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    Chapter 6 Chapter 6 Presentation Transcript

    • Crisis and ConflictAn Enquiry Approach to Modern World History Secondary 3 Chapter 6: War in Europe
    • 2 Could war in Europe have been avoided? What were the immediateWhy was peace threatened causes of World War II in in the 1930s? Europe? Events in the 1930s that made Europe a less peaceful place Events in 1939 that triggered the and war a greater possibility warCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 3 In a Nutshell After World War I, peace in Europe was built on the Treaty of Versailles and the League of Nations. The rise of the Nazi regime challenged the Treaty and caused peace to break down. To create a Greater Germany, Adolf Hitler invaded countries such as Austria and Czechoslovakia. World War II was also partly caused by the policy of appeasement. The League of Nations, which was set up to preserve world peace was too weak to stop the outbreak of World War II.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 4 Why was peace threatened in the 1930s? The League of Nations could Hitler’s foreign policy aims not make countries give up their weapons More authoritarian governments came to power in Europe Hitler’s actions because of the economic problems of the 1930s The League of Nations was too Failure of the League of Nations weak to maintain peace in to deal with aggressors the 1930s The members of the League of Nations put their own The policy of appeasement interests firstCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 5 To make Germany strong again by breaking the terms of the Treaty of Versailles The Treaty was unfair because it was designed to keep Germany weak. The Treaty forbade Germany to keep a large army. Furthermore it had taken away much land from Germany. Hitler wanted to make the military strong and regain the land that was lost. To achieve this, he had to break the terms of the Treaty of Versailles.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • To get more land for Germany 6• Hitler wanted to create a Greater Germany uniting all lands containing German-speaking people.• Hitler also felt that Germany needed lebensraum or living space. So he had to get the land by conquering other countries.These included lands such as:Parts of RussiaPolandCzechoslovakiaAustria Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 7 To fight Communism Hitler made a war with Communist Russia likely because he was targeting the living space in Russia. He knew that Russia had lots of land and resources. Personally Hitler wanted to destroy Communism. He believed that if he did not destroy Communism first, it would annihilate Germany. He was also aware that by gaining control of East Europe, he would be able to exterminate the Jews living there. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 8 Rearmament One of the first steps Hitler undertook was to rearm Germany. This was achieved through acquiring more weapons and increasing the size of his army. In October 1933, Hitler pulled Germany out of the Geneva Disarmament Conference. Shortly after this incident, Germany withdrew from the League of Nations. Spending on the army and navy was doubled. Production of arms increased sharply. In March 1935, conscription was brought back by Hitler.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • Remilitarisation of the Rhineland 9 The Rhineland was demilitarised by the Treaty. Most Germans felt this to be most unfair to them. Hitler was determined to reclaim the Rhineland. On 7 March 1936, German troops marched into the Rhineland unopposed. It was a gamble by Hitler as he was not sure if the League of Nations would stop him by using military action. Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 10 Remilitarisation of the Rhineland No action was taken against Germany. The French were horrified but did not do anything without the support of the British. Gave Hitler the confidence that Britain and France would give in to his demands. Hitler was able to start building a defensive force to protect Germany from any attack by France. This made him even more ambitious.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 11 Anschluss Hitler was an Austrian. He wanted Austria to be part of the Third Reich. The Austrian empire broke up at the end of World War I. Subsequently, a small and independent Austrian republic was set up. The Treaty of Versailles however stated that there should be no union (or Anschluss in German) between these two countries. A number of attempts were made by Germany to take over Austria in the 1930s. The most serious attempt, in 1934, was stopped by Italy.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 12 Anschluss Austria led by Chancellor Schuschnigg protested but the protests were ignored. A secret plebiscite was arranged. In March 1938, Germany marched across the border into Austria. Schuschnigg was pressured to resign and the plebiscite was abandoned. A vote was held and the majority voted for Anschluss. Anschluss (union of the two countries) was completed without any resistance. Many Austrians welcomed the German takeover.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 13 Anschluss It was another gamble taken by Hitler that paid off. The League of Nations protested but took no action. It gave Hitler the confidence to take on further gambles. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 14 Italian aggression in Abyssinia In 1934, plans were made by the Italian dictator Mussolini, to invade Abyssinia. Following an appeal to the League of Nations by the Emperor of Abyssinia, war was averted. By 1935 however, Mussolini began full-scale invasion into Abyssinia. The League only managed to sanction an embargo of rubber and metal on Italy to stop the invasion. The League did not resort to drastic measures for fear of triggering a war. In fact, the organisation was willing to give Italy two-thirds of Abyssinia if Mussolini withdrew his troops. This was called the Hoare- Laval Plan. As a result, Italy which sought Hitler’s help, managed to gain control over Abyssinia in May 1936. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 15 The members of the League of Nations put their own interests first The British and French needed Italy to counter the Nazi menace. They tried to shirk their responsibility to the League but public opinion in Britain would not allow them. This shows how the League was not strong enough to protect the interests of its members. As a result the Hoare-Laval Plan was abandoned. Mussolini was angry that the plan was abandoned and he became closer to Hitler. On 25 October 1936, the Rome-Berlin Axis was formed. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 16 The League of Nations could not make countries give up their weapons Most of disarmament efforts by the League of Nations failed. E.g. The 1932 Disarmament Conference was bogged down by disagreements over how disarmament should be carried out. Countries like France refused to disarm for fear of Germany. Due to the fact that most countries did not want to disarm to Germany’s level, Hitler pulled out of the Conference in Oct 1933. The Anglo-German Naval Treaty also demonstrated how Britain had violated the Treaty of Versailles by allowing Germany to increase its naval size. Following this, other members followed Britain’s example. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 17 More authoritarian governments came to power in Europe because of the economic problems of the 1930s Due to serious economic problems resulting from the Great Depression, many government were blamed for failing to solve unemployment. This had the effect of drawing support towards authoritarian regimes. Economic problems had encouraged many countries to resort to protectionism triggering off a trade war. Despite efforts by the League to stop the trade war, few countries cooperated. Trade war also increased worldwide unemployment. Many countries used rearmament to create jobs. But this had the effect making war more likely. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 18 Illustration showing rearmament in Germany during the 1930s. What does it tell you about the changes in Germany at that time? Aggressive rearmament: In 1933, Hitler announced that he was increasing the size of the army from 100 000 to 300 000 men. In 1935, he increased the size of the army to 550 000 men.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 19 Conscription: Hitler reintroduced compulsory military service for all male citizens in 1935.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 20The League of Nations was too weak to maintain peace in the 1930s By the mid 1930s, the members of the League of Nations no longer believed that it could protect countries that were being attacked. Efforts at collective security had failed. The League officially ended in 1946.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 21The League of Nations was too weak to maintain peace in the 1930s Which one of these reasons do you think illustrates the League’s greatest weakness? BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 22 The policy of appeasement One of the main reasons for the failure of collective security was the policy of appeasement. Appeasement means the practice of avoiding war by giving in to the aggressive demands made by a country. Neville Chamberlain, the British PM most closely associated with appeasement.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 23Reasons for adopting policy of appeasement To buy time Lack of US support Britain hoped appeasement US policy of isolation meant that Britain would give it some time to and France were left to face the threat of modernise its armies. The Germany alone. German army on the other hand had been growing steadily. Memories of World War I Economic problems Britain was keen to avoid another war that The British economy had been would cause millions of lives. damaged by World War I and Great Depression. Its efforts at rebuilding its economy would be destroyed by another war. Fear of Communism Most Britons felt that a strong Germany would prevent the spread of Communism, which to them was a greater threat. Britain’s other problems Britain was having problems with its colonies that were fighting Attitudes towards the Treaty of Versailles for independence. Its troops were Most Britons felt that the Treaty had too stretched to deal with a been too harsh on Germany. possible war.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 24 How appeasement workedBackground Czechoslovakia was one of the richest countries in Eastern Europe. The main problem was that Czechoslovakia was made up many different ethnic groups. Some smaller groups wanted to merge with neighbouring countries like Germany, Hungary, Poland. Hitler took advantage of this.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 25 How appeasement worked Hitler encouraged different racial groups to complain about the Czech rule. He targeted mainly the Germans living in Sudetenland in western Czechoslovakia. He got the Sudeten Nazi party to create problems for the Czech government. Britain and France could see a crisis developing over the Sudetenland. They feared that it might lead to war. Chamberlain tried to persuade the Czech government to give way to Hitler. He hoped that this would stop Hitler from causing more trouble.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 26 The Munich AgreementThree visits were made by Neville Chamberlain to Germanyto resolve this issue.First visit: Chamberlain was so anxious to avoid conflict that he made three trips to speak to Hitler. Hitler threatened to go to war with Czechoslovakia if the Sudetenland was not given to Germany. Chamberlain was so keen to avoid war that he agreed to see what concessions he could persuade the Czech government to make.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 27Second visit: This meeting was held at Godesborg in the Rhineland. Chamberlain offered to transfer to Germany all those parts of Sudetenland where more than fifty per cent of the inhabitants were German. Hitler however threatened to go to war again if Sudetenland was not transferred to Germany immediately.Third visit: This meeting was held at Munich, the main city of Bavaria in southern Germany. There were representatives from Britain, France, Italy and Germany but no representatives from Czechoslovakia. Outcome: Almost everything that Hitler asked for was given. Within days, Germany was in control of the whole of Sudetenland. Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 28 The Munich Agreement For Hitler, this was a great triumph as he made important gains without fighting. In fact it only served to encourage him further. For Chamberlain, this seemed like proof that appeasement worked. For the Czechs, it was a great disaster and the first step towards their annihilation. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 29What were the immediatecauses of World War II in Europe? Britain ended The Nazi-Soviet Hitler’s the policy of Non-Aggression invasion of appeasement Pact PolandCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 30 Britain ended the policy of appeasement Britain and France had been rearming for some time in the event that appeasement fails. The German invasion of Czechoslovakia finally convinced them that Hitler could not be trusted. More aggressive action was needed to deal with Hitler. Poland looked likely to be the next victim. In March 1939, Britain and France signed an agreement with Poland promising to go to its aid if Germany was to invade. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 31The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact Hitler’s next target was Poland, particularly the Polish corridor and Danzig. However he was wary of the possible interference from the USSR. Stalin on the other hand was wary of German aggression. Stalin’s attempts to reach a deal with Britain and Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe France failed. Copyright 2006
    • 32 The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact This pact came as a great surprise to the world. Hitler and Stalin were known to be arch enemies. For years, Hitler had attacked Communism and Stalin had done his best to prevent growth of German power.Terms of the Pact The USSR was to stay neutral in any war between Germany and Poland. Secret clause: Both agreed to divide Poland between them. Germany took the west. The USSR took eastern Poland that it had lost at the end of World War I.Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 33 The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact The pact allowed Hitler to risk a war with Britain and France, knowing that he did not have to fight the Russians as well. In doing so, he avoided the possibility of war on two fronts. To Britain, the pact was a big blow as war with Germany became more likely. To many, this pact was seen as the trigger to full-scale war in Europe. BackCrisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • Hitler’s invasion of Poland 34 The pact secured Germany its Eastern Front. On 1 September 1939, Hitler invaded Poland. This time Britain and France was determined to keep their promise to Poland and declared war on Germany. Back Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006
    • 35 Summary Causes of World War II in Europe Failure of theHitler’s foreign Economic Appeasement League of policy problems Nations to stop to stop aggression rearmament Ways World War II could have by other countries been avoided A fairer Treaty Join forces with Fight Hitler while Support collective of Versailles? the USSR? he was still security in weak? the League? Crisis and Conflict: War in Europe Copyright 2006