Participatory action research A systematic approach to personal and social transformation, aims to develop critical consciousness, to improve the lives of those involved in the research process, and to transform fundamental societal structures and relationships
Participatory action research A democratic process whereby through self-directed education, research and action, utilize knowledge to transform their social realities.
Participatory action research An alternative form of social research in which the people themselves are the main actors, in the entire research process, from decision to investigate to research tools formulation, to data collection and analysis, and finally to data dissemination and utilization.
Conventional to CONFORM Progressive to REFORM Liberating to TRANSFORM Function Resist change. Keep social order stable. Change people to meet society’s needs. Change society to meet people’s needs. Aim Teach people to accept and ‘fit in’ to the social situation without changing its unjust aspects. Work for certain improvements without changing the unjust aspects of society. Actively oppose social injustice, inequality, and corruption. Work for basic change. Intention toward people CONTROL them- especially poor working people-farm and city. PACIFY of CALM them-especially those whose hardships drive them to protest or revolt. FREE them from oppression. Exploitation. And corruption. Strategy
General approach AUTHORITARIAN (rigid top-down control) PATERNALISTIC (kindly top-down control) HUMANITARIAN and DEMOCRATIC (control by the people) Effect on people and the community OPPRESSIVE-rigid central authority allows little or no participation by students and community DECEPTIVE-pretends to be supportive, but resists real change. SUPPORTIVE-helps people find ways to gain more control over their health and their lives. How students (and people generally) are viewed Basically passive. Empty containers to be filled with standard knowledge. Basically irresponsible. Must be cared for. Need to be watched closely. Basically active. Able to take charge and become self- reliant. Can and must be tamed. Able to participate in specific activities when spoon fed. Responsible when treated with respect and as equals.
What the students feel about the teacher FEAR-teacher is an absolute, all-knowing boss who stands apart from and above the students. GRATITUDE-Teacher is a friendly, parent-like authority who knows what is best for the students. TRUST-Teacher is a ‘facilitator’ who helps everyone look for answers together. Who decides what should be learned The Ministry of Education for Health in the capital. The Ministry, but with some local decisions. The students and instructors together with the community. Main way of learning PASSIVE-students receive knowledge. Memorization of facts. More or less active. Memorization still basic. ACTIVE-everyone contributes. Learning through doing and discussing.
Steps in PAR <ul><li>Integration </li></ul><ul><li>Preliminary social investigation </li></ul><ul><li>Ground working </li></ul><ul><li>Facilitating collective decision by </li></ul><ul><li>community : </li></ul><ul><li>- priority issue </li></ul><ul><li>- selection of local organizers & </li></ul><ul><li>local research team. </li></ul>PAR research phase 1. Community preparation
<ul><li>national & local situation </li></ul><ul><li>role of local organizers </li></ul><ul><li>community organizing </li></ul><ul><li>leadership styles </li></ul><ul><li>facilitating </li></ul><ul><li>human relations </li></ul>2. Training of local organizers (Alter ego of CDW) Proposed content of training
<ul><li>“ training” of local research team with - KAS. To be. Able to Integration </li></ul><ul><li>break up the general problem chosen </li></ul><ul><li>by the community into specific problem </li></ul><ul><li>elements. </li></ul><ul><li>Determine how to get the information </li></ul><ul><li>needed. </li></ul><ul><li>- tools to use ? </li></ul><ul><li>- key informants ? </li></ul><ul><li>- How many ? </li></ul>Research phase 3. Research design
<ul><li>Quantitative </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative </li></ul>4. Data collection 5. Data processing. Data analysis.
<ul><li>verification. </li></ul><ul><li>Correction, decision, solution </li></ul><ul><li>conclusion, suggestion. </li></ul><ul><li>(role play, group discussion, show case, </li></ul><ul><li>pictorial, graphic, display in public,) </li></ul><ul><li>encourage : discussion, ideas, expression of feeling, evaluation, opinions, attitudes. </li></ul><ul><li>Reaction toward-data, information, </li></ul><ul><li>research process, - research findings. </li></ul>6. Presentation, discussion of findings (Community session)
<ul><li>community development plan. develop </li></ul><ul><li>by local planning team. </li></ul><ul><li>present of community </li></ul><ul><li>community participatory </li></ul><ul><li>- consult., discuss, verify, correct, </li></ul><ul><li> modify, approve, decide </li></ul><ul><li>- submit to related. </li></ul><ul><li> organization. </li></ul>7. Community planning (Development project) Post research phase
<ul><li>mobilization of human, natural </li></ul><ul><li>resources, people organization </li></ul>8. Implementation 9. Surveillance, monitoring, evaluation.
1. Ideological stance Pro-disadvantaged groups Elitist Participatory Conventional Research Distinguishing Characteristics of Participatory Research 2. Objectivity Involved beyond advocacy Detached 3. View of target group Subject Object 4. Method Simple, indigenous, who holistic Rigid, highly- Quantitative, Uni-dimensional
5. Utilization of findings Feedback, orally or as simple/understand able materials to the people Communicated through publications Impact factor Participatory Conventional Research 6. Language Language of the people Researcher’/ Scientific jargon
7. Purpose Transformation and self-actualization of the people Extract information from the people to researchers’/ agencys’ 8. Research Framework People Researcher/ agency Participatory Conventional Research 9. Relationship Complements/ supportive corrective
Participatory Conventional Research 9. Relationship Complements/ supportive corrective 10. Choice of the problem What Immediate, local problem Interest of researcher/ agency Who Both researcher and the people researcher/ agency
Participatory Conventional Research 11. Choice of methodology What Combination of simple and indigenous tools or instruments Experimental, quasi-experimental Validity is consensual Highly statistical analysis Practical analysis data Who Researcher and the people researcher/ agency
Participatory Conventional Research 12. Choice of outcome What Transformation of the situation of the people Reports, policy Recommendation, administrative decisions Critical awareness of problems and issues affecting the people Who Researcher and the people researcher/ agency
Model Ideology Blueprint Elite Process Poor - Disadvantage - Marginal Conventional research PAR Aim Answer R. Quest Uncommited - Committed - Transform Frame Researcher Outsider - Local people Begin c Materials - Man
Goal Predetermined - Universal criteria - Flexible - Context Conventional research PAR Strategy - Planning - Participatory Method - Strict, sophisticate - Technical/techno - Quantitative - Ready made - Package - Ala. carte - Simple - Indigenous - Holistic - Appr. Tech. - Varieties - Menus
Problems encountered in participatory research : Understanding people’s passivity time constraints of participants and researchers demands on researcher (educator, facilitator, researcher) researcher needs to be clear on own values or willing to reflect upon them transfer of skills needed often project are initiated by outsiders: difficulty of project control from researcher to participants Resources: constraints set by initiating body communities are not homogeneous.