History and forms of government

1,281 views

Published on

0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,281
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
69
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
28
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

History and forms of government

  1. 1. History and Forms of Government 1
  2. 2. The Development of Government• Force Theory – claimed by violence or threat of violence• Evolutionary Theory – developed through families and tribes• Divine Right Theory – God(s) gave power to those in charge• Social Contract Theory – people give up some of their freedoms to the state for promote the well being of all 2
  3. 3. Beginning• Families or tribes – one leader – customs & superstitions – influenced decisions • 10,000 yrs. ago established villages – little government – provided protection and food 3
  4. 4. Ancient Times• -3500 BC small cities w/ services• rulers usually religious leaders• -Divine Right - rule came from god• -Military enforced rules 4
  5. 5. Greeks • city-states 1st democracy • Aristotle & Plato 300 BC – Rule of Law • everyone must follow the law 5
  6. 6. Romans• philosopher power from the people• Cicero people have natural rights 6
  7. 7. Middle Ages• -700’s feudal system • Gave way to: w/ lord & vassals • Absolute Monarchy &• some court customs Constitutional still used Monarchy (England)• rule by divine right & • Constitutional Law – power all men must obey the – from the church law 7
  8. 8. Modern Times• Colonial governments of the 1700’s had legislatures• US and French revolution establish representative democracy• By 1900’s much of Europe was under totalitarianism 8
  9. 9. Forms of Government• Aristotle classified government by the number of rulers• Each category could be – Virtuous – benefit of all – Corrupt – benefit of the ruler 9
  10. 10. Autocracy - ruled by one person• two types – Monarchy - hereditary rulers have the power for life • Caesar king, queen, czar, or sultan – Dictatorship – governed with a ruler with unlimited power 10
  11. 11. Monarchy• Before 1900’s• Mostly Absolute Monarchy - unlimited power• Few Constitutional Monarchy – Limited power by law• Today most monarchs are ceremonial – executive power is held by a prime minister 11
  12. 12. Dictatorship• Power acquired & maintained through fear violence and force war, revolution & assassination• limit personal freedoms• depend on military and police• some gain power legally• Today many still rule 12
  13. 13. Oligarchy - Ruled by few people • Several Types – Aristocracy – Theocracy – Junta – Authoritarianism – Totalitarianism 13
  14. 14. Oligarchy Cont.• Aristocracy – ruled by a privileged few, usually with inherited wealth social rank & ability – feel they are superior – idea of equality added to decline 14
  15. 15. Oligarchy Cont.• Theocracy – controlled by priests or priestesses with civil and religious authority god handed down government 15
  16. 16. Oligarchy Cont. • Junta – small group of military officers take control of a government – usually one officer takes power and it – turns into a dictatorship 16
  17. 17. Oligarchy Cont.• Authoritarianism– power is in the hands of the party leaders• legislatures pass without debate party policies• rights usually violated• absolute loyalty• usually ends up totalitarian a dictatorship 17
  18. 18. Oligarchy Cont.• Totalitarianism – • One political party total government • Lead by dictator control over political, • demand absolute economic, cultural loyalty religious, or social • Can be an autocracy activities no personal (dictatorship) freedom • Sometimes an• individual servant of oligarchy (Junta or state Communism)• terror tactics used by secret police 18
  19. 19. Democracy• Ruled by many people• Two types – Direct – Indirect 19
  20. 20. Direct Democracy• People make the laws themselves – citizens vote on laws• Initiative• Referendum• Recall 20
  21. 21. Indirect Democracy• People choose representatives to make laws for them – aka. representative demo. or republic• Elect a set number of reps. to a legislative body – congress, assembly, parliament, senate, council or legislature 21
  22. 22. Geographic Power Distribution• Unitary – All power held and given by a Central Government• Federal – Power is shared by central and local governments Division of Power• Confederate - Alliance between independent states (countries) that has only the power given to it 22
  23. 23. 23

×