New Paradigm Research1. A form of cooperative enquiry which : • All involved contribute to creative thinking, deciding on the situation, the method, making sense of finding, and the action. • No distinction bet. Researchers and subjects, both are co-researchers and co-subjects2. A form of education, personal development and social action (Reason 1988)
4 Types of Action Research• Experimental• Organizational• Professionalizing• Empowering
Participatory action research A systematic approach to personaland social transformation, aims todevelop critical consciousness, toimprove the lives of those involved inthe research process, and to transformfundamental societal structures andr e l a t i o n s h i p s
Participatory action research A d e m o c r a t i c p ro c e s swhereby through self-directededucation, research and action,utilize knowledge to transformt h e i r s o c i a l r e a l i t i e s.
Participatory action research An alternative form of social researchin which the people themselves are themain actors, in the entire researchprocess, from decision to investigate toresearch tools formulation, to datacollection and analysis, and finally to datad i s s e m i n a t i o n a n d u t i l i z a t i o n.
Conventional Progressive LiberatingFunction to CONFORM to REFORM to TRANSFORMAim Resist change. Change people to Change society to Keep social meet society’s meet people’s order stable. needs. needs.Strategy Teach people to accept Work for certain Actively oppose and ‘fit in’ to the social improvements social injustice, situation without without changing inequality, and changing its unjust the unjust aspects corruption. Work aspects. of society. for basic change.Intention CONTROL them- PACIFY of CALM FREE them fromtoward especially poor working them-especially those oppression.people people-farm and city. whose hardships drive Exploitation. them to protest or revolt. And corruption.
General AUTHORITARIAN PATERNALISTIC HUMANITARIANapproach (rigid top-down control) (kindly top-down and DEMOCRATIC control) (control by the people)Effect on OPPRESSIVE-rigid DECEPTIVE-pretends SUPPORTIVE-helpspeople central authority allows to be supportive, but people find ways toand the little or no participation resists real change. gain more control overcommunity by students and their health and their community lives.How Basically passive. Basically irresponsible. Basically active.students Empty containers Must be cared for. Able to take charge(and people to be filled with Need to be watched and become self-generally) standard knowledge. closely. reliant.are viewed Can and must be tamed. Able to participate Responsible when in specific activities treated with respect when spoon fed. and as equals.
What the FEAR-teacher is an GRATITUDE-Teacher TRUST-Teacher isstudents absolute, all-knowing is a friendly, parent-like a ‘facilitator’ whofeel about boss who stands apart authority who knows helps everyone lookthe teacher from and above the what is best for the for answers together. students. students.Who decides The Ministry of The Ministry, but The students andwhat should Education for Health with some local instructors togetherbe learned in the capital. decisions. with the community.Main PASSIVE-students More or less active. ACTIVE-everyoneway of receive knowledge. Memorization still contributes.learning Memorization of basic. Learning through facts. doing and discussing.
Steps in PAR PAR research phase1. Community preparation• Integration• Preliminary social investigation• Ground working• Facilitating collective decision by community : - priority issue - selection of local organizers & local research team.
2. Training of local organizers (Alter ego of CDW) Proposed content of training • national & local situation • role of local organizers • community organizing • leadership styles • facilitating • human relations
Research phase3. Research design“training” of local research team with - KAS. Tobe. Able to Integration• break up the general problem chosen by the community into specific problem elements.• Determine how to get the information needed. - tools to use ? - key informants ? - How many ?
4. Data collection • Quantitative • Qualitative5. Data processing. Data analysis.
6. Presentation, discussion of findings (Community session) • verification. • Correction, decision, solution • conclusion, suggestion. (role play, group discussion, show case, pictorial, graphic, display in public,) encourage : discussion, ideas, expression of feeling, evaluation, opinions, attitudes. Reaction toward-data, information, • research process, - research findings.
Post research phase7. Community planning (Development project) • community development plan. develop by local planning team. present of community community participatory - consult., discuss, verify, correct, modify, approve, decide - submit to related. organization.
8. Implementation • mobilization of human, natural resources, people organization9. Surveillance, monitoring, evaluation.
Distinguishing Characteristics of Participatory Research Participatory Conventional Research1. Ideological Pro-disadvantaged Elitist stance groups2. Objectivity Involved beyond Detached advocacy3. View of Subject Object target group4. Method Simple, indigenous, Rigid, highly- who holistic Quantitative, Uni-dimensional
Participatory Conventional Research5. Utilization Feedback, orally or Communicated of findings as simple/understand through able materials to the publications people Impact factor6. Language Language of the Researcher’/ people Scientific jargon
Participatory Conventional Research7. Purpose Transformation and Extract self-actualization of information from the people the people to researchers’/ agencys’8. Research People Researcher/ Framework agency9. Relationship Complements/ supportive corrective
Participatory Conventional Research9. Relationship Complements/ supportive corrective10. Choice of the problem What Immediate, local Interest of problem researcher/ agency Who Both researcher researcher/ and the people agency
Participatory Conventional Research11. Choice of methodology What Combination of Experimental, simple and quasi-experimental indigenous tools or instruments Validity is Highly statistical consensual analysis Practical analysis data Who Researcher researcher/ and the people agency
Participatory Conventional Research12. Choice of outcome What Transformation Reports, policy of the situation Recommendation, of the people administrative decisions Critical awareness of problems and issues affecting the people Who Researcher researcher/ and the people agency
Conventional research PARModel Blueprint ProcessIdeology Elite Poor - Disadvantage - MarginalAim Answer R. Quest - Committed Uncommited - TransformFrame Researcher - Local people OutsiderBegin c Materials - Man
Problems encountered in participatory research :Understanding people’s passivitytime constraints of participants and researchersdemands on researcher (educator, facilitator, researcher)researcher needs to be clear on own values or willing toreflect upon themtransfer of skills neededoften project are initiated by outsiders: difficulty ofproject control from researcher to participantsResources: constraints set by initiating bodycommunities are not homogeneous.