Chapter 6: Analyzing Consumer MarketsGENERAL CONCEPT QUESTIONSMultiple Choice1.Marketers are always looking for emerging trends that suggest new marketing opportunities.One such trend is the ―metrosexual.‖ Which of the following items would the metrosexual mostlikely have some interest for?a. An IBM computer.b. Tickets to WWF wrestling.c. Saxophone lessons.d. An all-over body spray by Axe.e. Cowboy boots made from elephant hide.Answer: d Page: 173 Level of difficulty: Medium2.________ is the study of how individuals, groups, and organizations select, buy, use, anddispose of goods, services, ideas, or experiences to satisfy their needs and wants. a. Targetmarketingb. Psychographic segmentationc. Psychologyd. Consumer behaviorf. Product differentiationAnswer: d Page: 151 Level of difficulty: Easy3. The fundamental determinant of a person’s wants and behavior is the person’s________.a. psycheb. national originc. cultured. peer group
e. family treeAnswer: c Page: 151 Level of difficulty: Medium4. A child growing up in the United States is exposed to all of the following valuesEXCEPT________.a. achievement and successb. activityc. efficiency and practicalityd. the importance of the group in daily lifee. freedomAnswer: d Page: 153 Level of difficulty: Medium5. Which of the following would be the best illustration of a subculture?a. A religion.b. A group of close friends.c. Your university.d. A fraternity or sorority.e. Your occupation.Answer: a Page: 153 Level of difficulty: Hard6. With respect to facts about the American consumer, which of the following consumerelectronics is owned by the vast majority of consuming households with a 93 percent reportingownership?a. A personal computer.b. TiVo DVR.c. A cellular phone.d. A microwave oven.e. A VCR.Answer: ePage: 152? Level of difficulty: Hard7. ________ is defined as being relatively homogeneous and enduring divisions in a society,which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, andbehavior.a. Cultureb. Subculturec. Social classd. The familye. A group
Answer: c Page: 153 Level of difficulty: Medium8. Social classes show distinct product and brand preferences in all the followingareas EXCEPT________.a. clothingb. home furnishingsc. leisure activitiesd. automobilese. fast foodAnswer: e Page: 153 Level of difficulty: Medium9. A person’s________ consist(s) of all the groups that have a direct (face-to-face) orindirect influence on his/her attitudes or behavior.a. cultureb. subculturec. psychographicsd. reference groupse. demographicsAnswer: d Page: 153 Level of difficulty: Medium10. A(n)________ group is one whose values or behavior an individual rejects.a. aspirationalb. disassociativec. membershipd. primarye. procreationalAnswer: b Page: 153 Level of difficulty: Easy11. If a direct mail marketer wished to direct promotional efforts toward the family of ________,efforts need to be directed toward parents and siblings of the family members.a. orientationb. procreationc. immediacyd. intimacye. referenceAnswer: a Page: 154 Level of difficulty: Medium12. Expected to account for a quarter of the U.S. population by 2050,________ are the fastestgrowing minority.a. African Americansb. Asian Americansc. Hispanic Americansd. European Americanse. Arabic AmericansAnswer: c Page: 222 Level of difficulty: Easy
13. The dominant cohort, with respect to families, for the next fifty years may very well be the________ cohort. a. married-couple household b. single adults c. single seniors d. married seniors e. married-couples with parents living with them Answer: b Page: 179 Level of difficulty: Hard14. Husbands and wives display different decision-making roles in most families. The trend for dominant decision making in families is for________ to be responsible for most of the decisions. a. the husband b. the wife c. joint decision making (both husband and wife) d. holistic decision making e. child-oriented decision making Answer: c Page: 179 Level of difficulty: Medium 15. The Disney Channel has become the company’s cash cow for its ability to reach the underserved________ market—8- to 14-year-olds. a. teen b. twixt c. mid- d. tween e. young adult Answer: d Page: 154 Level of difficulty: Medium 16. People choose products that reflect and communicate their role and actual or desired ________ in society. a. group b. status c. attitudes d. beliefs e. feelings Answer: b Page: 155 Level of difficulty: Medium 17. Consumption may be shaped by________ (such as marriage, childbirth, or divorce). a. the psychological life cycle b. the product life cycle c. the life/death life cycle d. post-puberty cycles e. critical life events or transitions Answer: e Page: 156 Level of difficulty: Medium 18. Product choice is greatly affected by economic circumstances. All of the following would be among those circumstances EXCEPT________.
a. spendable income b. savings and assets c. debts d. occupation e. borrowing power Answer: d Page: 156 Level of difficulty: Easy 19.________ is a set of distinguishing human psychological traits that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to environmental stimuli. a. Image b. Personality c. Beliefs d. Heredity e. Culture Answer: b Page: 156 Level of difficulty: Medium 20. When the Marlboro Man was depicted in advertising as a rugged outdoor, tough cowboy type, this was done to establish what is called a________. a. trademark b. brand name c. brand personality d. psychological approach to advertising e. brand reference Answer: c Page: 157 Level of difficulty: Medium 21.________ portrays the ―whole person‖ interacting with his or her environment. a. Attitude b. Reference group c. Lifestyle d. Culture e. Subculture Answer: c Page: 157 Level of difficulty: Medium22. Consumers today are experiencing a time famine because of their busy lifestyles. One way to avoid the difficulties of time famine, which is of particular interest to marketers, is________. a. to set fewer goals b. to multitask c. to give in to personal burdens d. to report frustration to management e. to develop a callous attitude toward marketers Answer: b Page: 158 Level of difficulty: Hard
23. With respect to understanding consumer behavior, there are four key psychological processes. All of the following would be among those processes EXCEPT ________. a. motivation b. perception c. learning d. self-reliance e. memory Answer: d Page: 160 Level of difficulty: Easy24. A________ when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. a. need becomes a motive b. motive becomes a need c. desire becomes a reality d. unfulfilled demand becomes a crisis e. personal demand exceeds the ability to rationally reject Answer: a Page: 160 Level of difficulty: Hard25.________ assumed that the psychological forces shaping people’s behavior are largely unconscious, and that a person cannot fully understand his or her own motivations. a. Abraham Maslow b. Frederick Herzberg c. Sigmund Freud d. John Cacioppo e. Karl Marx Answer: c Page: 160 Level of difficulty: Medium 26. Frederick Herzberg developed a________ that distinguishes dissatisfiers and satisfiers. a. trait-role theory b. psychological constraint theory c. probability scale d. leadership model e. two-factor theory Answer: e Page: 161 Level of difficulty: Medium 27. At the top of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs (shown as a pyramid in the text) are ________needs . a. esteem b. self-actualization c. social d. safety e. physiological Answer: b Page: 161 Level of difficulty: Medium
28. It has been estimated that the average person is exposed to over________ ads or brand communications a day. a. 1,500 b. 1,300 c. 1,000 d. 800 e. 500 Answer: a Page: 162 Level of difficulty: Hard 29.________ is the tendency to interpret information in a way that will fit our preconceptions. a. Selective retention b. Cognitive dissonance c. Selective distortion d. Subliminal perception e. Discrimination Answer: c Page: 162 Level of difficulty: Medium30. A cigarette ad has a picture of a young man laying on his back and dreamily looking at clouds in the sky. Though not readily obvious to the casual reader, there is a message in the clouds that says ―r-e-l-a-x.‖ This would be an example of which of the following? a. Selective distortion b. Cognitive dissonance c. Selective retention d. Subliminal perception e. Short-term memory Answer: d Page: 163 Level of difficulty: Hard 31. A________ is a strong internal stimulus impelling action. a. cue b. drive c. reinforcement d. discrimination e. belief Answer: b Page: 163 Level of difficulty: Medium 32.________ teaches marketers that they can build demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues, and providing positive reinforcement a. Demand theory b. Learning theory c. Economic theory d. Psychological theory e. Demographic theory Answer: b Page: 163 Level of difficulty: Medium
33. As Rita scans the yellow pages section of her phone book looking for a florist, she sees several others products and services advertised. Though interesting on first glance, she quickly returns to her primary task of finding a florist. The items that distracted her from her search were most likely stored in which of the following types of memory? a. Short-term memory b. Long-term memory c. Middle memory d. Subconscious memory e. Subliminal memory Answer: a Page: 163 Level of difficulty: Medium 34. Brand associations consist of all the brand-related thoughts, feelings, perceptions, images, experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and so on that become linked to the brand ________. a. stimulus b. link c. connection d. personality e. node Answer: e Page: 164 Level of difficulty: Hard 35. In general, the more attention placed on the meaning of information during ________, the stronger the resulting associations in memory will be. a. encoding b. decoding c. classification d. retrieval e. memorization Answer: a Page: 165 Level of difficulty: Medium 36. Repeated exposures to information provide greater opportunity for processing and thus the potential for________. a. more profits b. more sales c. stronger associations d. increased brand personality e. more one-to-one relationships Answer: c Page: 165 Level of difficulty: Medium 37. Cognitive psychologists believe that memory is________, so that once information becomes stored in memory, its strength of association decays very slowly. a. very limited b. somewhat limited c. fluid d. often reflective e. extremely durable Answer: e Page: 166 Level of difficulty: Medium
38. The five-stage model of the consumer buying process includes all of the following stagesEXCEPT________.a. problem recognitionb. information searchc. social interactiond. purchase decisione. influencerAnswer: c Page: 166 Level of difficulty: Easy44.With respect to consumer decision making, the________ is the set of strong contenders fromwhich one will be chosen as a supplier of a good or service.a. total setb. awareness setc. consideration setd. choice sete. decision setAnswer: d Page: 168 Level of difficulty: Medium45.A(n)________ is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something.a. attitudeb. beliefc. desired. feelinge. emotionAnswer: b Page: 168 Level of difficulty: Medium46. A(n)________ puts people into a frame of mind: liking or disliking an object, movingtoward or away from it.a. attitudeb. beliefc. feelingd. positione. stanceAnswer: a Page: 168 Level of difficulty: Medium47. The expectancy-value model of attitude formation posits that consumers evaluate productsand services by combining their________.a. needsb. wantsc. desiresd. brand beliefse. consuming attitudesAnswer: d Page: 169 Level of difficulty: Medium
48. All of the following would be considered to be strategies for approaching consumers who had rejected your company’s model of a product for another competitive brand EXCEPT________. a. redesign your company’s product b. alter beliefs about your company’s brand c. covertly alter the qualitative data about your product d. alter beliefs about competitors’ brands e. call attention to neglected attributes Answer: c Pages: 170 Level of difficulty: Medium49. Customer value analysis reveals the company’s strengths and weaknesses relative to various competitors. Which of the following would be considered to be the first step in this process? a. Monitor customer values over time. b. Assess the quantitative importance of the different attributes. c. Assess the company and competitors’ performances on customer values. d. Identify the major attributes customers value. e. Examine customer ratings of the company and competitors. Answer: d Page: 196 Level of difficulty: Medium 50. With respect to consumer purchase intention, all of the following would be among the sub- decisions made by consumers EXCEPT________. a. emotional value b. brand c. dealer d. timing e. payment method Answer: a Pages: 196–197 Level of difficulty: Medium51. With the________ heuristic, the consumer sets a minimum acceptable cutoff level for each attribute and chooses the first alternative that meets the minimum standard for all attributes. a. conjunctive b. lexicographic c. elimination-by-aspects d. primary e. secondary Answer: a Pages: 170 Level of difficulty: Hard 52. Even if consumers form brand evaluations, two general factors can intervene between the purchase intention and the purchase decision. One of these is unanticipated situational factors. What is the second factor? a. Amount of purchasing power. b. Attitudes of others.
c. Short-term memory capabilities.d. Ability to return merchandise.e. The self-concept.Answer: b Pages: 170 Level of difficulty: Medium53.________ risk occurs if the product fails to perform up to expectations.a. Physicalb. Financialc. Sociald. Psychologicale. FunctionalAnswer: e Page: 171 Level of difficulty: Hard54.If performance meets consumer expectations, the consumer is________.a. delightedb. satisfiedc. disappointedd. surprisede. overwhelmedAnswer: bPage: 172 Level of difficulty: Easy55. A key driver of sales frequency is the________ rate.a. product consumptionb. disposalc. refusald. utilitye. optionAnswer: a Page: 172 Level of difficulty: Easy56.The level of engagement and active processing undertaken by the consumer in responding toa marketing stimulus is called________.a. elaboration likelihoodb. consumer disengagementc. consumer involvementd. variety-seekinge. low-involvementAnswer: c Page: 173 Level of difficulty: Medium57.If a consumer is persuaded to buy a product by a message that requires little thought and isbased on an association with a brand’s positive consumption experiences from the past, theconsumer used a________ to arrive at this purchase decision.a. central routeb. peripheral routec. behavioral route
d. subjective route e. objective route Answer: b Page: 173 Level of difficulty: Hard 58. With the________, predictions of usage are based on quickness and ease of use. a. availability heuristic b. representative heuristic c. anchoring heuristic d. adjustment heuristic e. semantic heuristic Answer: a Page: 174 Level of difficulty: Medium59. Ben always reaches for the bright blue and yellow box of Ritz crackers when he visits the snack food aisle in the grocery store. He rarely even reads the box or checks the price. Which of the following heuristics is most likely being used by Ben? a. Availability b. Representative c. Anchoring d. Adjustment e. Semantic Answer: b Page: 175 Level of difficulty: Hard 60.________ refers to the manner by which consumers code, categorize, and evaluate financial outcomes of choices. a. Cost accounting b. Financial accounting c. Behavioral accounting d. Mental accounting e. Factual accounting Answer: d Page: 176 Level of difficulty: Medium