Principles of government 1


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Principles of government 1

  1. 1. Principles of Government Chapter 1
  2. 2. What is Government? <ul><li>Government is the institution through which society makes and enforces its public policies. </li></ul><ul><li>Government is made up of those people who exercise its powers , all those who have authority and control over people </li></ul>
  3. 3. What are public policies? <ul><li>The public policies of a government are, in short, all of those things a government decides to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Public policies cover issues ranging from taxation, defense, education, crime and health care to transportation, the environment, civil rights, and working conditions. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Powers of Government <ul><li>Legislative power -power to make laws </li></ul><ul><li>Executive power -power to execute, enforce, and administer law </li></ul><ul><li>Judicial power -power to interpret government </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a constitution? <ul><li>A constitution is the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government. </li></ul>
  6. 6. What is a democracy? <ul><li>A democracy is a government in which powers rests with a majority of the people. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Types of Democracy <ul><li>Direct Democracy- In a direct democracy, citizens vote on all public policy decisions themselves. Direct democracy does not exist at the national level anywhere in the world today. </li></ul><ul><li>Representative Democracy - In a representative democracy, a small group of persons are chosen by the people to act as their representatives. This is the type of democracy we have in America. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Basic Concepts of Democracy <ul><li>The American concept of democracy rests on these basic notions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A recognition of the fundamental worth and dignity of every person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A respect for the equality of all persons </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A faith in majority rule and an insistence upon minority rights </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An acceptance of the necessity of compromise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An insistence upon the widest possible degree of individual freedom </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Geographic Distribution of Power <ul><li>Unitary government- All powers held by the government belong to a single, central agency. </li></ul><ul><li>Confederate government or Confederation- All or almost all powers of the government belong to independent states </li></ul><ul><li>Federal government -Powers of the government are divided between federal (national), state, and local governments </li></ul>
  10. 10. Unitary Government <ul><li>A unitary system is a system of government in which power is centralized in the national government. </li></ul><ul><li>Regional governments only exercise powers given by the national government. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Confederate Government <ul><li>A Confederate government is a system of government in which power resides in the regions, which are independent states. </li></ul><ul><li>The central gov’t gets power from regional governments. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Federal System of Government <ul><li>In a federal system of gov’t, the constitution divides power between the national, state, and local governments. </li></ul><ul><li>Main advantage = the flexibility it gives state and local gov’ts in meeting their specific needs, while assuring that the national government can address widespread goals and issues. </li></ul>