Air Barrier Paper
A sheet material used as both a vapor
retarder and an air barrier. It controls the
infiltration of air into a building.
Allows water to escape and cools the house in the
summer by preventing the buildup of solar heat.
Attic Ventilation: Ridge Vent
A long, open assembly that allows air to
circulate in and out of a gable roof at the ridge.
Attic Ventilation: Gable Vent
Attic Ventilation: Roof Turbine
Backhoe & Front End Loader
A backhoe is a piece of heavy
equipment used to dig up soil for
The width of this bucket is 36”
A temporary frame built just outside the corner of an excavation to carry marks that lie on
the surface planes of the basement that will be built in the excavation.
These batter boards are marking the excavation area for a multi-family residence structure.
Temporary formwork for an arch.
Pattern: Alternating stretchers and headers
Pattern: All stretchers
Pattern: Alternating rows of stretchers and
3 ½”x11 ½”x3 ½”
3 ½”x7 ½”x2 ¼”
This is a piece of heavy equipment used to push soil, gravel, etc. around construction sights.
Pattern: Random Ashlar
Exterior Insulation and
A cladding system that
consists of a thin layer of
reinforced stucco applied
directly to the surface of
an insulating plastic foam
board. The board, in
turn, is adhered or
fastened mechanically to
the structural or backup
wall of the building.
A shingle split from a block of wood.
This is an overlapping cladding that encloses the building.
My window is 18.6 sf
Code Requirements: My Room 4’1” x 4’6 ½”
This is up to code.
Window: There is an opening height of 27”
22” AFF in my window, which is up to code.
49” Wide The Window is 22” AFF which
54 ½” Tall is up to code.
54 ½” Tall
11 ½” + 2 (7 ¼”)=26
The tread is to code, the riser is not.
7 ¼” ¼”
Sawed Control Joint
Control Joint: A joint in the concrete
that allows for swelling and shrinking
so that it does not damage the
This joint is isolating a column from slab and slab from wall.
Isolation joints are used to relieve flexural stresses due to vertical
movement of slab-on-grade applications that adjoin fixed foundation
elements such as columns, building or machinery foundations, etc.
3 brick courses = 1 CMU course
Concrete Masonry Unit (CMU)
A block of hardened concrete, with or without
hollow cores, designed to be laid in the same
manner as a brick or stone. The typical dimensions
are 8”X8”X16”. Concrete blocks create structures
that are economical, energy efficient, fire-resistant,
and involve minimal maintenance. In addition,
concrete masonry allows architectural freedom and
Left Hand Door Right Hand Door
The hallway is on the outside of the door. The hallway is on the outside of the door.
The bathroom is on the inside of the door. The screened in porch is on the inside of the
Exterior Flush Door
A small window
A tall, narrow window
alongside a door above a door.
Utility Pole Transformer: It provides the
final voltage transformation in the
electric power distribution grid,
stepping down the voltage used in
the overhead distribution wires to
Power Pole the level used by the customer.
Service Head: This steps the electricity down from
the wires to the consumption level of the home.
This is plug where appliances can be
connected to access power.
Meter: This measures power
usage for the power company to
charge you by.
Service Panel: This is
where individual electrical
components can be accessed.
The loadbearing surface beneath a finish floor.
6. Sole Plate
8. Top Plate
A framing member that runs up and down the
slope of a steep roof.
11. Roof Decking
Front End Loader: Heavy equipment piece used on construction sites.
Primarily used to load material such as recycled material, rock, sand, wood chips, etc. into or onto
another type of machinery.
It is different from a bulldozer because this loads, bulldozers push. Backhoes are for digging.
High Impact Gypsum Board
An interior facing panel consisting of a gypsum core sandwiched between paper faces.
Air Handling Unit: Takes in air, cools and
dehumidifies the air, and distributes it in the interior space.
Advantage: Rapid Response Time
Heat Pump: Extracts heat from outdoor air up
to 30 degrees F.
Advantage: More efficient in mild climates.
Disadvantage: Inefficient below 30 degrees F.
Insulation: Insulating material in the cavities of walls to retard the passage of heat and cold to
and from the building.
Rigid Board Insulation
Lintel: Carries the weight of the
structure above it across openings.
Type S Mortar
Tooled Joint 3/8” Joint
Used on a Church
Type S Mortar
Troweled Joint 3/8” Mortar Joint
Used on a Bank
Oriented Strand Board
A building panel
composed of long sheets
of long shreds of wood
fiber (not veneer)
oriented in specific
directions and bonded
together under pressure.
3” Pipe Below
1 ½” Pipe Diameter
A fixed bowl or basin with running
water and drainpipe for washing
This plumbing vent keeps the pressure equal
in the pipes so that a vacuum does not suck
the water out of P-traps , which would let
sewage gas back into the home.
The plumbing vent goes out through the roof to let the gas
out into the atmosphere.
A wood panel composed of an odd number of layers of
wood veneer bonded together under pressure.
Veneer: A thin layer, sheet, or facing.
The purpose of the deformations on the rebar are to help bind the concrete and rebar together.
Gutter: A channel that collects rainwater and a vertical pipe used to drain
rainwater from a roof
snowmelt at the eave of a roof.
Underlayment: A layer of waterproof material such as
building felt between roof sheathing and roofing.
This protects the building from precipitation before roofing is applied.
Clay Tile Roof
Metal Shingle Roof
Shingle: A small unit of water-
resistant material nailed in
overlapping fashion to render a
sloping roof watertight.
Preformed Metal Roof
A roof made of metal panels that requires no special
equipment for installation on-site. Made of long sheets
of galvanized or aluminized steel.
Rake: The inclined portion of a cornice.
These are typically found on gable roofs.
Valley: When two roofing
planes meet at the bottom of their
pitch to form a valley.
Ridge: This is where the
sloped sides of a roof meet at the top
of the roof.
Eave: The part of a roof which projects out
from the side wall, projecting the edge of the roof.
Fascia: Horizontal band or
board that runs along the eaves
of a roof, protects the rafters.
Soffit: The exposed
undersurface of any exterior
overhanging section of a roof eave.
It helps ventilate the attic.
Building Without A Fascia
Put on the warm in winter side
of the insulation. This retards
the passage of water vapor.
Waterproofing: Liquid or sheet material applied to the exterior of a basement wall or floor to
resist the intrusion of water under hydrostatic pressure.
A joint in the brick coursing
that allows for swelling of
the brick so that it does not
damage the cladding.
A small opening whose purpose is to permit
drainage of water that accumulates inside a
Weep Hole building component or assembly.
Welded Wire Fabric
12” x 12” grid
are named this
way because they
slide open from
left to right or vice
These windows open outward by a crank
located on the sill.
This window is called double-
hung because the top pane or
the bottom pane can be open
without the other pane being
open as well.