is  that  person’s  turn  to  talk.         § Ask  the  student  to  repeat  your  instructions  to  you  once  the  other  students  have  begun   working.  Be  prepared  to  repeat  your  instructions  several  times  and  support  them  with   visuals  in  order  to  facilitate  understanding.         § For  note  taking,  have  a  strong  student  with  good  handwriting  take  the  notes  on  carbon   copy  paper,  then  you  can  simply  tear  off  the  bottom  copy  and  give  it  to  the  ASD  student.   Learning  Styles  and  Options § Make  learning  relevant.  Many  students  with  ASD  have  special  interests,  so  use  those  to   teach  concepts.  If  a  math  class  is  using  manipulatives  to  teach  addition,  let  the  student   use  dinosaurs,  his  special  interest,  instead  of  Popsicle  sticks.         § Take  the  pencil  out  of  the  process.  Many  students  find  handwriting  difficult  because  of   motor  planning  issues.  Make  use  of  computer  technology  and  allow  the  student  to  type.       § Leslie  Broun,  the  former  Autism  Inclusion  Coordinator  for  the  Peel  County  Board  of   Education  in  Ontario  states,  “In  the  writing  or  composition  process,  intellectual  or   cognitive  processing  takes  a  backseat  to  the  difficulty  and  effort  involved  in  the  physical   processing  that  must  go  on  in  order  to  put  pencil  to  paper.  Thus,  the  student’s  quality   and  quantity  of  response  is  reduced.  How  one  prints  or  writes  is  completely  irrelevant  to   learning  and  intelligence.”       § When  students  have  too  many  options  to  choose  from,  they  can  get  overwhelmed.   Provide  choices  on  a  choice  board.  Have  them  pick  from  2  or  3  things.         § Allow  learning  to  be  demonstrated  in  a  variety  of  ways.  Verbal  testing,  arranging  plastic   letters  on  a  magnetic  board  for  the  spelling  test  rather  than  having  to  print  letters,  and   physical  demonstrations  of  concepts  (e.g.,  Which  of  these  objects  are  magnetic?)  are   some  alternatives  to  traditional  pen  to  paper  methods.         § For  spare  time  or  calming  activities,  consider  allowing  the  student  to  start  a  scrapbook   of  their  special  interests.  Save  old  calendars,  greeting  cards,  dollar  store  or  library   discard  books,  and  magazines.  The  student  can  work  on  the  scrapbook  if  they  are   finished  a  task  early  or  need  a  break.     § Homework  may  be  too  much  for  the  ASD  student  who  has  had  to  cope  with  so  many   other  issues  throughout  the  school  day.  Talk  to  the  parents  and  ask  about  their  feelings   around  assigning  homework  and  how  much  the  student  can  handle,  if  any.    
  22. 22.   21   § It  is  essential  for  the  classroom  teacher  to  have  regular  communication  with  the  parents   of  the  ASD  student.  A  consistent  approach  to  learning,  use  of  visuals,  and  similar   expectations  both  at  home  and  at  school  will  make  it  easier  for  the  students  to   generalize  from  one  setting  to  another.  Using  these  strategies  and  classroom   accommodations  will  lay  the  foundation  for  successful  learning  and  keep  the  school   experience  a  positive  one.        
  23. 23.   22   References   Bennie,  M.  (207).  Creating  a  successful  school  day  for  students  with  autism  spectrum  disorders  .     Retrieved  from     http://www.canadianteachermagazine.com/ctm_special_needs/spring07_accommodati ons_in_the_classroom.shtml   Heward,  W.  (2013).  Exceptional  children  an  introduction  to  special  education.  (10th  ed.).  Upper     saddle  river,  nj:  Pearson  Education,  Inc.   Klin,  A.,  Jones,  W.,  Schultz,  R.,  &  Volkmar,  F.  (2003).  The  enactive  mind,  or  from  actions  to     cognition:  Lessons  from  autism.  Philosophical  Transactions:  Biological  Sciences,   358(1430),  345-­‐360.  Retrieved  from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3558147   Parish-­‐Morris,  J.,  Hirsh-­‐Pasek,  K.,  Hennon,  E.,  Michnick  Golinkoff,  R.,  &  Helen  Tager-­‐Flusberg,  H.     (2007).  Children  with  autism  illuminate  the  role  of  social  intention  in  word  learning.   Child  Development  ,  78(4),  1265-­‐1287.  Retrieved  from   http://www.jstor.org/stable/4620702   Roach,  A.,  &  Elliot,  S.  (2006).  The  influence  of  access  to  general  education  curriculum  on     alternate  assessment  performance  of  students  with  significant  cognitive  disabilities.   Educational  Evaluation  and  Policy  Analysis  ,  28(2),  181-­‐194  .  Retrieved  from   http://www.jstor.org/stable/3699531   Sireci,  S.,  Scarpati,  S.,  &  Le,  S.  (2005).  Test  accommodations  for  students  with  disabilities:  An   analysis  of  the  interaction  hypothesis.  Review  of  Educational  Research,  75(4),  457-­‐490.   Retrieved  from  http://www.jstor.org/stable/3516104      
  24. 24.   23   Emotional  Issues  and/or  Behavioral  Difficulties       Definitions   Ø Emotional  Disturbance     A  disability  defined  in  the  Individuals  with  Disabilities  Education  Act  (IDEA)  as  a   condition  exhibiting  one  or  more  of  the  following  characteristics  over  a  long  period  of   time  and  to  a  marked  degree  that  adversely  affects  education  performance:  inability  to   build  or  maintain  satisfactory  interpersonal  relationships;  inappropriate  types  of   behavior  or  feelings  under  normal  circumstances;  a  general  pervasive  mood  of   unhappiness  or  depression;  or  a  tendency  to  develop  physical  symptoms  or  fears   associated  with  person  or  school  problems.  Many  professionals  prefer  the  term  emotion   or  behavioral  disorders.     Accommodations  &  Strategies  for  Students  with  Emotional  Issues  and/or   Behavioral  Difficulties     § Clearly  define  offensive  language.  Students  may  hear  swearing  at  home  and  in  the   community  and  then  think  it  is  okay  to  repeat  it  at  school.  Talk  with  students  about   what  is  and  is  not  offensive  language  in  the  classroom.  Begin  by  teaching  positive  ways   to  express  emotions  and  helping  students  distinguish  positive  emotional  expression   from  negative.  For  younger  children,  read  Andrew’s  angry  words  (Lachner  &  The,  1997)   or  Elbert’s  bad  word  (Wood,  1996)  and  discuss.     § Post  lists  of  offensive  and  non-­‐offensive  words.  Generate  lists  of  “okay  words  in  class”   and  “not  okay  words  in  class”  with  students.  Provide  instruction  about  what  type  of   language  to  use  where,  when,  and  with  whom.  For  example,  ask  them  how  they  would   express  anger  in  front  of  their  grandmother  versus  in  front  of  teammates  when  playing   basketball.     § Send  lists  home  to  family  members.  Inform  families  of  acceptable  versus  unacceptable   language  in  the  classroom.  Tell  them  that  some  words  that  are  used  at  home  in  private   may  not  be  words  for  students  to  use  in  the  classroom.  Ask  families  to  model   appropriate  language  at  home  as  much  as  possible.     § Establish  link  between  self-­‐esteem  and  language.  Inappropriate  language  is  a  negative   reflection  on  students  who  use  it  and  may  mean  that  these  students  do  not  think  very   highly  of  themselves.  Positively  reinforce  the  use  of  appropriate  language  to  help   increase  their  self-­‐esteem.     § Teach  about  emotions.  Post  a  list  of  feeling  words  in  the  classroom.  Beside  each  word,   put  a  photograph  of  the  students  themselves  demonstrating  the  feeling,  or  have  them  
  25. 25.   24   cut  out  magazine  pictures  that  demonstrate  the  feeling.  Talk  about  how  each  specific   emotion  feels,  how  the  body  physically  looks  and  what  the  body  does  when  feeling  the   emotion.  Give  the  clear  message  that  all  emotions  are  okay,  but  not  all  ways  to  express   or  cope  with  them  are  okay.     § Teach  alternative  ways  to  express  anger.  Teach  different  ways  of  expressing  anger,   other  than  swearing,  such  as  (a)  finding  a  quiet  place  to  calm  down,  (b)  crying  in  privacy,   (c)  squeezing  a  stress  ball,  (d)  taking  a  walk,  (e)  breathing  deeply,  (f)  giving  oneself  a   time-­‐out,  (g)  writing  a  letter,  or  (h)  doing  self-­‐soothing  exercises.  Encourage  students  to   use  these  strategies  when  feeling  anger  or  frustration.     § Share  feelings  with  others.  Encourage  students  to  find  someone  they  feel  comfortable   talking  to  and  have  them  share  their  feelings  with  this  person  regularly.  Allow  time  to  do   this  each  day  or  on  an  “as-­‐needed”  basis.     § Role-­‐play  strong  emotions.  Give  students  different  scenarios  that  would  result  in  strong   emotions.  Have  them  role-­‐play  ways  of  describing  their  feelings  without  swearing.     § Provide  feedback.  Display  popsicle  sticks  in  a  holder  on  the  teacher’s  desk  (or  use  straws   stuck  into  a  ball  of  clay  or  a  cup).  Each  time  a  student  swears,  take  a  stick  away,  making   sure  the  student  sees  it  being  taken.  But  give  no  further  attention  to  the  matter.  This   will  give  feedback  to  the  student  without  giving  a  lot  of  attention.  At  the  end  of  the  day,   let  the  student  trade  in  the  remaining  sticks  for  a  reward.  When  the  student  has   remaining  sticks,  take  one  stick  away  for  the  following  day  to  slowly  decrease  the  rate  of   swearing.     § Use  journaling  for  self-­‐expression.  When  students  are  upset,  allow  them  to  write  letters   or  in  a  journal,  using  any  language  they  want.  When  they  are  finished  and  have  calmed   down,  have  them  tear  up  the  letter  or  piece  of  paper.  Talk  about  the  importance  of   getting  rid  of  hateful  language.  Make  a  ceremony  out  of  defeating  the  words,  rather   than  letting  the  words  defeat  them.     § Redirect  attention.  If  students  are  trying  to  get  a  reaction  from  the  teacher  (i.e.,   negative  attention),  make  sure  to  give  lots  of  attention  to  these  same  students  when   they  are  using  appropriate  language.  When  they  swear,  try  to  remain  calm.  Do  not   respond  to  a  request  or  statement  until  the  student  uses  appropriate  language.     § Create  incentives.  Create  a  classroom-­‐wide  reward  program  in  which  everyone  gets   points  for  using  appropriate  language  throughout  the  day.  Encourage  students  to  ignore   or  not  respond  to  other  students  if  they  use  inappropriate  language.  At  the  end  of  the   day,  the  students  who  have  the  most  points  can  cash  them  in  for  a  reward.     § Teach  expectations.  Talk  with  the  child  and  their  parents  about  general  rules  and   expectations  for  student  behavior  in  the  classroom  and  on  the  school  grounds.    
  26. 26.   25     § Expand  positive  learning  opportunities  and  results     § Collaborate  actively  with  parents       § Maintain  Student  Involvement  with  the  Following  Strategies:     • Keep  lesson  objectives  clear.   • Deliver  lessons  in  a  lively  manner  and  make  sure  students  are  engaged.  Use   concrete  vocabulary  and  clear,  succinct  sentences.   •  Model  cognitive  strategies,  such  as  “thinking  aloud,”  that  encourage  students  to   verbalize  the  thought  processes  required  by  the  task.   • Give  all  students  immediate  encouragement  and  specific  feedback.   • Use  meaningful  materials  and  manipulatives  and  provide  examples  that  students   can  relate  to.   • Have  students  recite  in  unison.   • Vary  tone  of  voice  and  model  enthusiasm.   • Prompt  students  to  answer  questions,  afier  allowing  an  appropriate  amount  of   “wait  time,”  to  encourage  participation  (this  may  vary  depending  on  the  child’s   cultural  background).   •  Avoid  digressions  as  much  as  is  possible.   •  Use  interesting  visual  and  auditory  presentations  to  entice  students  to  attend  to   tasks.     § Strategies  for  Increasing  Academic  Engagement  Time:     • Break  long  presentations  into  shorter  segments.  At  the  end  of  each  segment,   have  students  respond  in  some  way.     • Extend  the  amount  of  time  students  are  given  to  complete  particular    task.     • Break  down  assignments  into  smaller  ones.  As  students  finish  each  mini-­‐   assignment,  build  in  reinforcements  for  task  completion.  Wait  to  distribute  the   next  assignment  until  students  have  been  successful  with  the  current  one.     • Reduce  the  number  of  practice  items  that  a  student  must  complete,  once  the   student  has  demonstrated  mastery.     • When  students  make  mistakes,  help  them  learn  from  those  mistakes.  Be  careful   not  to  “overcorrect,”  or  require  compensation  beyond  the  point  where  the   student  can  demonstrate  mastery,  and  praise  any  progress  toward  the  desired   behavior  change.   • Follow  low-­‐interest  activities  with  high-­‐interest  activities  so  that  students  get   breaks  between  difficult  activities  and  those  that  are  less  challenging.      
  27. 27.   26   References   Bobrow,  A.  (2002).  Problem  behaviors  in  the  classroom:  What  they  mean  and  how  to  help.     Child  Study  Center,  7(2),  Retrieved  from   http://www.aboutourkids.org/files/articles/nov_dec_2.pdf   Christensen,  B.,  Jaeger,  M.,  Lorenz,  R.,  Morton,  S.,  &  Simpson,  B.  (2005).  Teaching  students  with     severe  emotional  and  behavioral  disorders:  Best  practices  guide  to  intervention.   Retrieved  from  http://www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/pubdocs/bestpractices.pdf   Greenberg,  M.,  domitrovich,  C.,  &  bumbarger,  B.  (2001).  The  prevention  of  mental  disorders  in     school-­‐aged  children:  Current  state  of  the  field.  Prevention  &  Treatment,  4(1),  322-­‐343.   Heward,  W.  (2013).  Exceptional  children  an  introduction  to  special  education.  (10th  ed.).  Upper   saddle  river,  nj:  Pearson  Education,  Inc.   Quinn,  M.,  Osher,  D.,  Wager,  C.,  Hoffman,  C.,  Robert,  T.,  &  Bader,  B.  (2000).  Educational     strategies  for  children  with  emotional  and  behavioral  problems.  Center  for  effective   collaboration  and  practice  american  institutes  for  research,  Retrieved  from   http://cecp.air.org/aft_nea.pdf   Quinn,  M.,  Osher,  D.,  Wager,  C.,  Hoffman,  C.,  Robert,  T.,  &  Bader,  B.  (2000).  Teaching  and     working  with  children  who  have  emotional  and  behavioral  challenges.  Longmont,  CO:   Sopris  West.          
  28. 28.   27           Parent  Resources          
  29. 29.   28     Local  Agencies  in  Sacramento,  California     Definitions  Applied  Behavior  Consultants  School  (ABC)   Ø Address:  4540  Harlin  Drive,  Sacramento,  CA  95826       Phone:  800-­‐435-­‐9888  or  916-­‐964-­‐7800       Fax:  916-­‐964-­‐7888       E-­‐mail:  jmorrow223@aol.com       Ø Description  of  Agency:  Provide  cutting  edge  applied  behavior  analysis  services  with   compassion  for  individuals  with  autism  and  other  developmental  disabilities  to  enhance   the  quality  of  their  life.  Provides  bilingual  services.     MATRIX,  A  PARENT  Net  work  &  Resource  Center   Ø Address:  94  Galli  Drive,  Suite  C,    Novato,  CA  94949       Phone:  415-­‐884-­‐3535;    TTY:  415-­‐884-­‐3554     E-­‐mail:  matrix@matrixparents.org       www.matrixparents.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Their  mission  is  to  empower  families  of  children  with  special   needs  to  successfully  understand  and  access  the  systems  that  serve  them.   Arc  California     Ø Address:  120  I  Street,  2nd  Floor  Sacramento,  CA  95814     Phone:  916-­‐552-­‐6619       E-­‐mail:  arcgary@quiknet.com   Ø Description  of  Agency:  They  promotes  and  protects  the  human  rights  of  people  with   intellectual  and  developmental  disabilities  and  actively  supports  their  full  inclusion  and   participation  in  the  community  throughout  their  lifetimes.  Provides  bilingual  services.    
  30. 30.   29   Protection  &  Advocacy,  Inc.   Ø Address:  100  Howe  Avenue,  Suite  185N    Sacramento,  CA  95825       Phone:  916-­‐488-­‐9950  or  in  CA  800-­‐776-­‐5746     E-­‐mail:  legalmail@pai-­‐ca.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Since  1977,  P&A  has  been  an  independent,  statewide,  non-­‐profit   corporation  that  protects  and  advances  the  legal  rights  of  people  with  disabilities.   Provides  bilingual  services.   Central  Valley  Autism  Project   Ø Address:  1518  Coffee  Road,  Suite  C    Modesto,  CA  95355       Phone:  209-­‐613-­‐7220      Fax:  209-­‐578-­‐4272   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Is  a  published  research  and  clinical  replication  site  of  the  late  Dr.   Ivar  Lovaas,  providing  early  intensive  applied  behavior  analysis  intervention  for  young   children  with  autism  spectrum  disorder.  Provides  bilingual  services.     Special  Education,  Department  of  Education     Ø Address:  515  L  Street,  Suite  270    Sacramento,  CA  95814       Phone:  916-­‐445-­‐4729   Ø Description  of  Agency:  The  local  government  office  department  is  dedicated  to   improving  results  for  infants,  toddlers,  children  and  youth  with  disabilities  ages’  birth   through  21  by  providing  leadership  and  financial  support  to  assist  states  and  local   districts.  Provides  bilingual  services.    Special  Education  Division/  California  Department  of  Education     (Ages  3  through  5)   Ø Address:  515  L  Street,  Suite  270    Sacramento,  CA  95814      Phone:  916-­‐445-­‐4623       http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/         Ø Description  of  Agency:  This  local  government  office  department  is  dedicated  to   providing  help  and  assistant  with  resources  for  parents  who  suspect  their  child  many   have  a  disability  or  has  already  been  diagnosed  with  one.  This  department  focuses  on   ages  three  through  five.  Provides  bilingual  services          
  31. 31.   30     Prevention  &  Children  Services  Branch  (Birth  through  2)   Ø Address:  Department  of  Developmental  Services      1600  9th  Street,  Room  #310    Sacramento,  CA  95814       Phone:  (916)654-­‐2773   Ø Description  of  Agency:  This  local  government  office  department  provides  parents  with   support  and  resources  on  prevention  methods  and  current  treatment  for  children  that   could  or  have  been  diagnosed  with  a  disability.  This  department  focuses  on  ages  birth   through  two.  Provides  bilingual  services.   Coordinator  for  Transition  Services     Ø Address:  1430  N  Street,  Suite  2401,  Sacramento,  CA  95814   Email:  cpittman@cde.ca.gov   Ø Description  of  Agency:  This  local  government  office  department  provides  transition   services  and  work  ability  for  individuals  within  the  community  that  have  been  or  are   currently  part  a  special  education  program.    Provides  bilingual  services.   Programs  for  People  with  Developmental  Disabilities     Ø Address:  1600  9th  Street,  Room  240,  Sacramento,  CA  95814   Phone:  (916)  654-­‐1897   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Provides  services  and  support  for  infants,  children  and  adults   with  development  disabilities.    Provides  bilingual  services.  
  32. 32.   31     State  Agencies  in  California       Northern  California  Coalition  for  Parent  Training  &  Information  (NCC)     Ø Address:  3041  Olcott  Street    Santa  Clara,  CA  95054-­‐3222       Phone:  408-­‐727-­‐5775       Fax:  408-­‐727-­‐0182       E-­‐mail:  info@php.com       Website:  www.php.com         Ø Description  of  Agency:  The  agency  strives  to  improve  the  quality  of  life  for  any  child  with   any  special  need  of  any  age,  through  educating,  supporting  and  training  their  primary   caregivers.  Provides  bilingual  services.   Disability  Rights  Education  and  Defense  Find,  Inc.  (DREDF)     Ø Address:  2212  6th  Street    Berkeley,  CA  94710       Phone:  510-­‐644-­‐2555       E-­‐mail:  dredf@dredf.org       Website:  www.dredf.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  The  agency  strives  to  improve  the  quality  of  life  for  any  child  with   any  special  need  of  any  age,  through  educating,  supporting  and  training  their  primary   caregivers.  Provides  bilingual  services.   State  Council  on  Developmental  Disabilities     Ø Address:  2000  "0"  Street,  Room  100    Sacramento,  CA  95814     Phone:  916-­‐322-­‐8481   Ø Description  of  Agency:  The  State  Council  on  Developmental  Disabilities  (SCDD)  is   established  by  state  and  federal  law  as  an  independent  state  agency  to  ensure  that   people  with  developmental  disabilities  and  their  families  receive  the  services  and   supports  they  need.    Consumers  know  best  what  supports  and  services  they  need  to  live  
  33. 33.   32   independently  and  to  actively  participate  in  their  communities.  Through  advocacy,   capacity  building  and  systemic  change,  SCDD  works  to  achieve  a  consumer  and  family-­‐ based  system  of  individualized  services,  supports,  and  other  assistance.   Easter  Seals  Bay  Area     Ø Address:  180  Gran  Avenue,  Suite  300,  Oakland,  CA  94612     Phone:  (510)  835-­‐2131,  ext.  125   Email:  mplelfini@esba.org   Website:  www.eastersealsbayarea.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Easter  Seals  Bay  Area  has  a  specific  expertise  in  providing   services  for  individuals  diagnosed  on  the  autism  spectrum,  including  consultation,  early   intervention,  school-­‐based,  social  skills,  and  therapeutic  services.   Team  of  Advocates  for  Special  Kids  (TASK)     Ø Address:  100  W.  Cerritos  Avenue,  Anaheim,  CA  92805     Phone:  (866)  828-­‐8275   Email:  taskca@yahoo.com   Website:  www.taskca.org   Description  of  Agency:  Team  of  Advocates  for  Special  Kids  (TASK)  is  a  nonprofit  charitable   organization  whose  mission  is  to  enable  individuals  with  disabilities  to  reach  their  maximum   potential  by  providing  them,  their  families  and  the  professionals  who  serve  them  with  training,   support,  information,  resources  and  referrals,  and  by  providing  community  awareness   programs.     TASK  serves  families  of  children  aged  birth  to  26  years  of  age  under  IDEA  and  other  systems   mandated  to  provide  services  to  individuals  with  disabilities.  As  a  federally-­‐funded  Parent   Training  and  Information  Center,  TASK  is  part  of  a  national  network  of  centers  providing  similar   services.  TASK  provides  advocacy  information,  workshops  and  information  in  English,  Spanish   and  Vietnamese.   Support  for  Families  of  Children  with  Disabilities     Ø Address:  2601  Mission  Street,  Suite  606,  San  Francisco,  CA  94011     Phone:  (415)  282-­‐7494   Email:  info@supportforfamilies.org   Website:  www.supportforfamilies.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  The  agency  is  a  parent-­‐run  San  Francisco-­‐based  nonprofit   organization  founded  in  1982.  We  support  families  of  children  with  any  kind  of  disability   or  special  health  care  need  as  they  face  challenges.  Provides  bilingual  services.  
  34. 34.   33   Rowell  Family  Empowerment  of  Northern  California,  Inc.  962   Ø Address:  Maraglia  Street,  Redding,  CA  96002   Phone:  (877)  227-­‐3471   Website:  www.rfenc.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Rowell  Family  Empowerment  offers  support,  education  and   advocacy  for  families  of  children  with  disabilities.  Need  help  with  an  Individualized   Education  Program  (IEP)?  RFENC  has  a  training  that  will  assist!  Interested  in  getting   involved  with  children  with  disabilities?  RFENC  offers  many  opportunities!  Looking  to   take  on  a  leadership  role?  We  provide  information  about  such  opportunities  and  more!   Exceptional  Parents  Unlimited   Ø Address:  444  N.  1st  Street,  Fresno,  CA  93726   Phone:  (559)  229-­‐2000   Email:  bcoulbourne@exceltionalparents.org   Description  of  Agency:  The  mission  of  Exceptional  Parents  Unlimited  (EPU)  is  to  strengthen  and   empower  children  and  families  facing  extraordinary  medical,  developmental,  and  parenting   challenges.   They  do  this  by:   • Promoting  the  development  of  infants  and  children  with  special  medical,   developmental  or  emotional  needs;   • Supporting  and  assisting  parents  as  they  grow  in  the  understanding,  knowledge   and  skills  needed  to  help  themselves  and  their  children  experience  success  at   home  and  in  the  community;   • Supporting  the  development  of  secure  parent-­‐child  relationships  as  the  basis  for   optimal  social  and  emotional  development;   • Strengthening  the  relationships  between  parents  and  professionals;   Collaborating  with  other  agencies  to  support  the  creation  of  inclusive,  family-­‐ centered  services  that  are  responsive  and  welcoming  to  all  children  and  parents.   Parent  Training  and  Information  Center  (PTI)   Ø Address:  2212  6th  Street,  Berkeley,  CA  94710   Ø Phone:  (800)  348-­‐4232   Email:  dredf@dredf.org   Website:  www.dredf.org   Ø Description  of  Agency:  The  mission  of  the  Disability  Rights  Education  and  Defense  Fund   is  to  advance  the  civil  and  human  rights  of  people  with  disabilities  through  legal   advocacy,  training,  education,  and  public  policy  and  legislative  development.  This  
  35. 35.   34   particular  part  of  the  agency  provides  training  and  information  for  parents  with  children   with  disabilities.  Provides  bilingual  services.   Office  of  State  Coordinator  of  Vocational  Education  for  Students  with  Disabilities   Ø Address:  1430  N  Street,  Suite  4503,  Sacramento,  CA  95814   Phone:  (916)  445-­‐2652   Email:  painswor@cde.ca.gov   Ø Description  of  Agency:  Provides  individuals  with  disabilities  with  help  to  being  or   progress  this  career.  Specializes  in  vocational  training  for  individuals  with  disabilities.   Includes  secondary,  postsecondary,  and  adult  education.  Provides  bilingual  services.        
  36. 36.   35   Web  Resources       Teaching  Students  with  Severe  Emotional  and  Behavioral   Disorders:  Best  Practices  Guide  to  Intervention     Ø Web  Address:   http://www.k12.wa.us/SpecialEd/pubdocs/bestpractices.pdf   Ø Description  of  Resource:  Provides  Parents  and  students   dealing  with  emotional  and  behavioral  disorders  practices  and   strategies  with  dealing  with  it.             Standards-­‐Based  Individualized  Education  Program   Examples     Ø Web  Address:  http://www.nasdse.org/Portals/0/Standards-­‐ BasedIEPExamples.pdf   Ø Description  of  Resource:  Provides  Parents  with  example  of   Individualized  Education  Program  (IEPs)  and  also  explains  the   process  and  what  it  means  for  a  parent.              Handbook  on  Family  Involvement  in  Early  Childhood   Special  Education  Programs       Ø Web  Address:   http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/fp/documents/ecfaminvl.pdf   Ø Description  of  Resource:  Presents  quality  criteria  for  best   practices  in  pro-­‐  gram  development,  ideas,  and  concepts  in  the   context  of  the  statutory  requirements  for  early  childhood  special   education      programs.    
  37. 37.   36   IDEA  Parent  Guide     Ø Web  Address:   http://www.pacer.org/legislation/idea/pdf/idea2004parentguide.pdf   Ø Description  of  Resource:  NCLD  has  created  this  Parent  Guide   to  the  Individuals  with  Disabilities  Education  Act  (IDEA)  so  you  can   become  an  informed  and  effective  partner  with  school  personnel  in   supporting  your  child’s  special  learning  and  behavioral  needs.             Emotional  Disturbance  Guide     Ø Web  Address:  http://nichcy.org/wp-­‐ content/uploads/docs/fs5.pdf   Ø In  Spanish:  http://nichcy.org/wp-­‐ content/uploads/docs/spanish/fs5sp.pdf   Ø Description  of  Resource:  Clear  guide  to  emotional   disturbances  and  easy  to  understand.  Defines  different  types  of   emotional  disturbances  in  addition  to  frequency  and  how  to  help  the   student.       Beach  Center  on  Disability  Website   Ø Web  Address:  http://www.beachcenter.org/default.aspx?JScript=1   Ø Description  of  Resource:  This  site  at  the  University  of  Kansas  offers  online  access  to   parents  and  professionals.  You  can  access  their  online  information  database.  The  site   also  has  links  to  other  relevant  organizations.     Family  Connect  Website   Ø Web  Address:  http://www.familyconnect.org/   Ø Description  of  Resource:  FamilyConnect  is  an  online,  multimedia  community  created  by   the  American  Foundation  for  the  Blind  (AFB)  and  the  National  Association  for  Parents  of   Children  with  Visual  Impairments  (NAPVI).  This  site  gives  parents  of  visually  impaired   children  a  place  to  support  each  other,  share  stories  and  concerns,  and  link  to  local   resources.  The  site  also  features  a  mom-­‐authored  blog,  inspiring  video  testimonials  from  
  38. 38.   37   families,  and  articles  authored  by  parents  and  experts  in  the  field  of  blindness  on   multiple  disabilities,  technology,  education,  and  more.  From  the  personal  to  the   professional,  families  will  find  all  the  resources  they  need  to  raise  their  children  from   birth  to  adulthood.   Family  Voices  Website   Ø Web  Address:  http://www.familyvoices.org/   Ø Description  of  Resource:  Family  Voices  is  a  national  grassroots  network  of  families  and   friends  speaking  on  behalf  of  children  with  special  health  care  needs.  Their  site  provides   links  to  their  wonderful  publications,  newsletters  and  advocacy  alerts.  Information  is   also  available  in  Spanish.   Mothers  from  Hell   Ø Web  Address:  http://www.mothersfromhell2.org/   Ø Description  of  Resource:  In  addition  to  offering  information,  Mothers  from  Hell  is  the   place  to  come  for  "Humor"  and  to  subscribe  to  the  "Brimstone  Bulletin."   Technical  Assistance  Alliance  (TAA)  for  Parent  Centers   Ø Web  Address:  http://www.parentcenternetwork.org/national/aboutus.html   Ø Description  of  Resource:  The  ALLIANCE  National  Parent  Technical  Assistance  Center   (NPTAC)  provides  Parent  Centers,  Parent  Training  and  Information  Centers  (PTIs)  and   Community  Parent  Resource  Centers  (CPRCs),  with  innovative  technical  assistance,  up-­‐ to-­‐date  information,  and  high  quality  resources  and  materials.      
  39. 39.   38   Journal  Articles       Single  Mothers  of  Children  with  Developmental  Disabilities:  The  Impact  of   Multiple  Roles     Ø Author:  Gottlieb,  A.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  The  impact  of  employment  status  and  a  nonspousal  partner  on   the  overall  well  being  of  148  single  mothers  of  children  with  developmental  disabilities   was  assessed  through  self-­‐report  questionnaires.  Although  generally  multiple  roles  were   associated  with  greater  well-­‐being,  the  quality  of  the  roles  (perceived  helpfulness  of  the   partner  and  perceived  financial  importance  of  the  job)  was  more  predictive,  in  fact,   interactioneffectsindicatedthathavingasupportivepartnerwasassociatedwithgreaterwell-­‐   being  for  mothers  whose  employment  was  their  primary  income  source  (primary   providers)  and  for  nonemployed  mothers,  but  not  for  mothers  whose  employment  did   not  provide  the  primary  family  income  (partial  providers).Among  those  without  a   supportive  partner,  mothers  who  were  partial  providers  reported  greater  well-­‐being   than  did  nonemployed  mothers  or  primary  provider  mothers.   Parental  Coping  Strategies  and  Strengths  in  Families  of  Young  Children  with   Disabilities     Ø Author:  Judge,  S.     Ø Description  of  Journal:  This  study  investigated  the  relationship  between  parental   perceptions  of  coping  strategies  and  family  strengths  in  families  of  young  children  with   disabilities.  The  69  participants  completed  the  Ways  of  Coping  Questionnaire  and  the   Family  Hardiness  Index.  Results  indicated  that  the  use  of  social  supports  was  highly   associated  with  family  strengths.  In  contrast,  wishful  thinking,  self-­‐blame,  distancing,   and  self-­‐control  were  negatively  related  to  family  strengths.  Implications  for  practice  are   discussed.   Math  disabilities:  A  selective  meta-­‐analysis  of  the  literature     Ø Author:  Swanson,  H.  and  Jerman,  O.     Ø Description  of  Journal:  This  study  investigated  the  relationship  between  parental   perceptions  of  coping  strategies  and  family  strengths  in  families  of  young  children  with   disabilities.  The  69  participants  completed  the  Ways  of  Coping  Questionnaire  and  the   Family  Hardiness  Index.  Results  indicated  that  the  use  of  social  supports  was  highly   associated  with  family  strengths.  In  contrast,  wishful  thinking,  self-­‐blame,  distancing,   and  self-­‐control  were  negatively  related  to  family  strengths.  Implications  for  practice  are   discussed.    
  40. 40.   39     Aging  Women  and  their  Children  with  Chronic  Disabilities:  Perceptions  of  Sibling   Involvement  and  Effects  on  Well-­‐Being       Ø Author:  Pruchno,  R.,  Patrick,  J.  and  Burant,  C.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  The  functional  and  affective  relationships  characterizing  disabled   and  nondisabled  children  were  described  by  838  aging  mothers  of  children  with  chronic   disabilities.  Mothers  indicated  that  their  nondisabled  offspring  provided  very  little   functional  assistance  to  their  siblings  with  chronic  disabilities,  but  that  affective   relationships  between  siblings  were  characterized  by  strong,  close  ties.  Predictors  of  the   affective  relationship  between  siblings,  functional  assistance  provided  by  nondisabled   sib-­‐  lings  to  their  siblings  with  disability,  and  the  likelihood  that  a  nondisabled  child   would  be  a  future  caregiver  to  the  child  with  a  disability  were  examined.  Implications  for   practice  are  discussed.   Reading  Disabilities  in  Adult:  A  Selective  Meta-­‐analysis  of  the  Literature   Ø    Author:  Swanson,  H.  and  Hsieh,  C.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  This  article  synthesizes  the  experimental  literature  that   compares  the  academic,  cognitive,  and  behavioral  performance  of  adults  with  reading   disabilities  to  those  of  average-­‐achieving  adult  readers.  The  central  question  posed  by   this  review  is  to  what  extent  and  in  what  manner  do  adults  with  reading  disabilities   differ  from  adults  without  reading  disabilities  on  measures  assumed  to  relate  to  overall   reading  competence.       Health  Insurance  and  Children  with  Disabilities     Ø    Author:  Szilagyi,  P.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  Few  people  would  disagree  that  children  with  disabilities  need   adequate  health  insurance.  But  what  kind  of  health  insurance  coverage  would  be  optimal  for   these  children?  Peter  Szilagyi  surveys  the  current  state  of  insurance  coverage  for  children  with   special  healthcare  needs  and  examines  critical  aspects  of  coverage  with  an  eye  to  helping   policymakers  and  clinicians  improve  systems  of  care  for  them.  He  also  reviews  the  extent  to   which  insurance  enhances  their  access  to  and  use  of  healthcare,  the  quality  of  care  received,   and  their  health  outcomes.              
  41. 41.   40   Adopting  Children  with  Developmental  Disabilities:  A  Long-­‐Term  Perspective   Ø Author:  Glidden,  L.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  Long-­‐term  maternal  adjustment  to  the  adoption  of  children  with   development  disabilities  was  studied  in  a  sample  of  123  adoptive  families  using  multiple   measures  of  adjustment  including  depression,  marital  satisfaction  and  others.   Conclusions  were  that  adjustment  was  generally  positive  over  an  approximately  11-­‐year   period,  regardless  off  family  demographic  or  child  characteristics.  Moreover, adjustment   to  subsequently-­‐adopted  children  was  comparable  to  adjustment  to  earlier  adopted   children.  These  results  suggest  that  adoption  policy  and  practices  should  promote  the   adoption  of  children  with  development  disabilities,  and  be  flexible  with  regard  to family   and  child  characteristics  including  placing  multiple  children  with  disabilities  in  the  same   home. Learning  Disabilities     Ø Author:  Lyon,  R.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  This  article  focuses  primarily  on  deficits  in  basic  reading  skills,   both  because  of  their  critical  importance  to  academic  success  and  because  relatively   more  is  known  about  these  deficiencies.  However,  other  academic,  social,  and   behavioral  manifestations  of  learning  disability  are  also  important  and  cannot  be   assumed  to  be  adequately  addressed  by  programs  to  improve  basic  reading  skills.  While   early  intervention  is  necessary,  it  should  not  be  assumed  to  be  sufficient  to  address  the   multiple  manifestations  of  learning  disability.     Balancing  Student  Mental  Health  Needs  and  Discipline:  A  case  study  of  the   implementation  of  the  individuals  with  disabilities  education  act     Ø Author:  Palley,  E.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  This  research  uses  a  case  study  approach  to  assess  the   implementation  of  the  disciplinary  procedures  in  the  Individuals  with  Disabilities   Education  Act  (IDEA),  a  federal  policy  developed  to  ensure  the  inclusion  of  all  children   with  disabilities  in  state  public  education  systems.  The  findings  indicate  that  many   factors  influence  the  implementation  of  IDEA’s  disciplinary  practices.  Such  factors   include  teacher  and  administrator  knowledge  of  the  law  and  policies,  teacher  and   administrator  discretion,  school-­‐based  resources,  and  parental  involvement.  Many  areas   of  noncompliance  are  apparent.    
  42. 42.   41   Mothers  of  Children  with  Developmental  Disabilities:  Who  shares  the  burden?   Ø Author:  Meyers,  J.  and  Marcenko,  M.   Ø Description  of  Journal:  This  study  examines  the  informal  social  support  systems  of  89   mothers  of  children  with  severe  developmental  disabilities.  Instrumental,  informational,   and  emotional  support  is  described  and  compared  to  mothers'  perceived  level  of   support.  The  results  indicate  that  mothers  take  on  most  of  the  day-­‐to-­‐day  responsibility   for  the  care  of  their  children  with  handicaps,  but  the  assistance  they  do  receive  is   important  to  them.  Analysis  by  marital  status  shows  few  differences  in  the  help   received;  however,  married  women  perceived  greater  support  from  their  husband  and   his  family  than  single  mothers  did  from  the  child's  father  and  his  family.  The   convergence  of  family  policy  and  demographic  trends  is  noted  and  the  implications  for   mothers  and  families  discussed.    
  43. 43.   42   References   Glidden,  L.  (2000).  Adopting  children  with  developmental  disabilities:  A  long-­‐term  perspective.     Family  Relations  ,  49(4),  397-­‐405.   Gottlieb,  A.  (1997).  Single  mothers  of  children  with  developmental  disabilities:  The  impact  of     multiple  roles.  Family  Relations  ,  46(1),  5-­‐12.  Retrieved  from   http://www.jstor.org/stable/585601   Judge,  S.  (1998).  Parental  coping  strategies  and  strengths  in  families  of  young  children  with     disabilities.  Family  Relations  ,  47(3),  263-­‐268.  Retrieved  from   http://www.jstor.org/stable/584976   Lyon,  R.  (1996).  Learning  disabilities  .  The  Future  of  Children,  6(1),  54-­‐76.   Meyers,  J.,  &  marcenko,  M.  (1991).  Mothers  of  children  with  developmental  disabilities:  Who     shares  the  burden?.  Family  Relations  ,  40(2),  186-­‐190.   Palley,  E.  (2004).  Balancing  student  mental  health  needs  and  discipline:  A  case  study  of  the     implementation  of  the  individuals  with  disabilities  education  act.  Social  Science  Review,   78(2),  243-­‐266.   Pruchno,  R.,  Patrick,  J.,  &  Burant,  C.  (1996).  Aging  women  and  their  children  with  chronic     disabilities:  Perceptions  of  sibling  involvement  and  effects  on  well-­‐being.  Family   Relations  ,  45(3),  318-­‐326.   Swanson,  H.,  &  Hsieh,  C.  (2009).  Reading  disabilities  in  adults:  A  selective  meta-­‐analysis  of  the     literature.  Review  of  Educational  Research,  79(4),  1362-­‐1390.   Swanson,  H.,  &  Jerman,  O.  (2006).  Math  disabilities:  A  selective  meta-­‐analysis  of  the  literature.     Review  of  Educational  Research,  76(2),  249-­‐274.  Retrieved  from   http://www.jstor.org/stable/3700590   Szilagyi,  P.  (2012).  Health  insurance  and  children  with  disabilities.  The  Future  of  Children,  22(1),     123-­‐148.      

×