American Government – Unit 1
Do Now:   Summarize the purpose of government.    Do you think all people feel the same    way about government?
Chapter 1
Essential Question
Origins of Government   Aristotle- a scholar    in Ancient Greece,    one of the first    students of    government [poli...
The State Originally comes from the Latin word “to  stand” In the U.S.A means- a political  community that occupies a de...
Essential Features of aState   4 features:     Population     Territory     Sovereignty     Government
Population   The nature of a state’s population affects    its stability   States that share a general and political    ...
Territory   States have established boundaries     i.e.- Continental boundaries: Atlantic/Pacific      Oceans     Recog...
Sovereignty Political sovereignty- means that the  state has supreme and absolute  authority within its territorial bound...
Government   The institution through which the state    maintains social order, provides public    services, and enforces...
Theories of the Origin ofState                    •Evolutionary                    Theory                    •Force Theory...
The Purposes ofGovernment1. Maintain social order2. Provide public services3. Provide for national security and public   d...
Respect my Authority! Decisions of government can be  enforced upon ALL society Derive their authority from their  legit...
Maintaining Social Order Through laws can resolve social conflict Provides structure like courts to help  resolve disagr...
Providing Public Services Providing essential services to make  community life possible Promoting public safety     i.e...
National Security Protect against attacks from other  countries or terrorist agencies In a world with spy satellites, in...
Making Economic Decisions   Providing a national    currency   Distributes benefits and    public securities   Attempts...
Section 2
Essential Question:
Government Systems Unitary Federal
Constitutions and Government A Constitution is a plan that provides the  rules for government. Major Purposes:    1. It ...
Constitutions   May be written or    unwritten   U.S. is the oldest written    [1787] still serving a    nation today  ...
Constitutional Government   All governments          HOWEVER-    have a constitution       constitutional    in the sens...
Incomplete Guides   Constitutions are incomplete for 2    reasons:     No written constitution by itself can spell out  ...
A Statement of Goals- ThePreamble
A Framework forGovernment   Main body of a              Constitution is the    constitution sets out        supreme law ...
Politics Effort to control or  influence the  conduct and  policies of  government People take part in  politics when  j...
Governing in the           20 thCentury   Industrialized Nations vs. Developing    Nations     U.S.     Saharan Countri...
Murky waters   U.S. depended on Middle East for oil    supplies   1990- Pres. Bush sent troops to Saudi    Arabia after ...
Nonstate International Groups    3 categories:        PLO [Palestine1.    Political            Liberation      movements...
Section 3
Essential Question
Autocracy- 1 person   Totalitarian Dictatorship- ideas of a single    leader or group of leaders are glorified.    Govern...
Oligarchy- Small Group Small group holds power which derives  from wealth, military, social position or a  combination. S...
Democracy- Ruled by thePeople   Key idea- people hold sovereign power.     Pericles: “Our constitution is named a      d...
Direct Democracy people govern themselves by voting on  issues individually as citizens- no  country today does this Exi...
Representative Democracy   people elect representatives and give    them the responsibility and power to    make laws and...
Republic Voters hold sovereign power. Elected representatives are responsible  to the people exercise that power Most A...
Characteristics ofDemocracy Individual liberty- requires that all people  be as free as possible to develop their  own ca...
Free Elections   Give people the chance to choose their leaders    and voice their opinions on various issues   Everyone...
Competing Political Parties   Rival parties help      Give voters a choice    make elections           among candidates ...
The Soil of Democracy   Active Citizen Participation     Serving as a juror, voting, informing     themselves of the iss...
The Seeds to Success   More likely to succeed     Civil Society- a complex    with an educated public     network of vol...
Social Consensus   General agreement about the purpose    and limits of government
Section 4
Role of Economic Systems1. What and how much should be   produced2. How goods and services should be   produced3. Who gets...
Capitalism1.   private ownership and control of     property and economic resources2.   Free enterprise3.   Competition am...
History of Capitalism   1776- Adam Smith,    Scottish philosopher    and economist wrote    The Wealth of Nations   Conc...
Governmental Influence 1900s- economy of the U.S. increased Government has grown and became the  single largest buyer of...
Mixed-Market Economies   Free enterprise + government decisions    in market place = government keeps    competition free...
Socialism1. The distribution of wealth and economic   opportunities equally among the people2. Society’s control through i...
Democratic Socialism The people have basic human rights  and have some control over government  officials through free el...
Karl Marx Karl Marx [1818-1883] German thinker,  writer- a socialist who advocated violent  revolution. Published the Com...
Marx and Communism Believed wages in a capitalist system  would never rise above a subsistence  level- just enough for wo...
Command Economy Communist nations believe government  planners decide how much to produce,  what to produce and how to di...
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1[1].foundations of american government

  1. 1. American Government – Unit 1
  2. 2. Do Now: Summarize the purpose of government. Do you think all people feel the same way about government?
  3. 3. Chapter 1
  4. 4. Essential Question
  5. 5. Origins of Government Aristotle- a scholar in Ancient Greece, one of the first students of government [polis]. Politics, democracy, and republic- originated in ancient Greece & Rome.
  6. 6. The State Originally comes from the Latin word “to stand” In the U.S.A means- a political community that occupies a definite territory and has an organized government with the power to make and enforce laws without the approval from any higher authority.
  7. 7. Essential Features of aState 4 features:  Population  Territory  Sovereignty  Government
  8. 8. Population The nature of a state’s population affects its stability States that share a general and political consensus have the most stable government Mobility affects states too- millions of Americans move every year This leads to political power shifting Since the House of Representatives is based on population, the census can lead to state’s losing or gaining power.
  9. 9. Territory States have established boundaries  i.e.- Continental boundaries: Atlantic/Pacific Oceans  Recognized Borders w/ Canada & Mexico Through purchase, negotiation and war- the U.S. has gained more territory
  10. 10. Sovereignty Political sovereignty- means that the state has supreme and absolute authority within its territorial boundaries It has complete independence and complete power to make laws, shape foreign policy, & determine its own course of action In theory no state has the right to interfere with the internal affairs of another
  11. 11. Government The institution through which the state maintains social order, provides public services, and enforces decisions that are binding on all people living within the state
  12. 12. Theories of the Origin ofState •Evolutionary Theory •Force Theory •Divine Right Theory •Social Contract Theory
  13. 13. The Purposes ofGovernment1. Maintain social order2. Provide public services3. Provide for national security and public defense4. Provide for an control the economic ststem
  14. 14. Respect my Authority! Decisions of government can be enforced upon ALL society Derive their authority from their legitimacy and their ability to use coercive force Legitimacy is based on the consent of the people Coercive force derives from the police, judicial and military institutions of government
  15. 15. Maintaining Social Order Through laws can resolve social conflict Provides structure like courts to help resolve disagreements orderly Places limits on what people can do An effective government will allow citizens to plan for the future, get an education, raise a family and live orderly lives.
  16. 16. Providing Public Services Providing essential services to make community life possible Promoting public safety  i.e. Government inspectors of meat and food  State legislators passing laws that require driving tests What other public services can you think of?
  17. 17. National Security Protect against attacks from other countries or terrorist agencies In a world with spy satellites, international terrorism, huge armies, computer hackers- this becomes a complex job Also handles relationships with other countries and provides economic security by enacting trade agreements with other countries States have the power to form agreements with other countries, however the federal government can limit that
  18. 18. Making Economic Decisions Providing a national currency Distributes benefits and public securities Attempts to stimulate growth and stability via controlling inflation, encouraging trade and regulating the development of natural resources
  19. 19. Section 2
  20. 20. Essential Question:
  21. 21. Government Systems Unitary Federal
  22. 22. Constitutions and Government A Constitution is a plan that provides the rules for government. Major Purposes: 1. It sets out ideals that the people bound by the constitution believe and share 2. Establishes the basic structure of government and defines the governments powers and duties 3. It provides the supreme law for the country
  23. 23. Constitutions May be written or unwritten U.S. is the oldest written [1787] still serving a nation today Other key ones: France, Kenya, India, Italy and Switzerland Great Britain, has an unwritten constitution based on hundreds of years of leg. Acts, court decisions and customs
  24. 24. Constitutional Government All governments  HOWEVER- have a constitution constitutional in the sense that government is a they have some limited government, plan for organizing unlike the Republic an operating the of China Government. i.e. Republic of China
  25. 25. Incomplete Guides Constitutions are incomplete for 2 reasons:  No written constitution by itself can spell out laws, customs, and ideas that grow up around the document itself ○ I.E.- FDR elected 4x, previous it was custom not law that limited to 2 terms- the 22 Amendment changed this  A constitution does not always reflect the actual practice of a government in a country ○ I.E.- China has a constitution with statements about basic rights, freedoms, & duties of citizens yet has a police force to spy on citizens and punish those with opposing views
  26. 26. A Statement of Goals- ThePreamble
  27. 27. A Framework forGovernment Main body of a  Constitution is the constitution sets out supreme law for a plan for states government  Constitutional law  U.S. describes primarily concerns relationship b/w the extent and limits national gov & state of government Divided into articles power and the right and sections- U.S. of citizens has 7 articles/21 sections
  28. 28. Politics Effort to control or influence the conduct and policies of government People take part in politics when joining citizens’ groups protesting higher taxes or when they meet with mayors about street repairs
  29. 29. Governing in the 20 thCentury Industrialized Nations vs. Developing Nations  U.S.  Saharan Countries Independence- means that nations must interact or depend on one another either economically or politically 1993- NAFTA- affects goods produced and sold b/w U.S., Canada & Mexico
  30. 30. Murky waters U.S. depended on Middle East for oil supplies 1990- Pres. Bush sent troops to Saudi Arabia after Iraq invaded Kuwait War threatened to break out and people feared an oil shortage in U.S. U.S. & allies defeated Iraq in the Persian Gulf War but tensions continued 1996- 27 missile attacks against Iraqi President Saddam Hussein threatened oil producing countries
  31. 31. Nonstate International Groups 3 categories:  PLO [Palestine1. Political Liberation movements such Organization] as national  General Motors liberation  Nabisco movements  Mitsubishi2. Multinational  Sony corporations  United Nations3. International organizations
  32. 32. Section 3
  33. 33. Essential Question
  34. 34. Autocracy- 1 person Totalitarian Dictatorship- ideas of a single leader or group of leaders are glorified. Government seeks to control aspects of social/economic life.  i.e. Hitler- Nazi Germany Monarchy- a King, Queen, or Emperor exercises supreme powers of Gov. Usually inherit position [Absolute vs. Constitutional who shares gov. powers w/ elected legis. And serve in a ceremonial capacity]  i.e. Saudi Arabia & Great Britain
  35. 35. Oligarchy- Small Group Small group holds power which derives from wealth, military, social position or a combination. Sometimes religion is source of power- Oligarchies usually suppress all political opposition- sometimes ruthlessly  Communism I.E. China
  36. 36. Democracy- Ruled by thePeople Key idea- people hold sovereign power.  Pericles: “Our constitution is named a democracy because it is in the hands not of the few, but of the many”  Abraham Lincoln: “government of the people, by the people, and for the people”
  37. 37. Direct Democracy people govern themselves by voting on issues individually as citizens- no country today does this Exists only in small societies where citizens can actually meet regularly to discuss and decide key issues and problems
  38. 38. Representative Democracy people elect representatives and give them the responsibility and power to make laws and conduct government  I.E.- [U.S]. An assembly of the people’s representatives may be called a council, a legislature, a congress or a parliament
  39. 39. Republic Voters hold sovereign power. Elected representatives are responsible to the people exercise that power Most American view representative democracy, republic and constitutional republic mean the same thing: a system of limited government where the people are the ultimate source of governmental power.
  40. 40. Characteristics ofDemocracy Individual liberty- requires that all people be as free as possible to develop their own capacities Government in a democracy works to promote the kind of equality in which all have equal opportunity Government decisions be based on majority rule Constitution helps ensure rights of the minority
  41. 41. Free Elections Give people the chance to choose their leaders and voice their opinions on various issues Everyone’s vote carries the same weight All candidates have the right to express their views freely giving voters access to competing ideas Citizens are free to help candidates or support issues Legal requirements for voting [i.e.: age, residence, citizenship] are kept to a minimum Citizens may vote freely by secret ballot without coercion or fear of punishment
  42. 42. Competing Political Parties Rival parties help  Give voters a choice make elections among candidates meaningful  Help simplify and focus attention of key issues for voters
  43. 43. The Soil of Democracy Active Citizen Participation  Serving as a juror, voting, informing themselves of the issues, work for candidates, run for government Free Enterprise  Stable- better able to support democratic governments  People out of work or unable to feed families become more concerned about security than voting or political rights
  44. 44. The Seeds to Success More likely to succeed  Civil Society- a complex with an educated public network of voluntary associations, economic Education is the great groups, religious equalizer organizations, and many other kinds of groups that exist independently of government  Give citizens means to take responsibility for protecting their rightsWidespread Education Civil Society
  45. 45. Social Consensus General agreement about the purpose and limits of government
  46. 46. Section 4
  47. 47. Role of Economic Systems1. What and how much should be produced2. How goods and services should be produced3. Who gets the goods and services that are produced Capitalism, Socialism, & Communism answer these differently
  48. 48. Capitalism1. private ownership and control of property and economic resources2. Free enterprise3. Competition among businesses4. Freedom of choice5. Possibility of profits
  49. 49. History of Capitalism 1776- Adam Smith, Scottish philosopher and economist wrote The Wealth of Nations Concept of Laissez- Faire came about Government role strictly limited to those few actions to ensure free compeition
  50. 50. Governmental Influence 1900s- economy of the U.S. increased Government has grown and became the single largest buyer of goods and services in the country Regulated the economy for varying purposes Meat Inspection Act and Pure Food and Drug Act The Great Depression of the 1930s left millions without job- therefore Social Security and programs to aid unemployed sprung up
  51. 51. Mixed-Market Economies Free enterprise + government decisions in market place = government keeps competition free and fair and protects the public interest
  52. 52. Socialism1. The distribution of wealth and economic opportunities equally among the people2. Society’s control through its government, of all major decisions about production3. Public ownership of most land, of factories, and of other means of production
  53. 53. Democratic Socialism The people have basic human rights and have some control over government officials through free elections and multiparty systems BUT government owns the basic means of production and makes most economic decisions Opponents claim socialism stifles individual initiative and high taxes hinder economic growth and leads to big government
  54. 54. Karl Marx Karl Marx [1818-1883] German thinker, writer- a socialist who advocated violent revolution. Published the Communist Manifesto & Das Kapital Believed that in industrial nations the population is divided into capitalists [bourgeoisie] and the workers [proletariat] Capitalism is a ruling class because they use their economic power to force their will on the workers
  55. 55. Marx and Communism Believed wages in a capitalist system would never rise above a subsistence level- just enough for workers to survive Predicted class struggles Promoted Communism- one class evolving, property all held in common and no need for government
  56. 56. Command Economy Communist nations believe government planners decide how much to produce, what to produce and how to distribute the goods and services produced Top-down management State owns the land, natural resources, industry, banks and transportation facilities as well as mass communications

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