Atomic Structure and Bonding
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Atomic Structure and Bonding

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An introduction to basic atomic structure and bonding. Good for middle to high school, very basic introduction.

An introduction to basic atomic structure and bonding. Good for middle to high school, very basic introduction.

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Atomic Structure and Bonding Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Atomic Structure
  • 2.
    • Atomic Structure and Bonding
    • What We Will Cover:
    • Subatomic Particles
    • Atomic Number
    • Atomic Mass Unit Number and Calculations
    • Electron Arrangement
    • Bonding – Ionic and Covalent
  • 3. Sub Atomic Particles
    • Protons
    • Neutrons
    • Electrons
  • 4. Protons
    • Located in nucleus of atom
    • Has a positive charge
    • Number of Protons = Atomic Number
    • Has 1 AMU in mass (Atomic Mass Unit)
    + + +
  • 5. Neutrons
    • Located in nucleus of atom
    • Has NO electrical charge
    • Has mass of 1 amu
    • Number of neutrons usually is equal to number of protons
  • 6.
    • Quiz – Subatomic Particles
    • The positive particle is the ___.
    • The negative particle is the ___.
    • The neutral particle is the ___.
    • The proton is the same as the __ number.
    • The two particles located inside the nucleus
    • are the __ and the __.
    • 6.Each of these particles
    • have a mass of ___.
  • 7. Electrons
    • Located outside the nucleus of the atom
    • Housed in Electrical Clouds, Shells, Orbits
    • Has a negative charge
    • Does not have an amu because of tiny size
    • Moves around the nucleus in an orbit
  • 8. Hydrogen Atom Electron Cloud
  • 9. Quick Quiz – Subatomic Particles (continued) 7. The electron ___ around the nucleus. 8. The ___ electrons are the outer ___ electrons and are involved in ___ bonding. 9.To find the number of neutrons in an atom you subtract the __ number from the ___ number .
  • 10. Atomic Numbers
    • Number used to arrange the Periodic Table
    • Increase Left to Right
    • Same as number of Protons or Electrons in a neutral atom
  • 11. Atomic Mass
    • The sum of the Protons and Neutrons in the nucleus.
    • Also called Atomic Weight
        • Protons
        • + Neutrons
        • Atomic Weight
  • 12. Electron Arrangement
    • Electrons orbit the nucleus in Energy levels
    • The first level (or cloud, or shell) contains up to 2 electrons
    • The second level contains up to 8 electrons
    • The third level contains up to 18 electrons
    • 4 th 32; 5 th 50; 6 th 72 max in shell
  • 13. Electron Arrangement ctd.
    • The electrons in the outermost shell (if it is not completely full) are available for bonding
    • These electrons are called Valence Electrons
    • Bonding is the chemical combining of 2 or more atoms.
  • 14. Quick Quiz – Numbers, Electron Arrangement 10. The __ __ is used to arrange the periodic table as it increases from __ to __. 11. The atomic number is the same as the number of ___ . 12. The __ number is the sum of protons and neutrons inside the ___. 13. The outermost electrons are the __ electrons and they orbit the nucleus in __ levels. 14. Bonding is the ___________ combining of 2 or more ____________________
  • 15. Bonding
    • The process when 2 or more atoms combine chemically is known as Bonding
    • The 2 we are learning today are
        • Ionic Bonding
        • Covalent Bonding
  • 16. Ionic Bonding
    • Electrons are either gained or lost by atom
    • One atom is positive +, One is negative -
    • Occurs between Metals and Nonmetals
    • Metals lose electrons
    • Nonmetals gain electrons
    • Very strong bond – usually solids - with high melting temperatures
  • 17. Sodium and Chlorine
  • 18. Sodium – a soft grey highly flammable metal Chlorine – a highly poisonous green gas +
  • 19. = (equals) Table Salt
  • 20. Lithium and Fluorine diagram shows Ionic Bonding in action
  • 21. Common Ionic Bonds
    • NaCl Sodium Chloride Table Salt
    • CuSo 4 Copper Sulfate Kills algae
    • NaHCO 3 Baking Soda Baking & Health
  • 22. Quiz – Bonding Ionic 15. In ionic bonding electrons are either _ or _. 16. __ lose electrons and ___ gain electrons. 17. A positive ions has __ electrons and a negative ion has __ electrons. 18. __ bonds are strong, usually solid, and have __ melting and boiling points. 19.The magic number of valence electrons needed by all but two atoms is ___. 20.Name two common ionic bonds.
  • 23. Covalent Bonding
    • Electrons are shared between atoms (co)
    • Neither atom has an electrical charge
    • Forces between atoms are weak – have low boiling or melting points
    • Usually are liquids or gasses
    • If a solid is usually a crystal
  • 24. Water Methane
  • 25. Common Covalent Bonds
    • H 2 O Water
    • CH 4 Methane
    • C 3 H 8 Propane
  • 26. Quick Quiz – Bonding Covalent 21. In a covalent bond, electrons are ___. 22. Neither atom has a ___. 23. Intermolecular forces __ __ are weak. 24. Covalent bonds have ___ melting and ___ points. 25. Covalent bonds are usually found in these two states of matter. 26. Two common covalent compounds are __ and __.
  • 27. Ionic – Gain or Lose Electrons Covalent – Share Electrons